A GIS-based tool for linking field and digital stream data.
This tool based on a geographic information system matches stream-survey data to digitally produced stream layers created with NetStream software. The output is a shapefile of survey reaches with both the survey data and attributes associated with the digitally produced stream layer (e.g., drainage area, gradient, and valley width). It enables users to extrapolate survey results to unsurveyed streams by using GIS to estimate habitat abundance, potential fish abundance, or fish carrying capacity, for example.
How to get it: http://www.netmaptools.org
Contact: Kelly Burnett, email@example.com, Ecological Process and Function Program
Analyzing climate change effects on wildlife and habitats in the western Arctic, Alaska
This work provides a template and procedure for combining sources of models, data, and expert knowledge pertaining to forecasting climate change effects on hydrology, vegetation, wildlife habitats, and wildlife species.
Contact: Bruce Marcot, firstname.lastname@example.org, Ecological Process and Function Program
Aquatic and riparian state and transition models for the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon and the northern Oregon Coast Range.
These state and transition models simulate the effects of plant succession, natural disturbance, landuse and restoration practices on conditions of riparian forests, channel morphology, and salmon habitat. State classes in the models are defined by channel morphology and riparian vegetation. Transitions are defined by plant succession, natural disturbances (floods, debris flows, wildfires, native ungulate browsing), landuse activities (fuels treatments, timber harvests, livestock grazing) and restoration practices (planting riparian hardwoods, exclusion of domestic livestock or native ungulate browsing). Habitat suitability rankings for anadromous salmonids (migration, spawning, winter rearing, summer rearing) are derived from channel and vegetation attributes associated with each state in the models.
A modular modeling system that enables fire information, consumption, and smoke modeling. BlueSky modularly links a variety of independent models of fire information, fuel loading, fire consumption, fire emissions, and smoke dispersion.
Socioeconomic Information System (CSIS)
This tool allows users to retrieve 1990 and 2000 U.S. census data to examine
conditions and trends for communities in western Washington, western
Oregon, and northern California. The tool includes socioeconomic
data for 1,314 communities in the entire region, including incorporated
and unincorporated places.
Digital Photo Series
Digital Photo Series (DPS), a web-based project to provide the Natural Fuels Photo Series data in electronic form. Here you'll find data from all 16 volumes published to date with 42 photo series containing a total of 438 sites in database form to enable searching, downloading, and eventually side-by-side comparisons and customized site generation. The DPS diverges from the published volumes both in content and presentation. In many cases we've added more information than was published (e.g., land owner and Bailey's ecoregion), in others, data have been rearranged and terminology (e.g., field names, table headings) altered to standardize among the sites.
Equations for Evaluating Nutritional Quality of Available Moose Forage
These equations for evaluating the nutritional quality of moose forages are based on laboratory analyses of small quantities of forage samples. Prior to their development, predictive equations for quantifying the nutritional quality of wild, native forages for moose in their natural habitats did not exist.
How to get it: Spalinger, D.E.; Collins, W.B.; Hanley, T.A.; Cassara, N.E.; Carnahan, A.M. 2010. The impact of tannins on protein, dry matter, and energy digestion in moose (Alces alces). Canadian Journal of Zoology. 88: 977-987.
Contact: Tom Hanley, email@example.com, Ecological Process and Function Program
Forest Sector Carbon
This online tool allows users to compare how stores of carbon in the forest and in forest products change over time following forest harvest and
wildfire. The calculator is designed to give users a way to compare the short- and long-term effects of different forest management practices, wildfire
occurrence, and assumptions about forest product use. It contains tutorials and produces graphs and data that can be downloaded for further analysis.
It is intended to complement more technical models that are used to give precise estimates of actual levels of carbon storage for particular stands or
landscapes with good forest inventory information.
Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS)
Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) is a family of forest growth simulation models. The basic FVS model structure has been calibrated to unique geographic areas to produce individual FVS variants. Since its initial development in 1973, it has become a system of highly integrated analytical tools. These tools are based upon a body of scientific knowledge developed from decades
of natural resources research. New versions of the Pacific Northwest Coast and West Cascades variants were developed to improve its ability to accurately predict the growth and survival of Oregon white oak.
Framework facilitates designing effective wildlife corridors
Wildlife populations in fragmented landscapes experience reduced gene flow, lose genetic diversity over time, and ultimately face greater extinction risk. Improving connectivity in fragmented landscapes is now a major focus of conservation biology. Designing effective wildlife corridors for this purpose, however, requires understanding of how landscapes shape gene flow. Station scientists developed a framework that uses expert opinion as a starting point and then systematically either validates the assumptions of expert opinion or identifies a peak of support for a new model more highly related to genetic isolation. This approach also accounts for interactions between variables, allows for nonlinear responses, and excludes variables that reduce model performance. Station scientists demonstrated its utility on a population of mountain goats inhabiting a fragmented landscape in the Cascade Range, Washington. Wildlife planners with Washington Department of Transportation are using this tool to assess connectivity along the I-90 freeway in Washington.
Contact: Andrew Shirk, firstname.lastname@example.org, Ecological Process and Function Program
Green Cities: Good Health
This Web site presents concise summaries on the benefits of urban trees and green spaces, based on more than 1,700 scientific articles. Key findings are presented for multiple audiences, such as resource managers in local government, conservation groups, and nongovernmental organizations. The research evidence about the benefits of the human experience of nature in cities indicates proximity to nature can lead to stress reduction, healing, better learning and work productivity, and improved social dynamics in communities. All of these findings have broad implications, from human capital enhancement, to community cohesion, to economic costs and benefits.
Hand-Piled Fuels Biomass Calculator
This calculator was developed to help fuel managers and air quality regulators manage hand-piled fuels and coordinate piled-fuel disposal through prescribed burning. By using easily
measured dimensions, the user can estimate the
volume and biomass of hand-piled fuels and the emissions produced
when those piled fuels are burned. The estimation equations were
developed from field measurement. The developers presented the calculator at the Joint
Fire Science Program Biomass Roundtable, which prompted a request
and additional funding to further develop and enhance this tool for fuel management.
Incident Command Tool for Protecting Drinking Water (ICWater) v. 3:
This software informs incident commanders and other first responders
about risks to drinking water as they mount an effective emergency
response. It now includes effects from deposition of toxic materials
from airborne plumes and tidal influence on riverflows in coastal
LandTrendr and TimeSync:
These tools are used in tandem to detect trends in forest disturbance and recovery. LandTrendr
(Landsat-based detection of Trends in Disturbance and Recovery) is a mapping tool that automatically
extracts information on land surface changes (e.g., fire, insect and disease damage, timber harvesting
or regrowth) from Landsat satellite imagery. TimeSync is a companion image interpretation software tool
for synchronizing algorithm and human interpretations of Landsat imagery. These tools capture both
short-duration events such as harvest and fire, and long-term trends such as declines in forest health
and regrowth. Researchers can use these new tools to comprehensively map change over every Landsat pixel
(30 m) since 1972 in forested ecosystems and understand the accuracy of the maps.
Modeling the Effect of Fire on Aquatic Systems
These models predict the potential of fire to alter critical in-stream salmon habitat by modeling a fire's potential
to facilitate delivery of fine sediments and large wood to stream channels. They are based on the geomorphology of stream
channels combined with complex models of fire behavior and fire intensity across the landscape.
Contact: Rebecca Flitcroft, email@example.com, Land and Watershed Management Program.
Now with climate change component
NetMap is a Web-based platform for doing cost-effective, timely
watershed and landscape analyses. NetMap contains models that
allow the user
to conduct analyses on various parameters that influence aquatic
ecosystems such as wood recruitment, erosion sources, and potential
habitat. It now hosts a climate change component that includes
projected changes in seasonal hydrographs, changes in the likely
location of snow-to-rain transition zones, and thermal loading.
New model predicts marten age based on genetic material
Researchers developed a Bayesian network model that can be used to predict the age of martens based on
chromosomal evidence and other environmental factors. This is the first model of its kind–calibrated and
tested with empirical data–that can accurately predict a marten's age by using hair samples or other genetic
material collected without actually trapping the animal.
How to get it: Pauli, J.N.; Whiteman, J.P.; Marcot, B.G. [et al.]. 2011. DNA-based approach to aging martens
(Martes americana and M. caurina). Journal of Mammalogy. 92(3): 500-510.
Contact: Bruce Marcot, firstname.lastname@example.org, Ecological Process and Function Program
Northern Spotted Owl Dispersal Assessment Tool
This tool is used to assess northern spotted owl dispersal habitat.
It has a stand-level habitat quality component based on the Ecosystem
Management Decision-Support system. These results are further assessed
for connectivity by using customized programming based on graph
Contact Sean Gordon, email@example.comEcological Process and Function Program
This tool allows users to work with the database populated and maintained
by the Pacific Northwest Research Station's Forest Inventory and Analysis team.
Users can answer questions about the status and trends of forest resources by summarizing
data on live and dead trees, down woody materials (fuels), and understory vegetation.
Production, Prices, Employment,
and Trade in Northwest Forest Industries
This online resource offers downloadable data on the current timber situation in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia, as well as 50 years of historical data. Data sets include lumber and plywood production and prices; timber harvest; employment in forest products industries; international trade in logs, pulpwood, chips, lumber, veneer, and plywood; log prices in the Pacific Northwest; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies. The extensive data sets can be downloaded into Microsoft Excel®, a commonly-used program. This online version complements the printed quarterly publication by the same name that has been published continuously since 1963.
Reference Guild on the Effects of Fire, Insect, and Pathogen Damage on Wood Quality of Dead and Dying Western Conifers:
Summarizes information on deterioration rates of western configers and the potential suitablity of the wood for commercial use. We update and expand the 1992 survey of research findings by Lowell and colleagues, providing an ecological context for the findings, using a more reader-friendly format, and including extensive citations so readers can get indepth information on particular topics. Our intent is that managers will use this report as a desktop reference and field guide. The worksheet can be copied and taken to the field, as a reminder of key indicators to look for and key questions to ask. With a visual assessment process, potential volume and value losses associated with disturbance can be estimated for postdisturbance management planning.
Riparian Management Explorer
This tool is used to explore the implications of different riparian management options for future wood recruitment and abundance of in-stream wood. The Riparian Management Explorer illustrates how differences in riparian-management buffer widths and thinning prescriptions within each buffer affect expected recruitment rates and abundances of large wood.
The tool is flexible, accommodating different stand-growth models, topography, bole-taper equations, and bank erosion rates. Results, using either wood volume or number of pieces, can be viewed graphically for (1) recruitment rate and in-stream abundance over time, or (2) the amount of wood accumulated as a function of distance from the channel edge at a specific future date. Results can be formulated in terms of wood-piece diameter, the diameter of the source trees, and by source-tree species classes (hardwood or conifer).
Seedlot Selection Tool
The Seedlot Selection Tool is a GIS mapping program designed to help forest
managers match seedlots with planting sites based on climate information. The
tool can be used to map current climates, or future climates based on selected
climate change scenarios.
Threat Mapper employs several new technologies for wildland threat detection, mapping, and assessment. It includes an interactive, online mapping system that intergrates risk maps gerated by the Forest Service and other land management agencies. Users are able to examine spatial patterns of multiple thereats and the human and eclological values they ptoentially affect.
How to get it: http://www.fs.fed.us/wwetac/threat_map/
Contact: Alan Ager, firstname.lastname@example.org, Western Wildland Environmental Threat Assessment Center
Tribal Climate Change Project Profiles
With their close cultural and economic relationship to the land, American Indian and Alaska Native tribes face disproportionate risks associated with climate change. Station scientists have developed information tools to help build awareness of the unique problems faced by tribal stakeholders in addressing natural resource issues, as well as their innovative approaches to adaptation. These profiles summarize climate change mitigation and adaptation projects implemented around the United States to share success stories and provide examples for others to learn from. In addition, profiles include information on available resources, key contacts, and government programs that can provide services or grants.
Virtual Trail for Olympic Habitat Development Study
This interactive Web site features photos, maps, and original artwork. Visitors can explore a study site on the Olympic Peninsula and learn about some of the silvicultural techniques that have been suggested for use in accelerating the development of structures and ecological communities associated with old-growth forests.
Wildland Fire Air Quality Tools
This new Web portal site centralizes access to a number of air quality tools, making it both easier and faster to obtain information for planned prescribed fires and unplanned wildland fires. The site includes several help features, including a glossary and phone- based technical assistance.
Software & Application
BIOPAK (Means, et al. 1994) is a menu-driven package of computer
programs for personal computers that calculates the biomass, area,
height, length, or volume of plant components (leaves, branches, stem,
crown, and roots) and biomass by fuels size classes using existing
prediction equations. Most of the 1150 equations in the equation
library currently available as part of BIOPAK were developed in
the Pacific Northwest, including southeast Alaska.
BIOPAK User's Guide
CONSUME is a user-friendly software application designed for resource managers and scientists with some working knowledge of Microsoft Windows® applications. Land managers and researchers input fuel characteristics, lighting patterns, fuel conditions, and meteorological attributes, then CONSUME outputs fuel consumption and emissions by combustion phase.
CONSUME 3.0 is designed to import data directly from the Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS), and the output is formatted to feed other models and provide usable outputs for burn plan preparation and smoke management requirements. Additionally, training and a user’s manual are available. CONSUME can be used for most forest, shrub and grasslands in North America.
Ecosystem Management Decision-Support
(EMDS) System v. 5.0
The Pacific Northwest Research Station, in collaboration with the private, non-profit EMDS Consortium, announces release of version 5.0 of the Ecosystem Management Decision Support (EMDS) system. EMDS is a spatial decision-support framework for environmental analysis and planning that brings logic processing and multi-criteria decision analysis to integrated, multi-scale spatial decision support. At version 5.0, EMDS has been completely re-engineered and optimized, resulting in more than 10-fold improvements in processing speed and database handling capacity. In addition, the new version provides improved interfaces for viewing and customizing map products, and producing and comparing multiple alternative scenarios that let users explore changes to data and models. Lastly, EMDS 5.0 lays essential groundwork for integrating extremely powerful new tools to the framework over the next few years, including support for designing and implementing workflows so users can extend the functionality of the system or automate complex geoprocessing sequences, and introduction of provenance tracking which will provide comprehensive documentation of project development as well as support backtracking and branching in complex analytical sequences. EMDS is currently being used by the USDA Forest Service as the primary system to support implementation of the Terrestrial Condition Assessment.
Fire Emission Production Simulator (FEPS)
Fire Emission Production Simulator (FEPS) is a user-friendly computer program designed for scientists and resource managers with some working knowledge of Microsoft Windows applications. The software manages data concerning consumption, emissions and heat release characteristics of prescribed burns and wildland fires.
This interactive software tool with over 150 new features has
been released to assist engineers, hydrologists, and fish biologists
in the evaluation and design of culverts for aquatic organism passage.
Characteristic Classification System, Version 3.0
The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) was designed to build and catalog fuelbeds by using inventoried fuel data, photo series, or literature. Fuelbeds span the canopy to the ground and have been mapped for the continental United States. The system predicts surface fire behavior including reaction intensity, flame length, and rate of spread; and surface fire behavior, crown fire, and available fuel potential using a 9-point index. Version 2.2 was released in 2011 with refined fire behavior equations, a total carbon calculator, and options for both metric and English units. Station scientists are working with the University of Aveiro, Portugal, and the University of Alcala, Spain, to build FCCS fuelbeds representing Portugal and the world.
Fuel Characteristics Classification System/Forest Vegetation Simulator Postprocessor
The Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) is used to predict forest stand dynamics. It is used extensively
throughout the United States. The Fire and Fuels Extension to FVS, when combined with the Fuel Characteristic
Classification System (FCCS), has the potential to model fire effects and succession more
realistically and with higher resolution. Postprocessors are stand-alone applications that extend
the capabilities of a model. This new postprocessor will integrate the effects of silvicultural
and surface fuel treatments, using realistic fuels and making the fuels component more visible,
user friendly, and flexible within the modeling system.
FUSION/LDV (version 3.50)
FUSION/LiDAR data viewer (LDV) software is used worldwide in research, academia, and industry to process LiDAR data and then use the data to model vegetation structure over large areas. The visualization system consists of two main programs, FUSION and LDV (LIDAR data viewer), implemented as Microsoft Windows applications coded in C++ using the Microsoft Foundation Classes. The primary interface, provided by FUSION, consists of a graphics display window and a control window. The FUSION display presents all project data using a 2-D display typical of geographic information systems. It supports a variety of data types and formats but requires that all data be geo-referenced using the same projection system and units of measurement. LDV provides the 3-D visualization environment, based on OpenGL, for the examination of spatially-explicit data subsets.
Version 3.50 includes a tool to compute topographic metrics using bare-earth surface models. It computes basic metrics describing the terrain shape and orientation along with a topographic position index that compares local and surrounding topography. When computed using large window sizes, this index informs analyses of landform shape and position and has proven useful when looking at factors influencing overall vegetation patterns across a landscape and assessing things such as moisture-related stress or solar input into riparian areas. When small windows sizes are considered, the index helps identify local topographic features that influence vegetation patterns or serve as resting sites for animals.
LTERMapS Internet Mapping
LTERMapS Internet Mapping Application uses Google
Maps technology to provide information on Long-Term Ecological
sites. The U.S. LTER network comprises 26 sites representing a
diverse array of ecosystems. With this new tool, users can view
current weather at all LTER sites, zoom into individual sites,
and view aerial images (provided by Google). The tool provides
a consistent interface to brief site descriptions, a photo library,
list of contacts, and links to individual LTER site Web pages.
Treatment Planner (MyFTP)
MyFTP is designed to allow planners
working at the level of a national forest district or similarly
sized unit to estimate costs, revenues, economic impacts, and surface
fuels resulting from operations designed to reduce fuel loads in
fire-prone forests. The software is limited in scope to the dry
forests of the western United States. MyFTP is a spreadsheet application
developed with Microsoft® Excel® 2002. Its compatibility with spreadsheet
software other than Microsoft Excel has not been tested. MyFTP
has, however, been tested successfully with Excel 2002-2003 and
with Excel 2007.
SnagPRO (Version 1.0)
SnagPro software analyzes log, snag, and tree densities based
on peer-reviewed, scientific sampling protocols. It was specifically
analyze log, snag, and tree data in support of sampling methods
presented in general technical reports (Bate and others, PNW-GTR-746,
and PNW-GTR-780) published by the PNW Research Station in 2008.
SnagPRO provides example field sheets for data collection as well
as a user-friendly, spreadsheet-based process for data input and
analyses. SnagPro also provides recommendations for optimizing
sample design (sample size and sample stratification) based on
pilot surveys. Finally, SnagPRO provides a wide range of statistical
analyses and output to meet a variety of analysis needs.