USDA Forest Service

Pacific Northwest Research Station

Pacific Northwest Research Station
333 SW First Ave.
Portland, OR 97204

(503) 808-2100

US Forest Service


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-484 Northwest Forest Plan: outcomes and lessons learned from the Northwest economic adjustment initiative by Harriet H. Christensen, Terry L. Raettig, and Paul Sommers, tech. eds.
This collection of papers examines implementation of the Northwest Forest Plan economic adjustment initiative (NWEAI). Experiences in the three states (California, Oregon, and Washington) are reviewed. Related research, key economic development issues, and potential of using the NWEAI model elsewhere also are discussed.

Keywords: Northwest Forest Plan, Northwest Economic Adjustment Initiative, Pacific Northwest, community development, economic development.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-483 Revised estimates for direct-effect recreational jobs in the interior Columbia River basin by Lisa K. Crone and Richard W. Haynes

This paper reviews the methodology used to derive the original estimates for direct employment associated with recreation on Federal lands in the interior Columbia River basin (the basin), and details the changes in methodology and data used to derive new estimates. The new analysis resulted in an estimate of 77,655 direct-effect jobs associated with recreational activities on Federal lands in the basin. This estimate is a little over one-third of the previous estimate. The new estimated direct-effect recreational jobs amount to 4.48 percent of the total estimated jobs in the basin in 1994. This is still slightly larger than the estimated percentage of jobs in ranching, mining, and lumber and wood products combined (3.53 percent) in the basin. The intent of the original analysis is clarified, limitations of the data are brought forward, a cross-sectional analysis is conducted, and suggestions for future research are provided.

Keywords: Recreation, employment, Columbia River basin.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-476 Handbook to strategy 1 fungal taxa from the Northwest Forest Plan by Michael A. Castellano, Jane E. Smith, Thom O’Dell, Efrén Cázares, and Susan Nugent.

There are 234 fungal species listed in the record of decision (ROD) for amendments to Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management planning documents within the range of the northern spotted owl. There are four strategies to established guidelines for the survey and management of various organisms, including amphibians, mammals, bryophytes, mollusks, vascular plants, lichens, arthropods, and fungi. Strategy 1 (S1) entailed compiling all known distribution and ecological information on 147 fungus species. Other strategies convey protection or encourage the collecting of additional geographic and habitat information. Upon further taxonomic examination of the S1 fungal species, it was determined that only 135 separate species existed, with the others reduced to synomomy. Most of these S1 fungal species are poorly known and uncommon to rare. A few S1 fungal species were revealed to be much more common than previously thought. This handbook was designed to facilitate understanding of the life history of all S1 and protection buffer species and to aid in their discovery and identification. Each species is represented by a condensed description, a set of distinguishing features, and information on substrate, habitat, and seasonality. We also present a list of known sites within the range of the northern spotted owl, a distribution map and additional references to introduce the available literature on a particular species. A set of artificial taxonomic keys is presented to aid the worker in identification. A partially illustrated glossary helps introduce the novice to mycological terms.

Keywords: Mycology, mushrooms, sequestrate fungi, truffles, biodiversity, monitoring, rare fungi, forest ecology.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-475 Western juniper drying project summaries, 1993-96 by Scott Leavengood and Larry Swan

Based on the results of tests performed during the 3-year period covered by this project, it seems that checking and splitting in juniper can be reduced by (1) carefully choosing logs to minimize large knots, spiral grain, and taper; (2) careful treatment of logs after harvest, such as end-coasting and sawing logs as soon as possible after felling; (3) minimizing material with large knots (over one-half inch) and pith; (4) drying thinner, narrower, and shorter boards; (5) using moderate kiln schedules (lower initial temperatures, higher initial relative humidities, and longer times); and (6) finger-jointing and putting emphasis on products that require shorter, narrower, and thinner lumber than commonly produced in the Pacific Northwest.

Keywords: Western juniper drying, western juniper moisture loss, western juniper kiln drying, western juniper saw-dry-rip program, western juniper warping and splitting, western juniper moisture meter factors.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-474 Trends in key economic and social indicators for Pacific Northwest states and counties by Terry L. Raettig

Local (county) variations in key social and economic indicators are important in Oregon and Washington. Covered employment, wage and salary, unemployment, and population data for 1987 through 1997 showed regional trends in these indicators, which are compared with national trends. Future updates will be published in the “Production, Prices, Employment, and Trade in Northwest Forest Industries” series from the Pacific Northwest Research Station.

Keywords: Social and economic indicators, covered employment, wage and salary, unemployment, population, Oregon, Washington.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-473 Opportunities for conservation-based development of nontimber forest products in the Pacific Northwest by Bettina von Hagen and Roger D. Fight
The contribution of the nontimber forest products industry in the Pacific Northwest is described and analyzed from economic, social, and ecological perspectives. The promise of replacement for declining timber harvests has been largely unmet. On the other hand, nontimber forest products harvesting provides opportunities to people with the fewest options–recent immigrant groups and residents of economically distressed communities. In addition, the current economic contribution of nontimber forest products may be considerably less than the future potential gain under management regimes that emphasize both timber and nontimber products.

Keywords: Nontimber forest products, special forest products, community development, employment, income.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-471 NetWeaver for EMDS user guide (version 1.1): a knowledge base development system by Keith M. Reynolds

This guide describes use of the NetWeaver knowledge base development system. Knowledge representation in NetWeaver is based on object-oriented fuzzy-logic networks that offer several significant advantages over the more traditional rule-based representation. Compared to rule-based knowledge bases, NetWeaver knowledge bases are easier to build, test, and maintain because the underlying object-based representation makes them modular, which allows designers to gradually evolve complex knowledge bases from simpler ones. Modularity also allows interactive knowledge base debugging at any and all stages of knowledge base development. Fuzzy knowledge provides a formal and complete calculus for knowledge representation that is less arbitrary than the confidence factor approach used in rule-based systems and much more parsimonious than bivalent rules.

Keywords: NetWeaver, knowledge base, fuzzy logic, decision support.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-470 EMDS users guide (version 2.0): knowledge-based decision support for ecological assessment by Keith M. Reynolds

The USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station in Corvallis, Oregon, has developed the ecosystem management decision support (EMDS) system. The system integrates the logical formalism of knowledge-based reasoning into a geographic information system (GIS) environment to provide decision support for ecological landscape assessment and evaluation. The knowledge-based reasoning schema of EMDS uses an advanced object- and fuzzy logic-based prepositional network architecture for knowledge representation. The basic approach has several advantages over more traditional forms of knowledge representations and facilitates evaluation of complex, abstract topics. Modern ecological and natural resource sciences have developed numerous mathematical models to characterize relations among ecosystem states and processes, but it is more typical that knowledge of ecosystems is more qualitative in nature. Approximate reasoning, as implemented in fuzzy logic, extends the capability to reason with the types of imprecise information typically found in natural resource science.

Keywords: Ecosystem management, ecological assessment, knowledge base, decision support, geographic information system, economic analysis, ecosystem states, ecosystem processes.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-467 Harvesting costs for management planning for ponderosa pine plantations by Roger D. Fight, Alex Gicqueau, and Bruce R. Hartsough

The PPHARVST computer application is Windows-based, public-domain software used to estimate harvesting costs for management planning for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) plantations. The equipment production rates were developed from existing studies. Equipment cost rates were based on 1996 prices for new equipment. Harvesting systems include a cut-to-length harvester-forwarder system, a whole-tree/log-length skidder system, and a skyline cable system. Harvesting costs can be estimated for both clearcutting and partial cutting for trees ranging from 3 to 250 cubic feet. Cost estimates are in U.S. dollars per 100 cubic feet.

Keywords: Costs (logging), logging economics, timber management planning, young-growth stands, ponderosa pine.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-466 Proceedings of workshop on bark beetle genetics: current status of research by Jane L. Hayes and Kenneth F. Raffa, technical editors
This proceedings contains contributions from each author or group of authors who presented their current research at the bark beetle genetics workshop held 17-18 July 1998 on the campus of the University of Wisconsin in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. This was the second meeting on this subject; the first was held in 1992. The subject of bark beetle genetics is of growing, international interest; researchers from Austria, Hungary, and Mexico, as well as from across the United States have contributed to this proceedings. The topics covered included molecular approaches to genetic analysis of bark beetles, genetic structure of bark beetle populations, variability in ecologically important traits: effects on beetle fitness, and systematics of bark beetles.

Keywords: Scolytidae, molecular genetics, genetic variation, behavior, pheromones, natural enemies, host selection, population dynamics, phylogeny, systemactics.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-465 Timber harvesting, processing, and employment in the Northwest Economic Adjustment Initiative region: changes and economic assistance by Terry L. Raettig and Harriet H. Christensen

The Northwest Economic Adjustment Initiative (NWEAI) provides economic assistance to a region including western Washington, western Oregon, and northern California. Timber harvests have fallen markedly in this region since 1990. The forest products industry is the largest manufacturing sector in the region, and employment had followed the downward trend in timber harvest. There are important differences in the declines in timber harvest, employment, and the importance of the forest products industry at the county level. The NWEAI is a significant initiative designed to coordinate and manage Federal economic assistance efforts in the region.

Keywords: Timber harvest, employment, economic assistance, Northwest Economic Adjustment Initiative.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-464 Western juniper in eastern Oregon by Donald R. Gedney, David L. Azuma, Charles L. Bolsinger, and Neil McKay

A 1988 inventory of western juniper in eastern Oregon was intensified to meet the increased need for information beyond that available in previous inventories. A primary sample, using aerial photos, recorded crown cover and ownership for all juniper forest and savanna lands in eastern Oregon. A secondary sample of field plots was established in juniper forests. Maps and statistics of change during the last half of the 20th century are shown and were based on past inventories and historical records. Large-scale maps of the past and present range of juniper and their occurrence in relation to ownership, elevation, precipitation, and soils are included.

Keywords: Western juniper, Oregon (eastern), statistics (forest), forest surveys.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-463 The effects of thinning and similar stand treatments on fire behavior in western forests by Russell T. Graham, Alan E. Harvey, Theresa B. Jain, and Jonalea R. Tonn

In the West, thinning and partial cuttings are being considered for treating millions of forested acres that are overstocked and prone to wildfire. The objectives of these treatments can include tree growth redistribution, tree species regulation, timber harvest, wildlife habitat improvement, or wildfire hazard reduction to name a few. Thinning can have both positive and negative impacts on crown fire potential, and unless the surface fuels created by using these treatments are themselves treated, intense surface wildfire may result, likely negating the positive effects of reducing crown fire potential. The best general approach for managing wildfire damage appears to be managing tree density and species composition with well-designed silvicultural systems at a landscape scale that include a mix of thinning, surface fuel treatments, and prescribed fire with proactive treatment in areas with high risk to wildlife.

Keywords: Silviculture, forest management, prescribed fire, selection, forest fuels, crown fire.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-462 Place assessment: how people define ecosystems by Steven J. Galliano and Gary M. Loeffler

Understanding the concepts of place in ecosystem management may allow managers to more actively inventory and understand the meanings that people attach to the lands and resources within their command. Because place assessment has not been used operationally in past large-scale evaluations and analyses, it was necessary for the interior Columbia basin to apply theories based on available literature. These theories were used within two large test areas inside the project boundaries. From the test area experiences, it was apparent that the most appropriate scale for place assessment was at the community level.

Keywords: Place assessment, place themes, place concepts.


Gen Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-460 Use of risk assessment panels during revision of the Tongass Land and Resource Management Plan by Charles G. Shaw III
This paper describes the process used to conduct the 16 risk assessment panels and a subsistence working group held during revision of the Tongass land management plan. It provides an overview of how results form the panels were used by forest managers in plan-related decisionmaking, discusses some reactions to the effort, and identifies some opportunities to improve the process. The panel results provided estimates of the relative risk that implementation of a range of alternative approaches to management of the Tongass National Forest would pose to the continued persistence across the landscape of an array of species or resources and estimates of potential socioeconomic effects on communities. As anticipated, results from these risk assessment panels became an integral component of the effects analysis section of the environmental impact statement that provided the context for successfully completing the Tongass Land and Resource Management Plan.

Keywords: Forest planning, effects analysis, National Forest Management act, old-growth forest, forest policy, Tongass National Forest, socioeconomic issues, southeast Alaska, subsistence, wildlife population viability, fisheries sustainability, well-distributed populations.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-459 Influence of stream characteristics and grazing intensity on stream temperatures in eastern Oregon by S.B. Maloney, A.R. Tiedemann, D.A. Higgins, T.M. Quigley, and D.B. Marx

Stream temperatures were measured during summer months, 1978 to 1984, at 12 forested watersheds near John Day, Oregon, to determine temperature characteristics and to assess effects of three range management strategies of increasing intensity. Maximum stream temperatures on four watersheds exceeded 24 °C, the recommended short-term maximum for rainbow trout and chinook salmon. Although highest temperatures were observed in the most intensively managed watersheds, the effect of range management strategy was not definitive. It was confounded by watershed characteristics and about 100 years of grazing before initiation of this study.

Keywords: Forested watersheds, grazing management strategies, grazing intensity, fisheries, fish habitat, chinook salmon, steelhead trout, cutthroat trout, Dolly Varden trout.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-458 Historical and current forest and range landscapes in the interior Columbia River basin and portions of the Klamath and Great Basins. Part 1: Linking vegetation patterns and landscape vulnerability to potential insect and pathogen disturbances by Paul F. Hessburg, Bradley G. Smith, Scott D. Kreiter, Craig A. Miller, R. Brion Salter, Cecilia H. McNicoll, and Wendel J. Hann

This study characterizes recent historical and current vegetation composition and structure of 337 subwatersheds selected by stratified random draw on all ownerships within the interior Columbia River basin. Landscape structure and composition, patterns, and vulnerability of forests to 21 major insect and pathogen disturbances were compared. Historical and current vegetation maps were derived from interpretations of 1932-66 and 1981-93 aerial photographs, respectively. Results of change analyses are reported for province-scale ecological reporting units.

Keywords: Landscape characterization, ecological assessment, vegetation patterns, interior Columbia River basin, Klamath Basin, Great Basin, ecosystem health, vegetation pattern-disturbance process interactions, insect and disease disturbance, landscape ecology, ecosystem processes, potential natural vegetation modeling, vegetation change, fire effects.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-457 The Forest Ecosystem Study: background, rationale, implementation, baseline conditions, and silvicultural assessment by Andrew B. Carey, David R. Thysell, and Angus W. Brodie
The Forest Ecosystem Study (FES) came about as an early response to the need for innovative silvicultural methods designed to stimulate development of late-successional attributes in managed forests--a need ensuing from the exceptional and longstanding controversies over old-growth forests and endangered species concerns in the Pacific Northwest. In 1991, scientists with the FES applied experimental, variable density thinning to even-aged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga mensiesii (Mirbel) Franco) forests on the Fort Lewis Military Reservation in western Washington after having first accumulated extensive baseline data on arboreal rodents, small mammals, trees, and other vascular plants, and fungi. Since thinning, further research elements have been incorporated into the FES, including top rot fungal inoculation and soil food web response to thinnings, in addition to the ongoing prey base, vegetation, fungal, and silvicultural assessment investigations. We present study background, rationale, baseline conditions, and selected preliminary responses, as well as a silvicultural assessment of the variable-density thinning.

Keywords: Variable-density thinning, Pacific Northwest, Douglas-fir, biodiversity, northern flying squirrel, truffle, Forest Ecosystem Study, experimental silviculture.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-456 Sampling and estimating recreational use by Timothy G. Gregoire and Gregory J. Buhyoff

This report provides guidance on the execution of sampling strategies to estimate recreation use. The procedures described are tools designed for use by resource managers, supervisors, and others in positions of responsibility for the allocation and maintenance of recreational resources.

Keywords: Sampling strategies, confidence intervals, stratified sampling.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-455 Assessing the effects of fire disturbance on ecosystems: a scientific agenda for research and management by Daniel L. Schmoldt, David L. Peterson, Robert E. Keane, James M. Lenihan, Donald McKenzie, David R. Weise, and David V. Sandberg
A team of fire scientists and resource managers compiled scientific recommendations for future activities on (1) links among fire effects, fuels, and climate; (2) fire as a large-scale disturbance; (3) fire-effects modeling structures; and (4) managerial concerns, applications, and decision support. Although more large-scale fire-effects data clearly are needed, it would be better to improve and link existing models that simulate fire effects in a georeferenced format while integrating empirical data as they become available. This effort should focus on improved communication between modelers and managers and on predicting the interactions of fire and potential climatic change at very large spatial scales.

Keywords: Analytic hierarchy process, ecological disturbance, fire effects, large-scale fire, modeling.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-454 Modeling change in potential landscape vulnerability to forest insect and pathogen disturbances: methods for forested watersheds sampled in the midscale interior Columbia River basin assessment by Paul F. Hessburg, Bradley G. Smith, Craig A. Miller, Scott D. Kreiter, and R. Brion Slater

In the interior Columbia River basin (the basin) midscale ecological assessment, historical and current vegetation composition and structure of 337 randomly sampled subwatersheds were mapped, including portions of the Klamath and Great Basins. Landscape patterns, vegetation structure and composition, and landscape vulnerability to 21 major forest insect and pathogen disturbances were compared. This paper reports on methods used to characterize historical and current patch and subwatershed vulnerability to each of the disturbance agents.

Keywords: Ecological assessment, interior Columbia River basin, ecosystem health, insect disturbance, pathogen disturbance, vegetation vulnerability, ecosystem processes, succession processes.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-453 Developing measures of socioeconomic resiliency in the interior Columbia basin by Amy L. Horne and Richard W. Haynes
Measures of socioeconomic resiliency were developed for the 100 counties studied in the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. These measures can be used for understanding the extent to which changes in policies for management of Federal lands may affect socioeconomic systems coincident with those lands. Sixty-seven percent of the basin’s residents live in areas of high resiliency; these represent only 20 percent of the land base. Whereas 68 percent of the land base has low socioeconomic resiliency, only 18 percent of the people live in those areas. These findings allow land mangers to gauge the impacts of land management actions.

Keywords: Well-being, Federal land management, ecosystem management.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-452 Monitoring and evaluating citizen-agency interactions: a framework developed for adaptive management by Bruce Shindler, Kristin Aldred Cheek, and George H. Stankey
By using the general principles of adaptive management–which stress monitoring, evaluation, and adjustment–this report provides a comprehensive framework to help agency personnel and citizens to work together. This report describes the adaptive management concept, summarizes research about the goals and characteristics of successful public involvement, and lays out a framework for monitoring and evaluating citizen-agency interactions. Although designed for adaptive management settings, the framework is well suited to other situations where improving these interactions is a priority.

Keywords: Adaptive management, public involvement, monitoring, evaluation.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-450 National strategic plan: modeling and data systems for wildland fire and air quality by David V. Sandberg, Colin C. Hardy, Roger D. Ottmar [and others]
Air pollution from fires used to manage ecosystems is an issue in many parts of the country. Land managers are rapidly expanding the use of fire for managing ecosystems, while air resource managers are accelerating efforts to reduce the impacts of fires on air quality. This plan provides a conceptual design as a first step toward balancing these goals, identifies information needs to support management and policy development, and identifies strategies for developing and implementing models and data systems.

Keywords: Fire, air, wildland fire, fire effects, fire management, fire modeling, air quality, air pollution, air resource management, data systems.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-449 Watershed restoration, jobs-in-the woods, and community assistance: Redwood National Park and the Northwest Forest Plan by Christopher E. DeForest

There are many parallels between the 1978 legislation to expand Redwood National Park and the Northwest Forest Plan, which together with the Northwest Economic Adjustment Initiative formed the 1993 Pacific Northwest Initiative. In both situations the Federal Government sought to promote retraining for displaced workers, to undertake watershed assessment and restoration work, and to assist communities with economic planning, grants, and transitions. Both of these efforts point out the inherent conflicts between the economic and ecological objectives of watershed restoration. No one wants to have to choose between reducing sediment and reducing unemployment in coastal forests.

Keywords: Watershed restoration, community assistance, Redwood National Park.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-448 Guide to monitoring smoke exposure of wildland firefighters by Tim E. Reinhardt, Roger D. Ottmar, and Michael J. Hallett

Fire managers and safety officers concerned with smoke exposure among their fire crews can use electronic carbon monoxide (CO) monitors to track and prevent overexposure to smoke. Commonly referred to as dosimeters, these lightweight instruments measure the concentration of CO in the air firefighters breathe. This guide outlines the protocol developed for sampling smoke exposure among firefighters with CO dosimeters. It provides a basic template for managers and safety officers interested in establishing their own smoke-exposure monitoring program.

Keywords: Fire, smoke, human health, occupational exposure, safety, smoke exposure.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-447 An assessment the effects of human-caused air pollution on resources within the interior Columbia River basin by Anna W. Schoettle, Kathy Tonnessen, John Turk, John Vimont, and Robert Amundson
An assessment of existing and potential impacts to vegetation, aquatics, and visibility within the Columbia River basin due to air pollution was conducted as part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. This assessment examined the current situation and potential trends due to pollutants such as ammonium, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulates, carbon, and ozone. Ecosystems and resources at risk are identified, including certain forests, lichens, cryptogamic crusts, high elevation lakes and streams, arid lands, and class I areas. Current monitoring data are summarized and air pollution sources identified. The assessment also includes a summary of data gaps and suggestions for future research and monitoring related to air pollution and its effects on resources in the interior Columbia River basin.

Keywords: Atmospheric deposition, acid rain, air pollution, aquatic effects, class I areas, terrestrial effects, sensitive species, visibility.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-446 A guide to ozone injury in vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest by Sarah Brace, David L. Peterson, and Darci Bowers

Controlled-exposure studies have shown that several plant species native to the Pacific Northwest are potentially sensitive to elevated ambient concentrations of tropospheric ozone. This guide reports visual and descriptive documentation of ozone injury symptoms for common tree, shrub, and herbaceous species in the region. Symptoms observed in leaves of these species include chlorotic mottle, pigmented stipple, necrosis, and premature senescence, with considerable variation among and within species. Resource managers and scientists can use the photo documentation in this guide to identify potential injury to plants in the field, and to distinguish ozone injury from other pathological conditions.

Keywords: Air pollution, forest health, forest pathology, ozone, vegetation injury.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-445 Climatology of the interior Columbia River basin by Sue A. Ferguson
This work describes climate in each of three major ecological zones and 13 ecological reporting units in the interior Columbia River basin by using paleoclimatic evidence and historical records. Also, some impacts of changes in climatic means and trends on ecological conditions in the basin are described.

Keywords: Climate, Columbia River basin, climatology, climate variability, temperature, precipitation, snowfall.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-444 Maturation and reproduction of northern flying squirrels in Pacific Northwest forests by Lisa J. Villa, Andrew B. Carey, Todd M. Wilson, and Karma E. Glos

Northern flying squirrels are the primary prey of northern spotted owls and are important dispersers of fungal spores in Pacific Northwest forests. Despite the importance of these squirrels in forest ecosystems, information is lacking on life history and methods for determining age and reproductive condition. In the laboratory, we measured epiphyseal notch, femur length, rostrum length, least interorbitat breadth, rump pelage length and color, and tail width of dead squirrels. We analyzed weight, pelage color, and reproduction for field-collected data from live squirrels. We also described age-class differences in facial features and tail size and shape in the Puget Trough. A birth-year-based age-class system had several advantages over the traditional juvenile-subadult-adult class system. Three age classes can be distinguished in the field, each with varying degrees of accuracy. Reproduction of northern flying squirrels can be reliably determined in live-trapping studies. Enlargement, turgidity, and redness of genitalia are detectable signs of reproductive activity, whereas reduction, flaccidity, and paleness signal inactivity for both males and females. Nipple length is the best indicator for distinguishing sexual maturity of inactive females. The most effective way to avoid mistakes and ambiguity about age and reproductive patterns were similar among the Puget Trough, Olympic Peninsula, and northern Cascade studies in Washington. Squirrels in the Coast Range of Oregon, however, displayed different patterns. Regional populations differed in proportion of females reproductively active, the reproductive maturity of yearling females, and survivorship across age classes. Regional variations suggest accurate assessment of age and reproduction is a prerequisite for understanding flying squirrel ecology.

Keywords: Northern flying squirrel, maturation, reproductive biology, Oregon, Washington, live-trapping, necropsy.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-443 Monitoring biodiversity: quantification and interpretation by William L. Gaines, Richy J. Harrod, and John F. Lehmkuhl

Monitoring is necessary for an adaptive management approach and the successful implementation of ecosystem management. In this document, we present and approach to monitoring biological diversity at different levels of ecological organization: landscapes, community or ecosystem, population or species, and genetic. Our approach involves identifying monitoring questions derived from regional, provincial, or watershed assessments; identifying monitoring methods; and analyzing and interpreting data to integrate into management strategies. Examples of monitoring methods, data analysis, and interpretation are provided for each level of ecological organization, beginning with the most inclusive level, the landscape. Our objective is to provide land mangers with an approach and examples to develop biodiversity monitoring strategies.

Keywords: Biodiversity, monitoring, genetic diversity , landscape diversity, species diversity, ecosystem diversity.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-442 National projections of forest and rangeland condition indicators: a supporting technical document for the 1999 RPA assessment by John Hof, Curtis Flather, Tony Baltic, and Stephen Davies

The 1999 forest and rangeland condition indicator model is a set of independent econometric production functions for environmental outputs (measured with condition indicators) at the national scale. This report documents the development of the database and the statistical estimation required by the particular production structure with emphasis on two special characteristics of environmental output production processes: (1) the independence of ecological systems from human control, and (2) the broad scale spatial nature of these processes. Resolution of data deficiencies also is examined. Finally, the model projections are presented and discussed by using national-scale maps.

Keywords: Resource interactions, land management planning, econometric production functions, modeling, environmental outputs.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-440 Northern spotted owl effectiveness monitoring plan for the Northwest Forest Plan by Joseph Lint, Barry Noon, Robert Anthony [and others]

This report describes options for effectiveness monitoring of long-term trends of the northern spotted owl to evaluate the success of the Northwest Forest Plan in arresting downward population trends, and in maintaining and restoring the habitat conditions necessary to support viable owl populations on Federal lands. It describes options to address monitoring questions. A process to report status and trend results is presented that would provide a reference document for decisionmakers during periodic land use plan reviews.

Keywords: Northwest Forest Plan, effectiveness monitoring, northern spotted owl, suitable habitat, demographic study, remote sensing, GIS, landscape, stand-scale, predictive model.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-439 Marbled murrelet effectiveness monitoring plan for the Northwest Forest Plan by Sarah Madsen, Diane Evans, Thomas Hamer [and others]

This report describes options for effectiveness monitoring of long-term status and trends to evaluate the success of the Northwest Forest Plan in maintaining and restoring marbled murrelet nesting habitat and populations on Federal lands. A two-phase approach is described that begins with developing reliable and repeatable processes for identifying nesting habitat and overcoming logistical and statistical problems before habitat and population trends can be accurately assessed. The second phase involves application of these processes to mapping and quantifying nesting habitat, and establishing populations in the Forest Plan area. The potential use of predictive models to evaluate the relation between terrestrial habitat use and conditions and population densities and trends is described along with a process for data analysis and reporting.

Keywords: Northwest Forest Plan, effectiveness monitoring, marbled murrelet, nesting habitat, marine surveys, remote sensing, GIS, landscape, stand-scale, habitat assessment, predictive model.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-437 The strategy and design of the effectiveness monitoring program for the Northwest Forest Plan by Barry S. Mulder, Barry R. Noon, Hartwell H. Welsh [and others]

This report describes the strategy and design of an effectiveness monitoring program for the Northwest Forest Plan. The described premise is to implement a prospective and integrated habitat-based approach to monitoring that provides a gradual transition from an intensive, individual species-resource focus to a more extensive, ecosystems approach by using surrogates to measure the pattern and dynamics of habitat structure in place of monitoring biota. The report describes the scientific framework for monitoring, starting with conceptual models, that is the basis for designing plans for monitoring specific resources.

Keywords: Northwest Forest Plan, effectiveness monitoring, adaptive management, regional scale, habitat basis, conceptual model, integration, summary report, interpretive report, institutionalize.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-410 Macroecology, paleoecology, and ecological integrity of terrestrial species and communities of the interior Columbia basin and northern portions of the Klamath and Great Basins by B.G. Marcot, L.K. Croft, J.F. Lehmkuhl [and others]

This report present information on biogeography and broad-scale ecology (macroecology) of selected fungi, lichens, bryophytes, vascular plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates of the interior Columbia River basin and adjacent areas. Rareplants include many endemics associated with local conditions. Potential plant and invertebrate bioindicators are identified. Species ecological functions differ among communities and variously affect ecosystem diversity and productivity. Species of alpine and subalpine communities are identified that may be at risk from climate change. Maps of terrestrial integrity are presented.

Keywords: Macroecology, paleoecology, ecological integrity, terrestrial communities, ecosystems, wildlife, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, vascular plants, invertebrates, arthropods, mollusks, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, endemism, interior Columbia River basin, Klamath Basin, Great Basin.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-407 Biological characteristics and population status of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in southeast Alaska by Samuel C. Lohr and Mason D. Bryant

Existing data were reviewed to determine the range and distribution of steelhead in southeast Alaska, biological characteristics were summarized, and population status of steelhead stock was determined. Unique or sensitive stocks that may require consideration in planning land management activities are identified within the range of data reviewed. Data sources were personal communications, reports, and unpublished data files of state and Federal agencies. Only eight winter-run stocks in southeast Alaska and two summer-run stocks in southeast Alaska had sufficient data to evaluate biological characteristics.

Keywords: Steelhead, stock assessment, Alaska, management, biological review.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-403 Assessing economic tradeoffs in forest management by Ernie Niemi and Ed Whitelaw.

Method is described for assessing the competing demands for forest resources in a forest management plan by addressing economics values, economic impacts, and perceptions of fairness around each demand. Economics trends and forces that shape the dynamic ecosystem-economy relation are developed. The method is demonstrated through an illustrative analysis of a forest-management decision in the southern Appalachian Mountains.

Keywords: Economics, timber sales, endangered species, natural amenities, recreation.


Res. Note PNW-RN-540 Historic resource production from USDA Forest Service Northern and Intermountain Region lands

This paper presents long-term resource production from National Forests in the Northern and Intermountain Regions, Regions 1 and 4, respectively. A historical data series of timber harvest and grazing levels on National Forests and lumber production and prices for these regions is developed. Significant trends within the data set are examined. A simple model based on derived demand concepts is tested to identify periods of possible structural change within the stumpage markets for the Region 1 data. This information provides a baseline data set of interest to policymakers and researchers involved in analyzing the long-term resource production for Regions 1 and 4.


Res. Note PNW-RN-539 Effect of fuels reduction on American martens and their prey by Evelyn L. Bull and Arlene K. Blumton

The effect of a fuels reduction treatment on small mammals was investigated in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and mixed conifer stands by trapping and track surveys in northeastern Oregon. The number of red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) tracks decreased in all lodgepole pine treatments after harvest. Only two snowshoe hare tracks were detected in harvested stands of mixed conifer, compared with 46 tracks in unharvested stands. In most treatments the number of red-backed voles (Clethrionomys gapperi) decreased and chipmunks (Tamius spp.) increased after harvesting.

Keywords: Fuels reduction, American marten, small mammals, squirrels, hares, downed wood.


Res. Note PNW-RN-538 Different perspectives on economic base by Lisa K. Crone, Richard W. Haynes, and Nicholas E. Reyna
Two general approaches for measuring the economic base are discussed. Each method is used to define the economic base for each of the counties included in the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project area. A more detailed look at four selected counties results in similar findings from different approaches. Limitations of economic base analysis also are noted.

Keywords: Economic base, functional economies, Columbia River basin.


Res. Note PNW-RN-537 Chip prices as a proxy for nonsawtimber prices in the Pacific Northwest by Richard W. Haynes

The heavy focus on Pacific Northwest saw-log prices makes it difficult for land managers to develop price expectations for stands that contain both sawtimber and nonsawtimber logs. This raises the question: What is a reasonable proxy (or measure) for non-sawtimber prices in the Pacific Northwest? One such proxy is export chip prices, which serve as a reasonable measure of value in three ways. First, they reflect the underlying trends in all chip markets. Second, they reflect expected patterns of market arbitrage. Third, they help to explain seasonality and cyclical variation in the chip market.

Keywords: Prices, stumpage, nonsawtimber, sawtimber, proxy, chip prices.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-521 Sand lance: a review of biology and predator relations and annotated bibliography edited by Martin D. Robards, Mary F. Willson, Robert H. Armstrong, and John F. Piatt

Sand lance (Ammodytes) constitute a major prey for at least some populations of over 100 species of consumer, including 40 species of birds, 12 species of marine mammals, 45 species of fishes, and some invertebrates. Variation in the availability of sand lance (and other forage fishes) can have major effects on the breeding success and survival of their predators. Commercial fishing and other pressures on sand lance populations potentially have ramifying effects on many species of wildlife.

Keywords: Sand lance, Ammodytes, predator/prey, seabirds, marine mammals, forage fish, predatory fish, Alaska.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-519 Land use in the Lake States region: an analysis of past trends and projections of future changes by Thomas E. Mauldin, Andrew J. Plantinga, and Ralph J. Alig

This paper presents the historic trends and future projections of forest, farm, and urban land uses for the Lake States of Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Since the 1950s, forest and farm land have been decreasing, and urban and other land uses have been increasing throughout the Lake States. Forest, crop, and pasture land have decreased in the region by 3.2, 5.4, and 4.0 million acres, respectively, whereas urban and other land uses have increased by 2.1 and 10.3 million acres, respectively. These decreases and increases were most pronounced during the 1950s and 1980s. Land rends and land quality were used to make projections of the distribution of Wisconsin's future land uses. In Michigan and Minnesota, forest and farm land use projections were based on the extrapolation of historic trends, and urban land use projections were adopted from Wisconsin's econometric projections; land rents and land quality were not used for all projections because of insufficient data. The projections of land uses through 2050 are consistent with historic trends--forest and agricultural lands will decline, and urban and other land uses will increase. Timberland is projected to be reduced by 13 percent in Wisconsin, 11 percent in Michigan, and 10 percent in Minnesota.

Keywords: Land use change, urban development, land rents, timberland area projections.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-518 Changes in the non-Federal land base involving forestry in western Oregon, 1961-94 by Daolan Zheng and Ralph J. Alig

Temporal and spatial analyses of land use changes on non-Federal lands in western Oregon between 1961 and 1994 were conducted. Two distinct changes in the region were a loss of forest lands and an increase in urban areas. Neither the rates of change over time nor the spatial distribution of land converted to urban use was evenly distributed in the region. The influence of socioeconomic factors, such as ownership, population growth, and personal income, as well as physical factors of land such as slope and location, on land use changes also was examined.

Keywords: Land use change, forestry, urban development, periodic surveys, temporal and spatial analyses.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-517 Growth and yield of western larch under controlled levels of stocking in the Blue Mountains of Oregon by P.H. Cochran and K.W. Seidel

Repeated thinning to five growing-stock levels resulted in widely differing tree sizes and volumes per acre after 30 years. Largest trees but the least cubic-volume yield per acre were produced in the heaviest thinning level, whereas highest board-foot yields were found in intermediate thinning levels. Partial defoliation by larch casebearer (Coleophora laricella Hübner), drought, and top damage from ice occurred, and site trees grew less in height than expected during the 30-year study. Curvilinear increases in periodic annual increments of both basal area and cubic volume generally occurred with increasing stand density, but increments dropped off at the highest stand densities for some periods. Anticipated patterns for these increments were found after fitting a model that included stand density index, height increments of site trees, and dummy variables for periods as independent variables. Heavy thinning did not increase the age of culmination of cubic-volume mean annual increment as expected. Thinning stands of larch to densities as low as 50 percent of "normal" results in little loss of basal-area growth, a moderate loss in volume production, and a large increase in tree diameter. Thinning is necessary in many larch stands to maintain vigorous, rapidly growing trees. Thinning levels will greatly affect the appearance of future stands.

Keywords: Stocking levels, bole area, stand density index, growth, yield, larch case-bearer, ice damage, future stands.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-516 Old-growth forests in the Sierra Nevada: by type in 1945 and 1993 and ownership in 1993 by Debby Beardsley,Charles Bolsinger, Ralph Warbington (1.25 Mb)

This report presents estimates of old-growth forest area in the Sierra Nevada by forest type in 1993 and 1945 and by old-growth stand characteristics as they existed in 1993. Ecological old-growth definitions for each forest type are used.

Keywords: Old growth, inventory, forest stands, forest area, California, National Forests, Douglas -fir, white fir, red fir, Jeffrey pine, ponderosa pine, lodgepole pine, mixed conifer, mountain hemlock, mixed subalpine.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-515 Woodpecker use and fall rates of snags created by killing ponderosa pine infected with dwarf mistletoe by Catherine G. Parks, David A. Conklin, Larry Bednar, and Helen Maffei

Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) killed as part of a forest management project to reduce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium sp.) in the Gila National Forest, New Mexico, were evaluated for wildlife value. One hundred and two dwarf mistletoe-infected trees were killed by basal burning, basal girdling, or by a combination of the two. Trees began to fall within 2 years. Most killed trees (96 percent) served as forage substrate for woodpeckers. Twenty percent of the trees contained woodpecker nest cavities and stood longer than small-diameter trees. The probability of cavity presence was best predicted by regression that included diameter and decay class. Standing life of the snag was not a significant predictor of cavity presence. The use of predictive models for analyzing the utility of snag-creation treatments is discussed.

Keywords: Girdling, fire-killed trees, wildlife trees, cavity nesters, Arceuthobium sp.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-514 Using estimates of natural variation to detect ecologically important change in forest spatial patterns: a case study, Cascade Range, eastern Washington by Paul F. Hessburg, Bradley G. Smith, and R. Brion Salter
Using hierarchical clustering techniques, we grouped subwatersheds on the eastern slope of the Cascade Range in Washington State into ecological subregions by similarity of area in potential vegetation and climate attributes. We then built spatially continuous historical and current vegetation maps for 48 randomly selected subwatersheds from interpretations of 1938-49 and 1985-93 aerial photos, respectively, and attributes cover types, structural classes, and potential vegetation types to individual patches by modeling procedures. We estimated a natural range of variation (NRV) in spatial patterns of patch types by subwatersheds and five forested ecological subregions. We illustrate how NRV information can be used to characterize the direction and magnitude of vegetation change occurring as a consequence of management.

Keywords: Natural range of variation, forest health, space-for-time substitution, ecosystem restoration, ecological monitoring, landscape patterns, spatial pattern analysis.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-513 Comparative effects of precommercial thinning, urea fertilizer, and red alder in a site II, coast Douglas-fir plantation by Richard E. Miller, Edmund L. Obermeyer, and Harry W. Anderson

We varied the number of red alder retained with 300 Douglas-fir per acre on a high-quality site in coastal Oregon. Alder densities of 0, 20, 40, and 80 per acre were tested. Our fifth treatment eliminated nitrogen-fixing alder, but substituted nitrogen fertilizer. Treatment 6 had neither thinning nor alder control. Treatments were randomly assigned within each of three blocks in a 9-year-old plantation. In pure Douglas-fir plots, gross volume growth was similar for nonfertilized plots, indicating no measurable benefits of additional nitrogen. In mixed stands, red alder reduced yield of associated Douglas-fir but not yield of combined species. Similar comparisons are needed at other locations, especially those with known nitrogen deficiency.

Keywords: Mixed stands, competition (plant), Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii, red alder, Alnus rubra, thinning, nitrogen fertilization, volume growth.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-512 Thirty-five-year growth of ponderosa pine saplings in response to thinning and understory removal by P.H. Cochran and James W. Barrett

Diameter increments for individual trees increased curvilinearly and stand basal area increments decreased curvilinearly as spacing increased from 6.6 to 26.4 feet. Average height growth of all trees increased linearly, and stand cubic volume growth decreased linearly as spacing increased. Large differences in tree sizes developed over the 35 years of study with various spacing treatments. Plots without understory grew more during the first 20 years of study but soil quality decreased. During the last 15 years, growth rates on plots without understory were not superior to plots with understory when adjusted to common basal areas and volumes. Growth rates for the largest trees on the plots were decreased by competition from smaller trees. After 35 years, total cubic volume yield decreased linearly as spacing increased but Scribner board-foot yields increased curvilinearly as spacing increased, and spacings of 13.2, 18.7, and 26.4 feet produced about the same board-foot yield. Live crown ratios increased with increasing spacing, primarily because of increased height growth. Twenty years after thinning, crown width increased curvilinearly as spacing increased and was greater in the absence of understory. Crown cover appeared to be linearly related to stand density index. Mortality was so low that there was no practical difference in net and gross-year mean annual growth of cubic volume and basal area. Spacing for precommercial thinnings on similar sites should be at least 14 feet and much higher spacings could be warranted if managers wish to grow stands of large-diameter trees with low mortality from bark beetles.

Keywords: Thinning, understory vegetation, growth, ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa, saplings.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-511 Land use in Maine: determinants of past trends and projections of future changes by Andrew J. Plantinga, Thomas Mauldlin, and Ralph J. Alig

About 90 percent of the land in Maine is in forests. We analyzed past land use trends in Maine and developed projections of future land use. Since the 1950s, the area of forest in Maine has increased by almost 400,000 acres; however, the trends differ among ownerships, as the area of nonindustrial private timberland declined by 800,000 acres since 1950, while private industrial area rose by 681,000 acres. We used econometric analyses to identify variables affecting land allocation, such as population density. Estimated equations were used to generate decadal land use projections to 2050. Our projections showed that private timberland area will decline by almost 3 percent by 2050, with urban areas increasing by 556 percent.

Keywords: Land use change, urban development, land rents, timberland area projections.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-510 Electronic (fenceless) control of livestock by A.R. Tiedeman, T.M. Quigley, L.D. White [and others]

During June and August 1992, a new technology designed to exclude cattle from specific areas such as riparian zones was tested. The technology consisted of an eartag worn by an animal that provides an audio warning and electrical impulse to the ear as the animal approaches the zone of influence of a transmitter. The transmitter emits a signal that narrowly defines the desired area of exclusion. Tests on cattle indicated that the technology is about 90 percent effective at excluding animals.

Keywords: Grazing animals, grazing control, animal training, electrical stimulus, audio stimulus.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-508 Growth of ponderosa pine thinned to different stocking levels in central Oregon: 30-year results by P.H. Cochran and James W. Barrett

Periodic annual increments (PAI) for survivor diameters decreased curvilinearly with increasing stand density. Gross volume and basal areas PAIs increased linearly with increasing stand density. Growth of basal area and volume for the 20 largest trees per acre were reduced curvilinearly with increasing stand density. Bark beetles were the primary cause of mortality. No mortality occurred at the lowest density.

Keywords: Growth, yield, mortality, thinning, pandora moth, mountain pine beetle.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-507 Vegetation resources inventory of southwest Alaska: development and application of an innovative, extensive sampling design by Willem W.S. van Hees

An assessment of the vegetation resources of southwest Alaska was made by using an inventory design developed by the Pacific Northwest Research Station. Satellite imagery (LANDSAT MSS), high-altitude aerial photography, and ground sampling were the major components of the design. Estimates of area for all land cover classes in the southwest region were produced. Additionally, more intensive sampling pro-vided data for estimation of timber resources in the forest land component. Field data collection was conducted from 1991 to 1994, and data compilation progressed through 1995.

Keywords: Vegetation surveys, forest surveys, timber resources, statistics (forest), Alaska (southwest).


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-500 Six-year growth of Douglas-fir saplings after manual or herbicide release from coastal shrub competition by William I. Stein

Survival and growth of planted Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) saplings and associated shrubs were observed for 6 years after seven release treatments had been applied, side by, side on four areas in the Coast Range of Oregon. Four times as much Douglas-fir volume as in the control was produced by one manual cutting of shrubs, which also represented the best economic return. Diversity of competing species temporarily increased after the release treatments.

Keywords: Reforestation, Pacific Northwest, Coast Ranges, manual release, herbicide release, Douglas-fir, red alder, seedling survival, seedling growth, glyphosate, fosamine, competing vegetation, salmonberry, thimbleberry, red elder, sword-fern.

US Forest Service - Pacific Northwest Research Station
Last Modified: Thursday,13October2016 at17:01:57CDT

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site. Untitled Document