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Pacific Northwest Research Station
2003 Publication Abstracts
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-600 (2003) Carolyn’s Crown/Shafer Creek Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 28, by Reid Schuller (337 Kb)
This guidebook describes the Carolyn’s Crown/Shafer Creek Research Natural Area, a 323-ha (798-ac) tract of coniferous forest containing stands of 600- to 900-year-old oldgrowth Douglas-fir along the transition between the western hemlock zone and the silver fir zone in the Cascade Range in western Oregon. Keywords: Research natural area, old-growth forest, west-side Cascade Range of Oregon.
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-592 (2003) A test of the economic base hypothesis in the small forest communities of southeast Alaska, by G.C. Robertson (1.53 MB)
Recent harvest declines in the Western United States have focused attention on the question of economic impacts at the community level. The impact of changing timber-related economic activity in a given community on other local activity and the general economic health of the community at large has been a persistent and often contentious issue in debates surrounding forest policy decisions. The economic base hypothesis, in which changes in local export-related economic activity are assumed to cause changes in economic activity serving local demand, is a common framework for understanding impacts of forest policy decisions and forms the basis of models commonly used to provide estimates of expected local impacts under different policy options.
This study uses community-speci?c, time-series employment data to test the economic base hypothesis in the small, semi-isolated communities of southeast Alaska. Estimates were derived for each of 15 communities. Export-related activity was not found to cause changes in economic activity serving local demand for the average community. However, the results indicated statistically signi?cant differences among communities in their response to shocks in export-related activity. The implications of these results for policy, and for the theory and practice of modeling economic impacts at small spatial scales, are explored in the ?nal sections of this study. Speci?cally, secondary economic impacts cannot be taken as a foregone conclusion in policy analysis, and the fundamental assumptions of static impact modeling approaches deserve greater scrutiny.
Keywords: Economic impacts, economic base, multipliers, community stability.
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-591 (2003) Conservation assessment for the dusky Canada goose (Branta canadensis occidentalis Baird), by R.G. Bromley, T.C. Rothe (533 Kb)
Dusky Canada geese compose one of the smallest populations of geese in North America and have exhibited a marked decline in the past 30 years. A comprehensive synthesis of past and current biological information on the subspecies has been compiled to provide insights into the ecology and demography of the population, as well as explore management efforts to promote long-term conservation. Duskys occupy a discrete range, which has allowed the development of focused, long-standing management programs. The 1964 Alaska earthquake set in motion significant ecological changes in wetlands, plant communities, and the suite of predators on the dusky goose breeding grounds. A subsequent decline in goose productivity has become the primary challenge to this population. Concurrently, habitats on the western Washington and Oregon wintering grounds became more favorable for geese, but over 250,000 Canada geese of five other subspecies now occupy the region where formerly duskys were the majority. In the 1960s, the harvest of dusky geese was recognized as a primary management concern and regulation was effectively implemented. At present, protection of diminished duskys amid 10 times as many other Canada geese has created great complications for both management of hunting and attention to increasing complaints of crop depredation by wintering flocks. Important information needs are suggested to improve population monitoring, evaluate specific causes of lost productivity, and assess the direction and effects of succession of breeding ground habitats and conversion of winter habitats.
Keywords: Dusky Canada goose, Branta canadensis occidentalis, Alaska, Copper River Delta, nest predation, Willamette Valley.
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-590 (2003) Regional pollution potential in the Northwestern United States, by S.A. Ferguson, M. Rorig (3.28 MB)
The potential for air pollution from industrial sources to reach wilderness
throughout the Northwestern United States is approximated from monthly
mean emissions, along with wind speeds and directions. A simple index
is derived to estimate downwind concentration. Maps of pollution potential
were generated for each pollution component (particulates, sulfur oxides,
nitrogen oxides, and ammonia),
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-589 (2003) Marketing recommendations for wood products from Alaska birch, red alder, and Alaska yellow-cedar, G.H. Donovan, D.L. Nicholls, J. Roos (594 Kb)
Several factors have contributed to a recent decline in Alaska’s
industry, including reduced exports to Japan and the closure of two pulp
mills in southeast Alaska. However, higher value niche markets are a
potential growth area for the industry. In this paper, we consider niche
markets for three species that have historically been harvested in low
volumes—Alaska birch (Betula
Keywords: Secondary wood products manufacturing, consumer preferences, Alaska birch, red alder, Alaska yellow-cedar, marketing, Alaska, character markings.
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-588 Past and future water use in Pacific Coast States, by L.L. Houston, M. Watanabe, J.D. Kline, R.J. Alig (1.09 MB)
We examine socioeconomic factors affecting water demand and expected trends in these factors. Based on these trends, we identify past, current, and projected withdrawal of surface water for various uses in Pacific Coast States (California, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington), including public, domestic, commercial, industrial, thermoelectric, livestock, and irrigation. Additionally, we identify projected demands for nonconsumptive instream recreational uses of water, such as boating, swimming, and fishing, which can compete with consumptive uses. Allocating limited water resources across multiple users will present water resource managers and policymakers with distinct challenges as water demands increase. To illustrate these challenges, we present a case study of issues in the Klamath Basin of northern California and southern Oregon. The case study provides an example of the issues involved in allocating scarce water among diverse users and uses, and the difficulties policymakers face when attempting to design water allocation policies that require tradeoffs among economic, ecological, and societal values.
Keywords: Water quality, water quantity, demand, recreation, Klamath Basin.
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-587 (2003) Land use changes involving forestry in the United States: 1952 to 1997, with projections to 2050, by R.J. Alig, A.J. Plantinga, S. Ahn, J.D. Kline (2.4 MB)
About two-thirds (504 million acres) of the Nation’s forests are classed as timberland, productive forests capable of producing 20 cubic feet per acre of industrial wood annually and not legally reserved from timber harvest. The USDA’s 1997 National Resource Inventory shows that, nationally, 11 million acres of forest, cropland, and open space were converted to urban and other developed uses from 1992 to 1997, as the national rate of urbanization increased notably compared to the 1982-92 period. Forest land was the largest source of land converted to developed uses such as urbanization. Urban and other developed areas are projected to continue to grow substantially, in line with a projected U.S. population increase of more than 120 million people over the next 50 years, with population growth occurring the fastest in the West and South. Projected increases in population and income will, in turn, increase demands for use of land for residential, urban, transportation, and related uses. An overall net loss in forest area in the United States since the early 1950s has been due to a combination of factors, but in more recent decades has been primarily due to conversion to urban and developed uses. Total forest area in the United States is projected to decrease by approximately 23 million acres by 2050, a 3-percent reduction from the 1997 forest area. Consistent with the projected slow net decline in U.S. forestland area, private timberland area is likewise projected to decline. Total area of U.S. private timberland is projected to decline by 4 percent by 2050. Industry timberland is projected to decrease by 3.0 percent by 2050, whereas timberland area on nonindustrial private lands is projected to decrease by 4.4 percent.
Keywords: Timberland area, forest-land area, land use shifts.
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-586 (2003) Assessing the cumulative effects of linear recreation routes on wildlife habitats on the Okanogan and Wenatchee National Forests, by William L. Gaines, Peter H. Singleton, Roger Ross (1.13 MB)
We conducted a literature review to document the effects of linear recreation routes on focal wildlife species. We identi?ed a variety of interactions between focal species and roads, motorized trails, and nonmotorized trails. We used the available science to develop simple geographic information system-based models to evaluate the cumulative effects of recreational routes on habitats for focal wildlife species for a portion of the Okanogan and Wenatchee National Forests in the state of Washington. This process yielded a basis for the consistent evaluation of the cumulative effects of roads and recreation trails on wildlife habitats, and identi?ed information gaps for future research and monitoring. We suggest that managers use an adaptive management approach to address wildlife and recreation interactions because of the complexity and uncertainty of these issues.
Keywords: Okanogan and Wenatchee National Forests, linear recreation routes, focal wildlife species, cumulative effects.
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-585 Access, labor, and wild floral greens management in western Washington’s forests, by K.A. Lynch, R.J. McLain (1.98 MB)
This report compares the changes that took place between 1994 and 2002 in the nontimber forest product (NTFP) management regime that governed access to floral greens and other NTFPs in western coastal Washington. A rapid rural appraisal approach was used to gather data from 24 NTFP stakeholders during phase I (1994) and from 37 NTFP stakeholders during phase II (2002). Phase I findings summarized the rules of access to NTFPs on private, state, tribal, and federal lands in 1994, as well as comparing the perspectives of land managers to those of pickers and buyers regarding the need for and the impacts of those rules. A preliminary diagram of NTFP knowledge exchange networks was developed from information provided by informants who participated in the 1994 study. This diagram suggested that in 1994, buyers and land managers functioned as key information exchange nodes in NTFP networks at the study site.
Phase II findings indicated that the formalization of NTFP access process still nascent in 1994 had solidified sufficiently by 2002 that many pickers and buyers had come to take the permit requirements for granted. However, NTFP stakeholders noted that leases were increasingly difficult to acquire. It appears that a few larger floral greens companies based on the southeastern Olympic Peninsula now control most floral greens leases on private and state lands. By 2002, the floral greens labor market was dominated by Latinos, many of whom lacked legal work documents and thus occupied a precarious position in the labor market. To counteract the power of the larger buying companies, some of the smaller buying companies and harvesters have worked with social justice organizations to pressure the Washington State Department of Labor to enforce regulations regarding employer-contractor relations.
The study has several key implications for forest managers, including the need for managers and policymakers to recognize the heterogeneity of the harvester and buyer populations and to consider the possibility that interventions in domains seemingly unrelated to forest management, such as labor policy, might constitute key elements of a sustainable forest management strategy. The report ends with a list of steps managers and researchers can take to support sustainable floral greens management.
Key words: Nontimber forest products, forest policy, labor policy, resource tenure, sustainability, floral greens, salal, Olympic Peninsula.
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-583 Range maps of terrestrial species in the interior Columbia River basin and northern portions of the Klamath and Great Basins, by B.G. Marcot, B.C. Wales, R. Demmer.
Current range distribution maps are presented for 14 invertebrate, 26 amphibian, 26 reptile, 339 bird, and 125 mammal species and selected subspecies (530 total taxa) of the interior Columbia River basin and northern portions of the Klamath and Great Basins in the United States. Also presented are maps of historical ranges of 3 bird and 10 mammal species, and 6 maps of natural areas designated by federal agencies and other organizations. The species range maps were derived from a variety of publications and from expert review and unpublished data, and thus differ in degree of accuracy and resolution. The species maps are available in computer versions and are indexed herein by common and scientific names.
Keywords: Maps, species range, species distribution, wildlife, invertebrates, arthropods, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, bats, biodiversity, endemism, natural areas, interior Columbia River basin, Klamath Basin, Great Basin.
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-582 Users guide for STHARVEST: software to estimate the cost of harvesting small timber, by Roger D. Fight, Xiaoshan Zhang, Bruce R. Hartsough (1.25 MB)
The STHARVEST computer application is Windows-based, public-domain software used to estimate costs for harvesting small-diameter stands or the small-diameter component of a mixed-sized stand. The equipment production rates were developed from existing studies. Equipment operating cost rates were based on November 1998 prices for new equipment and wage rates for the Pacific Northwest. There are four ground-based and two cable harvesting systems. Harvesting costs can be estimated for both clearcutting and partial cutting for an average tree size ranging from 1 to 80 or 150 cubic feet depending on the system selected. Cost estimates are in U.S. dollars per 100 cubic feet or per green ton.
Keywords: Cost (logging), logging economics, timber management planning, software, simulation.
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-581 Hunter demand for deer on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska: an analysis of influencing factors, by Rhonda Mazza. (623 Kb)
Overall hunter demand for deer on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, has
not changed significantly in the last 10 years, although demand has increased
in five communities on the island. These five communities each experienced
a decline in household median income between 1989 and 1999. In communities
with a smaller percentage of Native Alaskans, deer was a larger component
of their subsistence harvest. The cashbased market economy on Prince of
Wales Island is in transition as the dependence on logging and commercial
fishing declines. The subsistence economy in Alaska has traditionally
provided security to residents during lulls or downturns in the market
economy. Overall employment opportunities in southeast Alaska are projected
to decline between 2000 and 2010. An area of projected growth, however,
is in tourism and recreationbased employment, from which residents on
the island may be able to benefit. Change in employment opportunities
may change demand for deer.
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-580 Human migration and natural resources: implications for land managers and challenges for researchers, by Stephen F. McCool, Linda E. Kruger (484 Kb)
Rural areas of the Pacific Northwest experienced a dramatic growth in population during the late 1980s to early 1990s. This growth was fueled by both push and pull factors, including environmental and natural resource-based amenities. Such growth has not only stressed the capacity of rural counties and communities to cope with change but also has raised important questions about interactions between people and natural resources. This paper, explores four fundamental components of this interaction: (1) the drivers of population growth; (2) the consequences of population growth, primarily for management of natural resources; (3) the potential changes in the social and psychological links between people and natural resources that may accompany rapid inmigration; and (4) the best way to measure and assess the consequences of population growth in rural areas. Some fundamental propositions within each of these components are presented. We use examples from Kittitas County, Washington, to illustrate our discussion.
Keywords: Human migration, population growth, natural resource management, environmental amenities, social and environmental change, population dynamics.
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-579 Proceedings: hidden forest values. The first Alaska-wide nontimber forest products conference and tour, by Alaska Boreal Forest Coucil, comps.
The Hidden Forest Values Conference brought together a diverse assemblage of local, state and federal agencies, tribal governments, traditional users, landholders, cottage enterprises and other Nontimber Forest Products (NTFP) related businesses, scientists, and experts. The purpose of this forum was to exchange information, cooperate, and raise awareness of issues on sustainable and equitable, environmentally and economically viable opportunities for NTFP in Alaska. This discourse sought a balance of development and sustainability, with respect for traditional uses. Nontimber Forest Products were defined by the Conference organizers as biological material harvested from the forest that has not been produced from commercially sawn wood such as lumber, pulp, and paper. These proceedings include extended summaries of presentations by speakers and panelists at the conference. All summaries were compiled and edited by the Alaska Boreal Forest Council and reviewed by the authors. Some authors elected to provide their full presentation or supplemental material; those are included in Appendix V.
This publication provides highlights of forest inventories and surveys from 1993 to 2001. About 35 percent of eastern Oregon is forested.The amount of forest land in eastern Oregon has increased by about 650,000 acres from the 1930s, with increases in juniper forest land accounting for most of the change.Thirty-one tree species were tallied in forest inventories during the 1990s, with ponderosa pine the predominant species in all ecological provinces in eastern Oregon.The Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, and other federal agencies manage about 71 percent of eastern Oregon forests; about 27 percent is privately owned; and the remaining 2 percent is managed by the Oregon Department of Forestry and other nonfederal public agencies.The volume of wood in eastern Oregon forests is about 25.7 billion cubic feet, of which about 312 million cubic feet per year were harvested between 1987 and 1999. In the same time period, annual mortality and removals exceeded annual growth for all ownerships. Down wood is an important forest component and shows increases with forest age. Insect defoliators, bark beetles, root diseases, and dwarf mistletoes are present on over 72 percent of forest land in eastern Oregon.Year-to-year defoliation or mortality trends can be detected with aerial surveys. Introduced plant species are present on over 50 percent of private and other public forest land. Diversity of lichens (indicators of air pollution, climate, and forest age and structure) is greatest in the Blue Mountains Province and lowest in the Intermountain Province. No ozone injury has been detected on sensitive forest trees and plant species in eastern Oregon.
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-576 Ecology and management of commercially harvested chanterelle mushrooms, by David Pilz, Lorelei Norvell, Eric Danell, and Randy Molina. (1.86 Mb)
During the last two decades, the chanterelle mushroom harvest from Pacific Northwest forests has become a multimillion dollar industry, yet managers, harvesters, and scientists lack a current synthesis of information about chanterelles. We define chanterelles and then discuss North American species, their place among chanterelle species around the world, international markets for chanterelles, our current understanding of the organism, reasons for declining production in parts of Europe, and efforts to cultivate chanterelles. Shifting focus back to chanterelles of the Pacific Northwest, we describe our species, regional forest management issues, recent studies, and future research and monitoring needed to sustain this prized resource.
Keywords: Chanterelle mushrooms, edible mushrooms, ectomycorrhizae, forest management, nontimber forest products, Cantharellus, Craterellus, Gomphus, Polyozellus.
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-575 Social implications of alternatives to clearcutting on the Tongass National Forest: an exploratory study of residents responses to alternative silvicultural treatments at Hanus Bay, Alaska, by James A. Burchfield, Jeffrey M. Miller, Stewart Allen, Robert F. Schroeder, Theron Miller. (1.56 MB)
After a series of eight harvest treatments were completed at Hanus Bay, Alaska, on the Tongass National Forest in 1998, 27 respondents representing nine interest groups were interviewed to understand their reactions to the various harvest patterns in the eight treatment areas. Harvests patterns included three stands with 25 percent retention of basal area; three stands with 75 percent retention of basal area; a clearcut; and a full retention, or no-harvest, option. A special poster board that displayed estimates of consequences of the harvests in six areas (fish productivity, deer productivity, timber yield, appearance, biodiversity, and residual stand damage) was provided to assist respondents in articulating their evaluations. There were no signifi cant differences in preferred treatments among the nine interest groups sampled, although responses identifi ed specifi c preferences based on individual interests. Analysis of narrative responses identifi es that the basis for acceptance follows three major elements of emerging social acceptability theory: (1) treatments achieve a balance of positive effects, (2) natural conditions are sustained, and (3) contextual attributes are thoroughly considered. Sustaining benefi ts to rural communities and subsistence lifestyles also emerge as important considerations in judging the acceptability of harvest treatments.
Keywords: Clearcutting, subsistence, timber harvests, social acceptability.
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-574 WestPro: a computer program for simulating uneven-aged Douglas-fir stand growth and yield in the Pacific Northwest, by Rebecca Ralston, Joseph Buongiorno, Benedict Schulte, Jeremy Fried. (1.8 Mb)
WestPro is an add-in program designed to work with Microsoft Excel to simulate the growth of uneven-aged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Given the initial stand state, defined as the number of softwood and hardwood trees per acre by diameter class, WestPro predicts the future stand state for each year of a predetermined time horizon. Management regimes are defined by a target stand distribution and a cutting cycle. Performance indicators include diversity of tree size and species, timber yield, and net present value of harvest over the given horizon. This paper contains background information on the WestPro program and instructions and suggestions for its application. By working the examples found in the text, the user will learn how to simulate the growth of a given initial stand and to predict how different management regimes may affect stand structure, yield, and diversity. Limitations of the model also are discussed.
Keywords: Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii, uneven-aged, management, economics, ecology, WestPro, simulation, software, growth model, diversity
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-573 Strategic survey framework for the Northwest Forest Plan survey and manage program, by Randy Molina, Dan; Lesher, Robin McKenzie, Jan Ford, Jim Alegria, Richard Cutler. (1.16 Mb)
This document outlines an iterative process for assessing the information needs for all Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) survey and manage species, designing and implementing strategic surveys (including field surveys and other information-gathering processes), and analyzing that information for use in the NWFP annual species review and adaptive-management processes. The framework outlines a series of steps that provide guidance for development of (1) priority information needs, (2) evaluation and selection of information-gathering approaches, (3) implementation of annual work plans, and (4) management, reporting, and transfer of information to the annual species review process. Approaches include design-based statistical surveys, modeling, expert searches, and research that are anticipated to be used singly or in combination to address the priority survey and manage questions and information needs.
Keywords: Survey, conservation, biodiversity, species persistence, late-seral oldgrowth forests.
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-572 Handbook to Additional Fungal Species of Special Concern in the Northwest Forest Plan by Michael A. Castellano, Efren Cazares, Bryan Fondrick, and Tina Dreisbach.
This handbook is a companion to the Handbook to Strategy 1 Fungal Species in the Northwest Forest Plan, Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-476, published in October 1999. It includes 73 record-of-decision (ROD)-listed fungal species not contained in the first handbook, as well as updated site, field, and collecting forms; an expanded set of artificial keys to all fungal species from both handbooks; and an updated, partially illustrated glossary. The main purpose of this handbook is to help facilitate the survey, collection, and handling of potential ROD-listed fungal species by USDA Forest Service and USDI Bureau of Land Management employees. Each species is represented by a condensed description, a set of distinguishing features, and information on substrate, habitat, and seasonality. We also present a list of known sites within the range of the northern spotted owl, a distribution map, and additional references to introduce the available literature on a particular species.
Keywords: Mycology, mushrooms, sequestrate fungi, truffles, biodiversity, monitoring, rare fungi, forest ecology.
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-571 Horse Rock Ridge Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 27, by Alan B. Curtis. (2.36 Mb)
Horse Rock Ridge Research Natural Area (HRR RNA) was established in June 1995 to protect the best remaining example of a grassy "bald" (treeless area) on the western margin of the Cascade Range and its associated botanical, wildlife, and scenic values. This bald is surrounded by old-growth Pseudotsuga menziesii/Tsuga heterophylla (Douglas-fir/western hemlock) forest in the Coburg Hills on the eastern edge of the Willamette Valley in western Oregon. The site is recognized for its considerable diversity of plant species that includes both Willamette Valley plants as well as plants more often found in the montane zone of the Cascade Range. There are also several species present at the site that are normally found east of the Cascade Range. This guidebook describes the area, environment, biota, disturbance history, research, and access.
Keywords: Research natural area, vegetation types, vascular plants, lichens, liverworts, mosses, birds, mammals, mollusks, amphibians, reptiles.
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-570 Delimiting communities in the Pacific Northwest, by Ellen M. Donoghue (2.37 Mb)
The paper presents an approach for delimiting communities in the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) region of the Pacific Northwest that responds to the need to assess impacts and issues associated with broad-scale ecosystem management. Census block groups are aggregated to provide an alternative to more commonly used geographic delimitations of communities, specifically census places. With the block group aggregation approach, census data can be applied to almost 1.5 million more people in the NWFP region than would be represented by using census places. The delimitation of community boundaries is intended to facilitate future research on understanding and characterizing conditions, structures, and change. Factors to consider in conducting social science research at the small scale are discussed. Ways in which communities have been defined for social assessments and monitoring are identified. The influence of data availability on determining the unit of analysis and research focus at the small scale is discussed.
Keywords: Community, ecosystem management, Northwest Forest Plan, social assessment, socioeconomic monitoring.
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-569 Green fescue rangelands: changes over time in the Wallowa Mountains, by C.G. Johnson Jr (3.81 MB)
This publication documents over 90 years of plant succession on green fescue grasslands in the subalpine ecological zone of the Wallowa Mountains in northeast Oregon. It also ties together the work of four scientists over a 60-year period. Arthur Sampson initiated his study of deteriorated rangeland in 1907. Elbert H. Reid began his studies of overgrazing in 1938. Both of these individuals utilized high-elevation green fescue grasslands in different locations in the Wallowa Mountains for their study areas. Then in 1956, Gerald Strickler returned to the sites previously studied by Sampson and Reid to establish the first permanent monitoring points when he located and staked camera points they had used. He also established line transects where he photographed and sampled the vegetation to benchmark the condition of the sites. In 1998, on the 60th anniversary of the Reid camera points in Tenderfoot Basin, the author returned to document the changes in the vegetation on the Sampson and Reid sites establishing photographic comparisons and resampling the transects Strickler had established. When Sampson and Reid conducted their initial studies, domestic sheep had overgrazed the vegetation leading to severely eroded soils and weakened native vegetation. In recent years, the presence of domestic sheep had declined dramatically. As a result, vegetation trends were generally found to be static or upward on most of the sampled sites. The recent drought period (1985-92) and the high population of elk in the 1980s and 1990s contributed to the downward trend on some permanent monitoring sites. The use of repeat photography from permanent camera points and the use of permanent line transects for vegetation data acquisition provide the basis on which this comparative study and publication of findings was made possible.
Keywords: Green fescue, Wallowa Mountains, Arthur Sampson, Elbert Reid, Gerald Strickler
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-568 Projecting national forest inventories for the 2000 RPA timber assessment by John R. Mills, Xiaoping Zhou (1.17 MB)
National forest inventories were projected in a study that was part of the 2000 USDA Forest Service Resource Planning Act (RPA) timber assessment. This paper includes an overview of the status and structure of timber inventory of the National Forest System and presents 50-year projections under several scenarios. To examine a range of possible outcomes, results are shown for five removals scenarios that incorporate assumptions from both current and past studies of wood flows and harvesting on national forests. In addition, two projections were developed to examine the effects of volume reductions associated with large-scale disturbance events, such as fires, insects, and disease. Projections were made by region and forest type by using the aggregated timberland assessment system and plot-level inventory data with methods consistent with procedures followed for private timberlands in the assessment. The results of projected inventory volume differ across regions, but the total inventory of both softwood and hardwood forest types is shown to increase in all scenarios. One result is a shift in area to older age classes. Initially, 15 percent of the timberland is classified as stands older than 150 years; under the base scenario with disturbance, this area will increase to 32 percent by 2050. This shift means that in the future, a larger share of U.S. timberland is projected to support mature and old forest conditions.
Keywords: National forests, timber supply, modeling, inventory projection, yield function, seral stage, public policy.
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-567 Assessing the viability and adaptability of forest-dependent communities in the United States, by Richard W. Haynes. (374 Kb)
The work responds to the need to assess progress toward sustainable forest management as established by the Montréal Process of Criteria and Indicators. The focus is on a single indicator (commonly referred to as Indicator 46), which addresses the viability and adaptability to changing economic conditions, of forest-dependent communities, including indigenous communities. From county-level data, a composite measure was developed that combined population density, lifestyle diversity, and economic resiliency. There are 837 counties assigned a low rating representing 36 percent of the area of the United States but that contain less than 3 percent of the U.S. population. The rest of the population is roughly divided among the 2,064 counties assigned medium ratings and the 209 counties assigned high ratings. Of the forest-dependent communities, there are 742 counties with a high proportion of forest land, but only 14 percent are classified as having low viability and adaptability.
Keywords: Community resiliency, criteria and indicators, forest dependency, Montréal Process, socioeconomic well-being, sustainable forest management.
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-566 Understanding community-forest relations, by Linda E. Kruger (502Kb)
Improved understanding of the relationships between human communities and forests is necessary to understanding how alternative forest management policies and practices can affect different communities. This knowledge also enhances our ability to formulate plans that are responsive to the needs and concerns of local communities, thus reducing polarization and related social and economic costs. In December 1997, an interdisciplinary panel representing academic backgrounds in sociology, anthropology, geography, psychology, economics, and recreation gathered in Oregon to discuss relationships between human communities and forests. This collection of papers is a product of the dialogue and interactions at the gathering.
Keywords: Community, community research, integrated research, place-based community, community well-being, community attachment, natural disturbance.
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-562 Forest economics research at the Pacific Northwest Research Station, to 2000, by Donald F. Flora. (2.49 Mb)
The contributions for over 80 years by scientists at the Pacific Northwest Research Station to developments in economic theory, economic tools, policies, and economic issues are summarized. This is a story of progressive accomplishments set against a constantly changing background of economic and social events.
Keywords: Forest economics, forest policy, forest management, Pacific Northwest.
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-560 An analysis of the timber situation in the United States: 1952 to 2050, by R.W. Haynes, tech. coord.
For more than a century, national assessments of supply and demand trends for timber have helped shape perceptions of future commodity consumption and resource trends. These perceptions have guided forest policy. Since 1952, U.S. timber harvest has risen by nearly 67 percent, accompanied by growing timber inventories on both public and private lands, but there has been a decline in the critical private timberland base. The current assessment envisions forest products consumption rising 42 percent by 2050 and marked shifts in the extent and location of domestic and imported supplies. Prospective shifts include a temporary near-term decline in U.S. roundwood harvest and an increase in the share of consumption from imports. In the longer term, U.S. timber harvest expands by 24 percent. As a result of steady improvement in growth and productivity on U.S. forest lands, this increased harvest is accommodated by continued expansion in inventory despite decreasing area in the private timberland base.
Keywords: RPA, assessments, timber, projections, supply, demand, management alternatives, resource trends.
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-557 Accelerating development of late-successional conditions in young managed Douglas-fir stands: a simulation study, bySteven L. Garman, John H. Cissel, James H. Mayo. (3.0 Mb)
The goal of this simulation study was to provide information for defining thinning regimes for young Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in the Central Cascades Adaptive Management Area, located in west-central Oregon. Specifically, this study used the ZELIG.PNW (3.0) gap model to evaluate effects of experimental thinning treatments on the development of late-successional attributes and on extracted merchantable volume. Sixty-four thinning treatments were simulated for four rotation intervals (260, 180, 100, and 80 years) starting with a 40-year-old managed Douglas-fir stand. The amount of time for five late successional attributes to reach defined threshold levels, long-term developmental trends of these attributes, and amount of extracted merchantable volume were recorded for each treatment. Stand conditions of selected treatments were used in a subsequent harvest rotation in which 64 additional experimental thinning treatments were applied and evaluated. A total of 1,744 thinning treatments was evaluated in this study.
Results of this study confirm previous recommendations for accelerating development of late-successional attributes in young managed stands. Additionally, results show the potential for a range of thinning treatments to attain late-successional conditions in about the same amount of time, but with different tradeoffs in terms of merchantable volume and long-term stand conditions. In general, heavy thinning of existing stands at ages 40 and 60 years promoted rapid development of large boles, vertical diversity, and tree-species diversity, but provided the least amount of extracted volume and required artificial creation of dead wood. Treatments that retained more than 40 percent of the original overstory and thinned to 99 trees per hectare at age 60 delayed attainment of late-successional conditions by 10 to 30 years but provided 12 to 20 percent more extracted volume, resulted in higher levels of most late-successional attributes at the end of a rotation, and required less artificial creation of dead wood. Treatments providing the fastest development of late-successional conditions in subsequent rotations varied with the amount of canopy cover retained at the end of the first rotation. For stands starting with ¡Ý30 percent canopy cover, delaying the first commercial thin for 40 years promoted the most rapid development of vertical structure and shadetolerant stems. Lower canopy-retention levels required heavy or light thins in subsequent entries, depending on the rotation interval, for rapid development of late-successional attributes.
Keywords: Forest management, alternative thinning strategies, late-successional development, simulation modeling.
Resour. Bull. PNW-RB-239 Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters of 2001, by D.D. Warren (Part A: 1.04 MB, Part B: 2.35 MB)
Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices;
employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber,
and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies;
and other related items.
Res. Note PNW-RN-543 AUTOSAW simulations of lumber recovery for small-diameter Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine from southwestern Oregon, by R. J. Barbour, D.L. Parry, J. Punches, J. Forsman, and R. Ross (436 Kb)
Small-diameter (5- to 10-inch diameter at breast height) Douglas-fi
menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.
ex Laws) trees were assessed for product potential by diagramming the
location, size, and type of knots visible on the wood surface (inside
bark) and using the AUTOSAW sawing simulator to evaluate the resulting
log descriptions. The logs were then sawn to
Keywords: Small-diameter timber, volume recovery, AUTOSAW, sawing simulation, value recovery, wood product value.
Res. Note PNW-RN-541 Valuing a log: alternative approaches by R.V. Nagubadi, R.D. Fight, and R.J. Barbour (765 Kb)
The gross value of products that can be manufactured from a tree is the starting point for a residual-value appraisal of a forest operation involving the harvest of trees suitable for making forest products. The amount of detail in a model of gross product value will affect the statistical properties of the estimate and the amount of ancillary information that is provided. Seven data sets from forest product recovery studies of western conifers were used in the evaluation of three models of gross product value. The evaluation of these models was based on the need for information and the statistical properties of the estimators. The most detailed method provided additional information, but at some loss in the precision and accuracy of the prediction of gross value of products from a log.
Keywords: Residual-value appraisal, log value, alternative approaches.
Res. Note PNW-RN-536 Calcareous Fens in Southeast Alaska by Michael H. McClellan, Terry Brock, and James F. Baichtal. (243 Kb)
Calcareous fens have not been identifi ed previously in southeast Alaska. A limited survey in southeast Alaska identifi ed several wetlands that appear to be calcareous fens. These sites were located in low-elevation discharge zones that are below recharge zones in carbonate highlands and talus foot-slopes. Two of six surveyed sites partly met the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources water chemistry criteria for calcareous fens, with pH values of 6.7 to 7.4 and calcium concentrations of 41.8 to 51.4 mg/L but fall short with regard to specifi c conductivity (315 to 380 ìS/cm). Alkalinity was not determined. The vegetation was predominately herbaceous, with abundant Sitka sedge (Carex aquatilis) and scattered shrubs such as Barclays willow (Salix barclayi) and redosier dogwood (Cornus sericea ssp. sericea). The taxa found in these fens have been reported at other sites in southeast Alaska, although many were at the southern limits of their known ranges. The soils were Histosols composed of 0.6 to greater than 1 m of sedge peat. We found no evidence of calcium carbonate precipitates (marl or tufa) in the soil.
Keywords: Alaska (southeast), fens, calcareous fens, wetlands, peatlands, karst.
Res. Note PNW-RN-533 Site index equations and mean annual increment equations for Pacific Northwest Research Station forest inventory and analysis inventories, 1985-2001 by Erica J. Hanson, David L. Azuma, and Bruce A. Hiserote (478 Kb)
Site index equations and mean annual increment equations used by the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program at the Portland Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. The equations are for 24 tree species in California, Oregon, and Washington.
Keywords: Site index equations, mean annual increment equations.
Res. Note PNW-RN-530 Moisture distributions in western hemlock lumber from trees harvested near Sitka, Alaska, by David L. Nicholls, Allen M. Brackley, and Travis Allen (403 Kb)
Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) can be characterized by localized regions of high-moisture-content wood, often referred to as wet pockets, and uneven drying conditions may occur when lumber of higher and lower moisture content is mixed together in a dry kiln. The primary objective of this preliminary study was to characterize the frequency and extent of wet pockets (wetwood) in western hemlock lumber sawn from trees harvested near Sitka, Alaska. Nine western hemlock logs were sampled from three trees, ranging in diameter from approximately 10 to 18 inches. Forty-five boards were processed, yielding 225 samples.
Sample moisture content ranged from 31.4 percent to 149.7 percent (as a percentage of oven-dry wood weight), with a standard deviation of 30.6 percent. There was no significant moisture variation among sample heights for the three western hemlock trees included in this study. Average moisture content at a given height ranged from about 70 to 85 percent. Moisture contents of approximately 50 percent were not uncommon for pith-centered samples, whereas most samples more than 5 inches from the pith were typically at least 100-percent moisture content. There was considerable variation in overall moisture content among trees, ranging from about 69 to more than 85 percent. Moisture content variation among butt logs was also considerable, ranging from about 58 to 95 percent.
Keywords:Western hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla, lumber, drying, sawmill, moisture content, Alaska.
Res. Pap. PNW-RP-559 (2003) Changes in downed and dead woody material following a spruce beetle outbreak on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, by Bethany Schulz (955 Kb)
The forests of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, underwent a major spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) outbreak in the 1990s. A repeated inventory of forest resources was designed to assess the effects of the resulting widespread mortality of spruce trees, the dominant component of the Kenai forests. Downed woody materials, fuel heights, and moss depths were recorded during each inventory. Changes in downed and dead woody materials are summarized by forest type and harvest activity, compiled by fuel timelag classes. Fuel heights, fine fuels, and sound large fuels increased between 1987 and 2000. Moss depths and rotten large fuels decreased. Harvested white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) showed the greatest increase of fine fuel classes.
Keywords: Downed woody material, fuels, inventory, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, spruce beetle outbreak.
Res. Pap. PNW-RP-556 (2003) Alaska softwood market price arbitrage, by J.A. Stevens, D.J. Brooks (238 Kb)
This study formally tests the hypothesis that markets for Alaska lumber and logs are integrated with those of similar products from the U.S. Pacific Northwest and Canada. The prices from these three supply regions are tested in a common demand market (Japan). Cointegration tests are run on paired log and lumber data. Our results support the conclusion that western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) logs from Alaska share an integrated market with logs produced in the other two regions. Results are less clear for lumber. Given this evidence that markets are at least imperfectly integrated, Alaska production and exports of forest products will continue to be sensitive to international market conditions, including competition from other North American producing regions.
Keywords: Arbitrage, markets, cointegration, Alaska, softwood, prices.
Res. Pap. PNW-RP-555 (2003) Performance of the SEAPROG prognosis variant of the forest vegetation simulator, by M.H. McClellan, F.E. Biles (668 Kb)
This paper reports the first phase of a recent effort to evaluate the performance and use of the FVS-SEAPROG vegetation growth model. In this paper, we present our evaluation of SEAPROG’s performance in modeling the growth of even-aged stands regenerated by clearcutting, windthrow, or fire. We evaluated the model by comparing model predictions to observed values from two sets of long-term permanent plots. We examined six variables: trees per acre, quadratic mean diameter, basal area per acre, height of the largest 40 trees per acre, cubic-foot volume per acre, and board-foot volume per acre. The differences between observed and predicted values were large enough to have important implications for the interpretation and use of the model’s predictions. Of even greater importance was the evidence for considerable bias in quadratic mean diameter, basal area, height, and volume, all of which were systematically underestimated. Our results appear to validate the concerns expressed by users.
Keywords: Growth and yield, forest management, growth projection, modeling, southeast Alaska.
Res. Pap. PNW-RP-554 (2003) Vegetation response to prescribed fire in the Kenai Mountains, Alaska, by T.V. Boucher (2.58 MB)
Between 1977 and 1997, 4000 ha were burned to promote regeneration of
tree and shrub species used for browse by moose (Alces alces) in the
Kenai Mountains. Species composition was documented along burned and
unburned transects at 17 prescribed burn sites. Relationships among initial
vegetation composition, physical site characteristics, browse species
abundance, and competitive herbaceous vegetation were examined to determine
controls on browse species regeneration after prescribed burning. Browse
species abundance after burning was inversely related to Calamagrostis
canadensis Michx. Beauv. (bluejoint reedgrass) abundance prior to burning.
Calamagrostis canadensis abundance was related to specific landscape
characteristics. Depositional slopes, such as fluvial valley bottoms
and toe slopes, often featured soils with deep, loamy surface horizons.
Sites with these characteristics generally showed large increases in
C. canadensis cover after prescribed burning, even when C. canadensis
was a low percentage (3 percent) of the canopy cover prior to burning.
The most important preburn variables for predicting postburn browse species
abundance were preburn C. canadensis cover and the type of surficial
deposit. Site conditions that are favorable to C. canadensis may be problematic
Keywords: Chugach National Forest, prescribed fire, vegetation change, Calamagrostis canadensis, moose habitat, nonmetric multidimensional scaling.
Res. Pap. PNW-RP-553 Estimating consumer willingness to pay a price premium for Alaska secondary wood products, by G.H. Donovan, D.L. Nicholls (448 Kb)
Dichotomous choice contingent valuation survey techniques were used to estimate mean willingness to pay (WTP) a price premium for made-in-Alaska secondary wood products. Respondents were asked to compare two superficially identical end tables, one made in China and one made in Alaska. The surveys were administered at home shows in Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Sitka in March and April 2002. Results indicated that, on average, respondents were willing to pay an additional $82 for the Alaskamade table, above a base price of $50. The 95 percent confidence bounds on this estimate of mean WTP are $68.10 and $96.10. Survey design and sample demographics are discussed as possible upward biases on the mean WTP for the Alaskamade table. Despite these possible biases, we concluded that place of manufacture is a significant competitive advantage for Alaska secondary wood product manufacturers marketing their products in Alaska.
Keywords: Secondary manufacturing, furniture, willingness to pay, contingent valuation, marketing, Alaska.
Res. Pap. PNW-RP-552 Temporal and spatial changes in soil carbon and nitrogen after clearcutting and burning of an old-growth Douglas-fir forest, by J.A. Antos, C.B. Halpern, R.E. Miller, K. Cromack, Jr., M.G. Halaj (1.04 MB)
We used 135 permanent plots (4 m2) nested within 15 blocks (121 m2) to quantify changes in concentration and spatial variation of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in the mineral soil (0- to 10-cm depth) after logging and broadcast burning of an old-growth, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forest. Before harvest, surface soils averaged total C of 7.2 percent, total N of 0.19 percent, extractable NH4 +-N of 5.2 µg/g, extractable NO3 --N of 0.19 µg/g, and pH of 5.3. Samples collected 9 months after burning showed a 26-percent decline in concentration of total C, but a 5-percent increase in concentration of total N. Concentrations of extractable mineral N (NH4 +-N + NO3 --N) increased to five time initial levels but returned to preharvest levels 1 year later. The coefficient of variation in extractable mineral N more than doubled after burning. Two and 3 years after burning, extractable N showed a significant and increasingly strong negative relation with plant biomass suggesting that N concentration was measurably reduced by plant uptake. Most variation in soil C and N before harvest occurred at small spatial scales (within and among 2- by 2-m plots); logging and broadcast burning had little effect on this pattern.
Keywords: Broadcast burning, soil carbon, soil nitrogen, soil variability, coast Douglas-fir, clearcutting.
Res. Pap. PNW-RP-551 Bulk density and soil resistance to penetration as affected by commercial thinning in northeastern Washington, by Johanna D. Landsberg, Richard E. Miller, Harry W. Anderson, Jeffrey S. Tepp (1.30 Mb)
Bulk density and soil resistance to penetration were measured in ten, 3- to 11-ha operational units in overstocked, mixed-conifer stands in northeast Washington. Resistance was measured with a recording penetrometer to the 33-cm depth (13 in) at 10 stations on each of 8 to 17, 30.5-m-long, randomly located transects in each unit. Subsequently, different combinations of felling and yarding equipment were used to thin eight units; no combination was replicated. Two units remained as nonharvested controls. Soil measurements were repeated after harvest. Most trails were designated, others were supplemental, especially where designated trails were spaced at 40 m (130 ft) (center to center). Trails occupied 6 to 57 percent of the area of harvested units. In the 15- to 25-cm depth, average resistance to penetration on trails increased by 500 kPa or more in six of the eight units. Drier soil in the after-harvest sampling on the flat terrain may have contributed to increased resistance. Bulk density on trails after harvest (fall 1999) averaged 3 to 14 percent greater than that in nontrail portions. Area and severity of soil compaction were less on steep terrain than on flat terrain, probably because soil textures were sandier. Whether compaction was sufficiently severe to hinder root penetration or reduce tree growth is unknown. The absence of replication precluded statistical testing for differences among the several combinations of harvesting equipment and trail spacing.
Keywords: Soil strength, penetration resistance, cone penetrometer, bulk
density, commercial thinning, northeast Washington, ashy soils, yarding
equipment, soil disturbance.
Res. Pap. PNW-RP-550 Assessing values of air quality and visibility at risk from wildland fires, by Sue A. Ferguson, Steven J. McKay, David E. Nagel, Trent Piepho, Miriam L. Rorig, Casey Anderson, Lara Kellogg (Part A: 2.87 Mb, Part B: 3.34 Mb)
To assess values of air quality and visibility at risk from wildland fire in the United States, we generated a 40-year database that includes twice-daily values of wind, mixing height, and a ventilation index that is the product of windspeed and mixing height. The database provides the first nationally consistent map of surface wind and ventilation index. In addition, it is the longest climate record of mixing height in the country. We built the database into an interactive ventilation climate information system that allows users to assess risk based on frequency patterns of poor, marginal, fair, and good ventilation conditions.
Keywords: Ventilation climate information system, ventilation index, air quality, visibility, mixing height, windspeed, wind.
Res. Pap. PNW-RP-545 Disturbance departure and fragmentation of natural systems in the interior Columbia basin, by Wendel J. Hann, Michael J. Wisdom, and Mary M. Rowland (1.48 Mb)
We integrated landscape data from science assessments of the interior Columbia basin (basin) into one variable that functions as a robust index of departure from native conditions. This variable, referred to as the disturbance departure and fragmentation index, is a spatially explicit measure of landscape quality and resiliency. Primary causes of departure and fragmentation include fire exclusion, timber harvest, mining, oil and gas development, livestock grazing, invasive species, road networks, and the interface of these activities with agricultural and urban development. We derived four classes of the disturbance departure and fragmentation index: very high, high, moderate, and low. Very high departure and fragmentation was associated with low-elevation subwatersheds dominated by agricultural and urban lands. High departure and fragmentation was found in subwatersheds containing a mix of agricultural lands with low-elevation forests, woodlands, or rangelands. Subwatersheds with moderate departure and fragmentation were associated with low- to mid-elevation forests, woodlands, or rangelands in public ownership. Subwatersheds with low departure and fragmentation typically occurred at higher elevations, on public lands within or near wilderness areas, roadless areas, or national parks. Because the disturbance departure and fragmentation index represents the composite effects of management activities that do not mimic native or natural processes, the index appears useful as a planning tool for integrated restoration of wildland landscapes.
Keywords: Disturbance departure, fragmentation, historical range of variability, interior Columbia basin, land use planning, landscape ecology, resiliency, similarity index, wildland landscapes.
US Forest Service - Pacific Northwest Research Station