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Vine maple is a common shrub in moist areas under dense canopy.
This native blackberry is an important winter food for deer in areas with little winter snow. There are male and female plants; only the female plants produce berries.
These catkins will shed pollen in the spring when they redden and lengthen (5 to 12 cm long).
This big mollusk is common in the humid forest floor of the Olympic Peninsula. It feeds on mushrooms, plant matter, fungi and animal waste. Note the optic tentacles (the eyes are small black dots at the end of the tentacles).
Understory view of the thinned matrix area in the Bait research plot.
Dense canopy at the skip area in the Snow White research plot.
The species common name is based on the red-orange color that develops when the inner bark and wood are damaged.
Big snags are part of the features of mature old-growth forests.
(Thinned matrix at Snow White).
Old-growth habitat complexity
Riparian habitat at an old-growth forest in the Olympic Peninsula.
(Quinault Rain Forest Trail, WA).
View of the control area covered by wood sorrel (Oxalis oregana) at the Clavicle research plot.
These defensive spines can cause severe skin irritation.
Epiphytes on a branch
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Many mosses and lichens are epiphytes (plants which grow on another plant). Lichens are a partnership (symbiotic relationship) between fungus and algae. The algae does the photosynthesizing while the fungus provides the support and protection for the plant.
Forest floor view
A non-native common foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) grows among native understory species like wood sorrel (Oxalis oregana) and deer fern (Blechnun spicant).
Lichen growing on the forest floor
Some lichens can tolerate the most extreme conditions: like absent or excessive radiation, or fluctuating temperatures and humidity.
This shrub grows in dense, almost impenetrable clusters because of their spiny stems and leaves. It has a great variety of medicinal uses by Native American cultures.