Table 1. Research elements grouped by major study area.
1. MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
Demonstrate and test management practices for rehabilitating
and maintaining ecosystems.
Develop demonstration areas to showcase alternative management
Determine social and economic consequences and tradeoffs (ecologic
and economic) of management practices.
Determine the effect of management practices on insects, diseases,
and natural enemies (practices such as: silvicultural toolsthinning,
cutting practices; salvage of dead and dying trees; prescribed
burning; chemical applicationsaerial applied insecticides,
Evaluate water management practices such as riparian buffers and
utilization for effect on water quality, riparian areas, and fish.
Determine cumulative effects/assimilative capacity of riparian
systems on water quality.
Develop cost-effective ecosystem monitoring strategies.
Identify critical factors in managing noxious weeds.
Identifying sites at risk and determine factors which keep us
from achieving noxious weed control.
Determine effects of management practices on potential resource
Evaluate linkages of landscape ecology to management practices.
Determine effects of noxious weeds on succession.
Determine social and economic consequences and tradeoffs (ecological
and economic) of ecosystem management alternatives.
Identify impacts of road systems including environmental effects
of low-impact construction practices.
Determine risks that are created on land, private and public,
from "insufficient" management.
Determine procedures to safeguard stressed ecosystems.
2. UPLAND, RIPARIAN, AND AQUATIC INTERACTION
Determine historical water quality and quantity trends, both
seasonal and annual cycles.
Determine present use and demand of water and analyze tradeoffs.
Determine impacts of water use on quality and quantity trends.
Determine interactions between upland, riparian, and aquatic
3. LANDSCAPE PATTERNS AND PROCESSES AS INFLUENCED BY DISTURBANCE
Determine how historical landscape patterns, present patterns,
and alternative future patterns compare and how trends relate
to ecosystem and landscape diversity.
Describe the natural fire regimes of the various plant associations
(extent, intensity, and frequency).
Describe the natural insect and disease population dynamics
and that of their natural enemies (include influence of drought).
4. ECOSYSTEM FUNCTION AND STRUCTURE
Determine the critical and/or limiting ecosystem functions
and structures that limit achieving sustainability (define structural
legacies that are neededmost important for the long term).
Determine the limiting factors on forest productivity, growth,
yield, regeneration, and net primary productivity.
Determine disturbance effects on structure and function, and
relate to sustainable resource productivity.
Determine what successional patterns (distribution and composition)
are required to maintain ecosystem function, structure, and process
and structural diversity (includes old-growth structural attributes).
Define the social, economic, and biological values of biodiversity.
5. FIRE EFFECTSPAST AND PRESENT
Define fire effects both in the past and under the present
conditions on biomass, air quality, plant dynamics, soils, and
wildlife and how they relate to fire intensity, seasonality, and
frequency of fire.
Identify the impacts of prescribed and wildfires on cultural resources.
Determine effects of wildfire on insects, diseases, and their
Determine effects of prescribed and wildfire on soils and microorganisms
(flora and fauna).
Determine fire effects on ecosystem function.
Air, water quality, and productivity risks.
Determine air and water quality interactions with fire and public
Determine and analyze the tradeoffs and assess risk of continued
fire suppression and of use of prescribed fire on air quality,
water quality, and site productivity.
Analyze the social, economic, and legal viability of fire as a
6. ECONOMIC AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND ADAPTABILITY
Conduct a detailed assessment of realistic development alternatives
including linkages, conflicts, and potential trade-offs. Alternatives
include rural entrepreneurship (availability of capital), recreational
development, retirement impacts (shift to retirement community),
diversification of wood-based industry; potential for rural enterprise
Evaluate potential special forest products such as mushrooms,
medicinal or extractive, which might support stand manipulations.
Determine how communities are changing and adapting due to all
forces (identify strengths and weaknesses in ability to adapt).
Determine the skills, culture, and willingness-to-change within
7. CRITICAL FACTORS FOR THREATENED, ENDANGERED & SENSITIVE
Prioritize TE&S species and determine specific information/research
needs (prioritization based on endemic species, species affected
by management activities, and politically and ecologically important
species). Autecology, synecology, determine amount of genetic
What are the critical and/or limiting factors for survival
of TE&S species (Prioritize TE&S species).
Determine if current management is adequate for addressing critical
and/or limiting factors for survival of TE&S species.
Evaluate potential for T&E species recovery under various
Define the social, economic, and biological values of TE&S
8. ALTERNATIVE FIBER UTILIZATION AND MARKETING
Identify or develop harvesting systems that are most appropriate
for the Blue Mountains.
Develop information on costs of multiple-entry logging including
costs associated with various systems and silvicultural prescriptions.
Evaluate automated harvesting systems for thinning and selective
Develop material properties for the species present in the region.
Develop reliable information on properties and value of salvaged
Complete recovery studies of salvaged logs and extend studies
to include products other than lumber.
Identify potential value-added markets for Blue Mountain species.
Develop information on use of regional species for furniture stock.
Develop market information on use of species for preservative-treated
poles and posts.
Identify systems for reliably segregating high-strength veneers
from Blue Mountain species for use in laminated veneer lumber
Improve information on effects of forest practices on quality
of wood produced.
Develop a better understanding of effects of management practices
on the development of high-quality or high-value wood products.
Develop decisionmaking tools and models for applying management
practices to optimize wood value.
Develop better information on flow of materials into various wood
9. PLANT AND ANIMAL INTERACTIONS
Determine the effect of abundant wildlife species on other
components of ecosystems.
Determine livestock interactions with the other resources.
Determine relations of species with habitat and their response
to ecosystem dynamics (i.e. successional trends and changing landscape
Describe minimum requirements of landscape connectors (habitat
linkages) to achieve ecosystem and landscape diversity.
Develop quantitative measures/models of the mixture of forest
interior and edges needed to predict how to maintain viable populations
of sensitive and important species.
Determine the effect of management practices on wildlife and biodiversity
on a landscape level (includes genetic diversity and effect on
Determine base-line information on less-studied species.
Determine the effect of intermixed public and private land management
on important wildlife habitat linkages.
Determine links between forest insects, disease, and pathogens
Define ecosystem sustainability and relate to habitat requirements
of TE&S, keystone, and featured species.
10. INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS
Identify constraints that affect a community's ability to adapt.
Determine property rights issue and implications on landscape
management (i.e., impacts on adjoining ownerships).
Evaluate the effects of laws and regulations on landscape management.
Identify methods to resolve conflicts among user groups, special
interests, and resource managers.
Develop educational methods and evaluate social acceptability
of management alternatives for addressing forest health issues.