is the genetic language of life. Composed of four repeating chemical units or 'bases' (G, A, T, C),DNA is a blueprint that encodes the information for RNA, protein, enzymes, and complete organisms.
is a DNA sequence that encodes specific traits. These can include traits like color, height, vigor, yield, and disease resistance. Plants can have over 50,000 genes, with each gene made of about 1600 bases.
is the total DNA complexity in an organism. Genomes contain all genes, as well as DNA of unknown function. The genome of Sugar Pine exceeds 30 billion bases, making it 10 times larger than the human genome!
is the active form of gene. It serves as a messenger, translating information from genes into functional products. As genes are needed, their RNA accumulates in the tissues they are used, providing clues to how they function.
is the sum of all gene expression in an organism. Transcriptomes change across tissues, time and conditions, and reflect overall health and fitness. Transcriptomes provide snapshot of stress, health and fitness responses.
is the use of gene expression markers to identify a physiological state. Markers can signal if an organism is healthy or challenged by stresses like heat, aridity or disease.
Massively Parallel Sequencing
is a method of DNA or RNA sequencing that parallelizes the sequencing process, producing millions of sequences simultaneously. These high-throughput technologies lower the cost of DNA sequencing to the point that genome-scale data can be provided for nearly any project. Multiplexed MPS extends these usefulness of the technology by sequencing multiple barcoded genomes simultaneously, making it ideal for population studies.