USDA Forest Service

Pacific Northwest Research Station

Pacific Northwest Research Station
333 SW First Ave.
Portland, OR 97204

(503) 808-2100

US Forest Service

1998 Publication Abstracts

Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-441 Integrating science and policy in natural resource management: lessons and opportunities from North America by Roger N. Clark, Errol E. Meidinger, and others

Public pressure to resolve complex and often controversial issues (e.g., health, energy, natural resources) has resulted in policymakers and policy implementers seeking better knowledge on which to base their decisions. As a result, scientists have become more actively engaged in the creation and evaluation of policy. During the last several decades, the literature on the general practice of policy formulation, and issues surrounding the role of science and scientists, has grown markedly.

Keywords: Resource management, policy, science.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-438 Late-successional and old-growth forest effectiveness monitoring plan for the Northwest Forest Plan by Miles Hemstrom, Thomas Spies, Craig Palmer, Ross Keister, John Teply, Phil McDonald, and Ralph Warbington

This report presents options for long-term effectiveness monitoring of late-successional and old-growth forests under the Northwest Forest Plan. It describes methods to answer questions about how much late-successional forest exists on Federal land, its pattern, how it is changing, anf if the Forest Plan is providing for its conservation and management. A periodic process for reporting the status and trend of late-successional and old-growth forests on Federal lands is described, and links to finer scale monitoring of silvicultural and salvage effects on late-successional and old-growth forests are provided.

Keywords: Northwest Forest Plan, effectiveness monitoring, late-successional and old-growth forest, vegetation map, remote sensing, grid plots, landscape, GIS, stand-scale, trend model.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-436 Log export and import restrictions of the U.S. Pacific Northwest and British Columbia: past and present by Christine L. Lane

Export constraints affecting North American west coast logs have existed intermittently since 1831. Recent developments have tended toward tighter restrictions. National, Provincial, and State rules are described.

Keywords: Log exports, log imports, log embargoes, log trade restrictions, history.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-434 Air quality climate in the Columbia River basin by Sue A. Ferguson (1.84 Mb)

Aspects of climate that influence air quality in the Columbia River basin of the Northwestern United States are described. A few, relatively simple, analytical tools were developed to show the spatial and temporal patterns of mean-monthly mixing heights, precipitation scavenging, upper level and surface trajectory winds, and drought that inhibit pollution uptake. Also, potential changes in air quality from the effects of increasing greenhouse gases are discussed.

Keywords: Air quality, climate, air pollution, mixing heights, trajectory winds, pollution trajectories, pollution scavenging, drought, global change, Columbia River basin.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-433 A review of the insects and mites found on Taxus spp. with emphasis on western North America by John D. Lattin

Forty-two species of insects and mites found on Taxus are discussed, including all those known to occur in North America, of which 27 are known to occur in western North America. Thirty-eight species are phytophagous, and 28 of these have sucking, rather than chewing, mouth parts. It is suggested that some of the chemical compounds present in the foliage of different species of Taxus select against chewing insects and favor fluid-feeding arthropods.

Keywords: Taxus, yew, insects, mites, host plant association, North America.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-430 The Starkey habitat database for ungulate research: construction, documentation, and use by Mary M. Rowland, Priscilla K. Coe, Rosemarry J. Stussy [and others]

The Starkey project began in 1987 in the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range in northeast Oregon. Researchers are studying effects of forest management on interactions and habitat use of mule deer (Odocoileus odocoileus hemionus), elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and cattle. A habitat database was compiled by using geographic information systems to examine relations between environmental variables and ungulate distribution and habitat use. The database contains over 100 variables associated with water, soils, roads, topography, and structural features. Database construction and documentation are described for 1987-97. Error estimates for variables and simple applications of the database also are presented.

Keywords: Habitat database, GIS, spatial data, ungulates, mule deer, elk, cattle, northeast Oregon, Starkey project, accuracy assessment, Blue Mountains.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-429 The human factor in ecological research: an annotated bibliography compiled by Carol Eckhardt

As a bibliography of annotated references addressing interdisciplinary environmental research, the collection reviews a broad spectrum of literature to illustrate the breadth of issues that bear on the role of humankind in environmental context. Categories of culture, environmental law, public policy, environmental valuation strategies, philosophy, interdisciplinary research, landscape theory, design, and management will be useful to interdisciplinary research designers, land use planners and managers, academic faculty and students, environmental stakeholder groups, and anyone with interest in people-and-environment relations.

Keywords: Human ecology, interdisciplinary research methods, ecosystem research, interdisciplinary bibliography, environmental policy, landscape design, landscape management.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-428 Estimating historical snag density in dry forests east of the Cascade Range by Richy J. Harrod, William L. Gaines, William E. Hartl, and Ann Camp
Estimating snag densities in pre-European settlement landscapes (i.e., historical conditions) provides land managers with baseline information for comparing current snag densities. We propose a method for determining historical snag densities in the dry forests east of the Cascade Range. Basal area increase was calculated from tree ring measurements of old ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex Laws.) trees. Historical stand structure was assumed to be open and parklike, with low densities favoring larger diameter trees, and it was considered relatively stable at the landscape level.

Keywords: Snag density, ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa, snag recruitment, historical forest structure.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-427 Research publications of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Cascade Range, Oregon: 1998 supplement by Donald L. Henshaw, Sarah E. Greene, and Tami Lowry, compilers
This bibliography updates the list of publications, abstracts, theses, and unpublished reports included in "Research Publications of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Cascade Range, Oregon, 1948 to 1986" (General Technical Report PNW-GTR-201) and "Research publications of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Cascade Range, Oregon: 1988 Supplement" (General Technical Report PNW-GTR-223). Citations are referenced under appropriate keywords.

Keywords: Bibliography, experimental forest, research publications.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-425 Estimating snag and large tree densities and distributions on a landscape for wildlife management by Lisa J. Bate, Edward O. Garton, and Michael J. Wisdom

This publication provides efficient and accurate methods for sampling snags and large trees on a landscape to conduct compliance and effectiveness monitoring for wildlife in relation to the habitat standards and guidelines on National Forests. Included online are the necessary spreadsheets, macros, and instructions to conduct all surveys and analyses pertaining to estimation of snag and large tree densities and distributions at the subwatershed scale. The methods focus on optimizing sampling effort by choosing a plot size appropriate for the specific forest conditions encountered. Two methods are available for density analysis. Method one requires sampling until a desired precision level is obtained for a density estimate. Method two is intended for use in areas that have low snag densities compared to the Forest plan targeted densities. After taking a minimum of 60 samples, one may test for a significant difference between the estimated and targeted densities. In addition, data can be used to calculate a distribution index. The value obtained from the distribution index indicates whether the current distribution of target snags and large trees across a subwatershed is adequate to meet the habitat needs of territorial cavity nesters and other wildlife species. Wildlife use also may be evaluated.

Keywords: Density, distribution, foraging, nesting, monitoring, sampling technique, snag, large tree, woodpecker, wildlife management, wildlife use.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-424 Management experiments for high-elevation agroforestry systems jointly producing matsutake mushrooms and high-quality timber in the Cascade Range of southern Oregon by James F. Weigand

Experimental prescriptions compare agroforestry systems designed to increase financial returns form high-elevation stands in the southern Oregon Cascade Range. The prescriptions emphasize alternative approaches for joint production of North American matsutake mushrooms (also known as North American pine mushrooms; Tricholoma magnivelare) and high-quality timber. Other agroforestry byproducts from the system are ornamental boughs, pine cones, and Christmas trees. Management practices concentrate on increasing the physiological efficiency and vigor of trees, and on altering leaf area index, tree species composition, and stand age-class structure to increase matsutake production.

Keywords: Tricholoma magnivelare, agroforestry systems, nontimber forest products, adaptive management, Abies magnifica, Tsuga mertensiana,Pinus contorta, Pinus monticola,Abies amabilis, tree pruning.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-423 Stumpage prices, volume sold, and volumes harvested from the National Forests of the Pacific Northwest Region, 1984 to 1996 by Richard W. Haynes

Two measures of stumpage prices and timber volumes from individual National Forests have been compiled for the Pacific Northwest Region, USDA Forest Service. The first measure is the price and volume of timber sold (1984-96) for the major species for each National Forest. The second measure is the price and volume of timber harvested (1988-96) from individual National Forests. Several price-related issues are discussed including seasonality in the data, the role of prices in monitoring market activity, and the impact of the recent drop in Forest Service timber sales.

Keywords: Stumpage price, National Forests, monitoring, Pacific Northwest.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-422 A landscape plan based on historical fire regimes for a managed forest ecosystem: the Augusta Creek study by John H. Cissel, Frederick J. Swanson, Gordon E. Grant [and others]

The Augusta Creek project was initiated to establish and integrate landscape and watershed objectives into a landscape plan to guide management activities within a 7600-hectare (19,000-acre) planning area in western Oregon. Primary objectives included the maintenance of native species, ecosystem processes and structures, and long-term ecosystem productivity in a federally managed landscape where substantial acreage was allocated to timber harvest. Landscape and watershed management objectives and prescriptions were based on an interpreted range of natural variability of landscape conditions and disturbance processes. A dendrochronological study characterized fire patterns and regimes over the last 500 years. Changes in landscape conditions throughout the larger surrounding watershed due to human uses (e.g., roads in riparian areas, widespread clearcutting, a major dam, and portions of a designated wilderness and an unroaded area) also were factored into the landscape plan. Landscape prescriptions include an aquatic reserve system comprised of small watersheds distributed throughout the planning area and major valley-bottom corridor reserves that connect the small-watershed reserves. Where timber harvest was allocated, prescriptions derived from interpretations of fire regimes differ in rotation ages (100 to 300 years), green-tree retention levels (15- to 50- percent canopy cover), and spatial patterns of residual trees. General prescriptions for fire management also were based on interpretations of past fire regimes. All these prescriptions were linked to specific blocks of land to provide an efficient transition to site-level planning and project implementation. Landscape and watershed conditions were projected 200 years into the future and compared with conditions that would result from application of standards, guidelines, and assumptions in the Northwest Forest Plan prior to adjustments resulting from watershed analyses. The contrasting prescriptions for aquatic reserves and timber harvest (rotation lengths, green-tree retention levels, and spatial patterns) in these two approaches resulted in strikingly different potential future landscapes. These differences have significant implications for some ecosystem processes and habitats. We view this management approaches as a potential postwatershed analysis implementation of the Northwest Forest Plan and offer it as an example of how ecosystem management could be applied in a particular landscape by using the results of watershed analysis.

Keywords: Landscape ecology, landscape management, landscape planning, fire history, range of history, range of historical variability, watershed analysis, fire ecology.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-421 The effects of wind disturbance on temperate rain forest structure and dynamics of southeast Alaska by Gregory Nowacki and Marc G. Kramer

Wind disturbance plays a fundamental role in shaping forest dynamics in southeast Alaska. Recent studies have increased our appreciation for the effects of wind at both large and small scales. Current thinking is that wind disturbance characteristics change over a continuum dependent on landscape features (e.g., exposure, landscape position, topography). Data modeling has revealed the existence of distinct wind disturbance regimes, grading from exposed landscapes where recurrent, large-scale wind events prevail to wind-protected landscapes where small-scale canopy gaps predominate. Emulating natural disturbances offers a way to design future management plans and silvicultural prescriptions consistent with prevailing ecological conditions.

Keywords: Tongass National Forest, old growth, forest development, small-scale canopy gaps, large-scale catastrophic blowdown, predictive windthrow model, silviculture.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-420 Forest carnivore conservation and management in the Columbia basin: issues and environmental correlates by Garry W. Witmer, Sandra K. Martin, and Rodney D. Sayler

This report assesses the status and conservation and management issues of 11 forest carnivore species. The species differ in status: most have declined in numbers and range because of human activities. Efforts to reverse trends include new approaches to reduce conflicts with humans, research to better define habitat needs and monitor populations, formation of expert carnivore working groups, and use of Geographic Information System models to predict impacts of habitat modification. Long-term preservation of large carnivores in the region is problematic unless conflicts and forest fragmentation are reduced.

Keywords: Coyote, gray wolf, bobcat, lynx, mountain lion, fisher, marten, river otter, wolverine, grizzly bear, black bear, forest management, conservation biology, fragmentation.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-418 (1998) Pacific Northwest ecoclass codes for seral and potential natural communities, by Frederick C. Hall

Lists codes for identification of potential natural communities (plant association, habitat types), their seral status, and vegetation structure in and around the Pacific Northwest. Codes are a six-digit alphanumeric system using the first letter of tree species, life-form, seral status, and structure so that most codes can be directly interpreted. Seven appendices list various groupings of codes, a synonymy with plants listing, and a complete list with descriptions of all codes wiht references to publications.

Keywords: Plant association, seral, structure, potential natural community, Pacific Northwest.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-417 Economies in transition: an assessment of trends relevant to management of the Tongass National Forest by Stewart D. Allen, Guy Robertson, and Julie Schaefers

This assessment focuses on the regional and community economies of southeast Alaska. A mixed economy composed of subsistence harvest and cash income characterizes the economies of most of the region's rural communities. Although the share of natural resource-based sectors relative to total employment has remained fairly consistent over the past 10 years, the mix of industries within that share is shifting, with substantial declines in the wood products sector and substantial increase in the recreation-tourism sector. Regional trends are reflected very differently across boroughs, and even more so across the many small communities of southeast Alaska; analysis at diverse scales was needed to accurately portray economic and social conditions and trends.

Keywords: Tongass National Forest, southeast Alaska, economic trends, employment, subsistence, communities.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-411 Breeding design considerations for coastal Douglas-fir by Randy Johnson

The basic principles of designing forest tree breeding programs are reviewed for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Pacific Northwest. Breeding populations are discussed given current and future breeding zone sizes and seed orchard designs. Seed order composition is discussed for potential genetic gain and maintaining genetic diversity in the forest. Mating and field testing designs are described and compared. Recommendations of the Breeding Zone and Restructuring Cooperatives Working Group of the Northwest Tree Improvement Cooperative are presented.

Keywords: Douglas-fir, multiple populations, sublines, breeding population, gene resource populations, mating designs, selection, breeding seed orchard.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-402 Recurrent outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth in the Malheur National Forest: a case history by R.R.Mason, D.W. Scott, M.D. Loewen, and H.G. Paul

Characteristics of an outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth in 1991-95 on the Burns Ranger District of the Malheur National Forest (eastern Oregon) are given and compared with an earlier infestation in the same area in 1963-65. Results of monitoring with pheromone traps, evaluating populations by sampling larvae, and predicting trends in defoliation are reported in detail for the latest outbreak. Findings of this analysis, and the recurrent behavior of tussock moth outbreaks in general, reinforce the importance of maintaining a system for detection, evaluation, and prediction in the managing of Douglas-fir tussock moth populations in the future.

Keywords: Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata, insect outbreaks, sampling insects, pheromone traps, population monitoring.


Res. Note PNW-RN-526 Reduction in growth of pole-sized ponderosa pine related to a pandora moth outbreak in central Oregon by P.H. Cochran

A pandora moth (Coloradia pandora Blake) outbreak began in 1991 in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex. Laws) spacing study area that also included scattered sugar pine (P. lambertiana Dougl). The relation of defoliation to five tree spacings (with and without understory vegetation) was examined, and stand growth reduction due to defoliation was estimated. Defoliation generally increased as spacing varied from 2 to 5.7 meters and then decreased as spacing increased to 8 meters. Partial defoliation in 1992 reduced stand volume growth, while partial defoliation in 1994 reduced height growth during 1990-94. Basal area growth of nondefoliated sugar pine and partially defoliated ponderosa pine in the outbreak area was compared with basal area growth of nondefoliated ponderosa pine trees outside the outbreak area. Ratios of annual basal area increments for nondefoliated trees to annual increments of partially defoliated ponderosa pine sharply increased after the outbreak. Basal area annual increments of sample trees were reduced by 25 percent in the first growing season after defoliation (1992), 30 percent the second year after defoliation (1993), and 63 percent after the second defoliation (1994).

Keywords: Ponderosa pine, pandora moth, defoliation, growth loss.


Res. Note PNW-RN-525 Examples of mortality and reduced annual increments of white fir induced by drought, insects, and disease at different stand densities by P.H. Cochran

A white fir (Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl.) levels-of-growing-stock study testing four density levels (20, 30, 40, and 50 percent of the normal stand density index value of 560) was established in spring 1983. The study was installed in four widely separated blocks in the Deschutes and Fremont National Forests. Annual increments were slightly lower than expected for the first period (1983-85) and much lower than expected during the second period (1986-90). Mortality between 1991 and 1995 destroyed the study. A general drought prevailed over the study areas from the late 1970s to the mid 1990s. Mortality on block 1 in the Deschutes National Forest was attributed to root rot (Armillaria ostoyea (Romagnesi) Herink) and western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman). Mortality on blocks 2, 3, and 4 was attributed to fir engraver beetles (Scolytus ventralis LeConte). Results raise doubts about maintaining stands with a large component of white fir on these sites over a long period. Managed stands on these sites should have a strong ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) component and should be managed by using ponderosa pine stocking curves.

Keywords: White fir, stand density, mortality, periodic annual increments, fir engraver, Modoc budworm, root rot, western spruce budworm.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-509 Composition, volume, and prices for major softwood lumber types in western Oregon and Washington, 1971-2020 by James F. Weigand

An analysis of lumber prices provided regressions for price trends during the period 1971-95 for composite lumber grades of major timber species found in the Pacific Northwest west of the crest of the Cascade Range. The analysis included data for coastal Douglas-fir and hem-fir lumber; coastal and inland Pacific Northwest ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines; and inland Pacific Northwest and Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine. Future prices of grades by species group are based on these price trends and the latest average regional lumber values established in the Timber Assessment Market Model (TAMM). Land managers can use the price projections in financial analysis of management practices that are designed to affect the quality of timber resources.

Keywords: Douglas-fir, hem-fir, lodgepole pine, lumber prices, ponderosa pine, price trends, sugar pine, Timber Analysis Market Model, western white pine, white woods.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-505 Phytomass in Southeast Alaska, by Bert R. Mead

Phytomass tables are presented for the southeast Alaska archipelago. Average phytomass for each sampled species of tree, shrub, grass, forb, lichen, and moss in 10 forest and 4 nonforest vegetation types is shown.

Keywords: Alaska, southeast, phytomass, biomass, inventory, wildlife, plant ecology.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-503 Lodgepole pine development after early spacing in the Blue Mountains of Oregon by P.H. Cochran and Walter G. Dahms

Seedlings were thinned to spacings of 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 feet and measured periodically. Twenty-seven years later, height did not differ with spacing, but diameters increased while basal areas and cubic volumes decreased as spacing widened. Simulation to age 100 years indicated that about the same board volume would be produced at 12-, 15-, and 18-foot spacings.

Keywords: Growth, lodgepole pine, Blue Mountains (Oregon), thinning, simulation.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-502 Thirty-five-year growth of thinned and unthinned ponderosa pine in the Methow Valley of Northern Washington. 1998 by P.H. Cochran and James W. Barrett

It is commonly expected that self-thinning will maintain small-diameter stands at near-normal densities and allow dominant trees to grow reasonably well. Such self-thinning did not occur in the unthinned plots in a thinning study in the Methow Valley of north-ern Washington, even though there was some suppression-caused mortality. A shift from suppression-caused mortality to insect-caused mortality took place when quad-ratic mean diameters (QMDs) reached 7 inches. Thinning to spacings wider than 9.3 feet reduced growth of both basal area and cubic volume per acre but greatly in-creased growth of board-foot volume per acre, and diameter and height growth. Peri-odic annual increments of cubic volume and QMD are curvilinearly related to stand density index. Growth of the largest 62 trees per acre was clearly reduced by the presence of smaller trees in the stand. Density management is necessary to produce reasonable growth rates of even the largest trees in the stand and to speed the de-velopment of mid-seral conditions.

Keywords: Growth, mortality, mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, seral condition, forest health, thinning.


US Forest Service - Pacific Northwest Research Station
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