July 2001 Brazil
USDA Forest Service International Programs
and Highlights | Fire and Environmental Change
| Sustainable Forest Management
The Brazil Program consists
of several components that are independently managed but closely coordinated
to provide the greatest possible payoff to Brazilian and United States
forest managers and forest users.
The Sustainable Forest Management
Project provides baseline biological information underlying the development
of advanced forest management strategies, providing assistance with
institution building and analysis for silviculture, environmental conservation,
and in the past ecotourism. It is closely linked with Brazilian Space
Agency (INPE) and NASA led Large-Scale Atmosphere/Biosphere project.
Silvicultural development has concentrated on the multiple advantages
of low-impact harvesting. The Forest Management Project has been focused
on the Tapajós National Forest, but also includes development and training
at Cauaxi in conjunction with the Tropical Forestry Foundation.
The Fire and Environmental
Change Project is a coordinated series of research and development activities
addressing questions of biomass burning, global change, and fire-danger
rating in Brazilian ecosystems. The project contributes remote sensing
for fire detection and mapping, and compiles inventories of fire activity
and air pollution through cooperation by the Pacific Southwest Research
Station and NASA with IBAMA and other Brazilian institutions. A fire-hazard
rating system, used to anticipate flammability and fire effects in tropical
ecosystems, is being developed by the Pacific Northwest Research Station
in collaboration with the Brazilian Space Institute and others. This
progress report, covering the six-month period of October 2000 through
March 2001, is one in a series of outputs describing the mission, scope,
activities, and accomplishments of the USDA Forest Service/USAID Program
in Brazil. Additional information can be obtained from the National
Coordinator or the Forest Service's International Programs website at:
www.fs.fed.us/global/globe/l_amer/brazil/welcome.htm A copy of this
report can be found at: www.fs.fed.us/pnw/fera/brazil/
and Environmental Change
- The Fire and Environmental
Research Applications, USDA PNW Research Station team continued a
successful and active cooperation program with Brazilian counterparts.
During the reporting period, FERA completed a final manuscript of
the Volume 1 of the Cerrado Photoseries. The manuscript has been translated
to Portuguese and will be published in English and Portuguese.
- The FERA field campaign
season in the Amazon basin was scaled down in 2001 to comply with
IBAMA's fire restrictions in the state of Mato Grosso. The group monitored
an operational slash burn site in October when the fire restrictions
- A combustion furnace was
completed and fully tested at INPE's laboratory facilities in Cachoeira
Paulista. The first combustion tests were successful. Initial combustion
experimentation with tropical biomass has started, and the laboratory
tests will be conducted though the summer. Full analysis of combustion
gases is also being conducted. Laboratory tests will provide improved
combustion rates and better smoke emission factors from Amazon forest
burning. Drs. Sandberg and Alvarado met with INPE's and UNESP's collaborators
in Cachoeira Paulista to work on the final details of the laboratory
tests and fieldwork in 2001.
- The FERA group presented
three papers at the Fire2000 conference in San Diego, California.
They also submitted a paper to the XII Congresso Brasileiro de Agrometeorologia.
During the NASA's LBA meeting in December of 2000 in San Francisco,
the work conducted by the group was accepted as part of the LBA work
in the Amazon. · FERA continues data analysis of the photo series
in the Cerrado vegetation, the combustion project in Alta Floresta,
and the risk assessment at the Floresta Nacional do Tapajos.
A plan for a short course
on thermal infrared remote sensing was completed in January 2001. The
course is designed for technical specialists from INPE, IBAMA, Brazilian
universities, and the Technical Center of the Brazilian Air Force. It
covers design and properties of infrared sensors including performance
limits, cooling methods, recent advances in detector arrays, satellite
systems, and applications for fire and natural remote sensing. The course
will be presented at the Simposio Brasilerio de Sensoriamento Remoto.
· FireMapper was tested over agricultural burning in Goiás, Tocantins
and a prescribed fire in the Reserva Biologica de IBGE in the fall of
2000. Measurements taken demonstrated the ability to interpret fire
behavior and radiant emissions for remote sensing images.
· Researchers from the University
of California and the University of Sao Paulo (USP) have acquired one
year of continuous data at the Tapajos National Forest site that will
be logged after June 2001. This site is being used to study eddy covariance
studies of carbon dioxide and water vapor flux. · During January 2001,
on a recently harvested site in the Tabajos, researchers from US Forest
Service and the University of New Hampshire measured logging residues
(coarse woody debris) generated by the harvest activity. This measurement
was taken to complement the study on the effects of harvesting on soil
properties. · Preliminary indications from the nutrient monitoring and
trace gas effects of harvesting show that timber harvesting increases
nitrous oxide and methane emissions measurably. However, when these
emissions extrapolated to a wider area, the effects of harvesting on
trace gases (expressed as a Global Warming Potential) are far smaller
than the effects from the carbon loss. · The study on the effects of
low impact logging on understory bird and bats in the FLONA Tapajos
is coming to an end. The mist net sampling was completed in November
and December 2000. · An article was written in the Folha de Sao Paulo
about the Bigleaf Mahogany Project in Southeast Para. The research efforts
are entering their 5th field season and the mahogany management project
has begun in Acre with the State Secretariat of Forestry and Extractivism
in Rio Branco. This project will investigate the costs and benefits
of extraction of mahogany with enrichment planting at large spatial
scales. · Colleagues at the Fundacao Floresta Tropical (FFT) submitted
a paper to Forest Ecology and Management entitled "Forestry Canopy Damage
and Recovery in Reduced Impact and Conventional Selective Logging in
Eastern Para, Brazil. · A paper on the use of LANDSAT data to evaluate
logging damage is nearly complete.
and Environmental Change
Remote Sensing Deployment
and Technology Transfer
The Forest Service Pacific
Southwest Research Station deployed its Airborne Sciences Aircraft to
Brazil for a four-week mission in the fall of 2000. The team tested
the new FireMapper's remote sensing system for the first time over active
fires including agricultural burning in the Cerrado in Goiás and Tocantins
and a prescribed fire at the Reserva Ecológica do IBGE at Brasília.
The FireMapper is a low-cost, thermal-infrared imaging spectrometer
for fire and ecosystem monitoring, which has been developed through
a Research Joint Venture between the Forest Service and Space Instruments
Inc. and with the support of the Working Group. FireMapper and its associated
high-resolution visible-light and near-IR cameras were also employed
to map vegetation of the Reserva and to record land use along transects
in the Cerrado north of Brasília. During this reporting period, the
first multispectral thermal infrared radiance measurements were analyzed
for Brazilian wildfires (see Figure).
The FireMapper development
is now the subject of discussions regarding a potential Tropical Fire
Mapping Mission based on a Brazilian satellite platform. The Working
Group is currently working with INPE and IBAMA to define the required
sensor performance and outline the mechanical and electrical requirements
of the proposed system.
The Experimental Climate
Prediction Center at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) continued
climate simulations begun during 1999 under the supplemental program
of fire management support to IBAMA. IBAMA has developed a source of
validation data and validations were begun for regional precipitation
forecasts. Simulations are applying a Regional Spectral Model (RSM)
of climate (see http://ecpc.ucsd.edu/projects/brazil.html) to provide
daily to seasonal predictions of fire-weather severity and assess climate
variables affecting smoke accumulation and long-term changes in forest
susceptibility to fire.
Fire and Environmental
Change The Working Group
The fire and environmental
change working group is providing technical assistance to the Government
of Brazil on issues of fire and environmental change through a multi-year
cooperation with the Brazilian Federal Institute of the Environment
and Renewable Natural Resources, IBAMA. Activities during the first
half of fiscal year 2001 involved: · Continuing analysis of remote sensing
data from the 2000 airborne campaign; · Continued simulations for IBAMA
with a regional-scale spectral climate model, which has been customized
for fire management with Internet-accessible forecasts for South America;
and · Planning for a short course in Brazil on advanced remote-sensing
Combustion and Carbon
Emissions from Tropical Biomass
The manuscript "Biomass fire
consumption and carbon release rates of rainforest clearing experiments
conducted in Northern Mato Grosso, Brazil" has been accepted for publication
in the Journal of Geophysical Research. The paper was accepted for publication
and is currently in the editorial review phase. Two more papers are
finished and will be submitted to peer reviewed journals.
Results from the FERA-INPE-UNESP
cooperation has been presented in several scientific forums in the two
countries. The group presented three papers at the Fire2000 conference
in San Diego, California. The presentations included papers on biomass
consumption in slash burnings, natural drying of logs and heat flux
in deforestations in Amazonia, and a presentation on tropical fires.
A paper was also presented at the Brazilian Congress on Thermal Engineering
and Sciences in Rio Grande do Sul. A paper on albedo and soil heat flux
before and after slash burnings in Amazonia was submitted to the XII
Congresso Brasileiro de Agrometeorologia in Fortaleza.
The group composed by FERA
and collaborators were invited to join the NASA's LBA program. During
the fall LBA meeting in San Francisco, California, the group was accepted
as part of the part of the LBA work in the Amazon.
The field campaign season
in the Amazon basin was scaled down in 2001 to comply with IBAMA's fire
restrictions in the state of Mato Grosso. The group limited the work
to monitoring an operational slash burning in October once the fire
restrictions were lifted. The last slash burning conducted during the
rainy season reflected extremely low biomass consumption. There were
no direct biomass measurements due to the unsuccessful burning pattern.
Therefore, the floristic inventory of the experimental areas, selected
during summer 2000, will finish next February.
Harvesting and burning and
research permits have been obtained from IBAMA and CNPq for the 2001
field tests. The tests will continue at the Fazenda Caiabi near Alta
Floresta. Outreach meetings were conducted in February 2001 with local
IBAMA personnel, city authorities, and university students and faculty
to explain the scope of work and objectives of the fire research. Local
authorities will visit the field experiments during the summer, and
participation of local state university faculty and students is increasing.
The Biology program from UNEMAT will continue participating with work
on the floristic inventory and assessing the effect of the burnings
in the regeneration patterns.
A combustion furnace was
completed, equipped, and fully tested at INPE's laboratory facilities
in Cachoeira Paulista. The first combustion tests were successfully
performed with logs from forests nearby Cachoeira Paulista. Initial
combustion experimentation with tropical biomass from the Amazon forest
has started. The laboratory tests will be conducted though the summer.
During the summer, field tests in Alta Floresta will be used to validate
the observations in the laboratory furnace. Full analysis of combustion
gases is also being conducted from the furnace tests. Laboratory tests
will provide improved combustion rates and better smoke emission factors
from burning Amazon forest biomass. Drs. Sandberg and Alvarado met with
INPE's and UNESP's collaborators in Cachoeira Paulista to work on the
final details of the furnace design, laboratory tests and fieldwork
Continued consultations with
IBAMA and INPE personnel to develop a fine fuel flammability model that
will be integrated to the PROARCO model to represent local ecological
and weather variability. Ground validation of PROARCO in Alta Floresta
is schedule to start during the 2001 field season in Alta Floresta.
Dr. Fernando Costa started
a postdoctoral appointment at the USDA Corvallis Forestry Sciences Laboratory.
Dr. Costa is working closely with Dr. Sandberg to develop a smoldering
combustion model that will be applicable to combustion of biomass in
different forest ecosystems. INPE, FAPESP, and the US Forest Service
are sponsoring Dr. Costa's post doctorate work.
Fire Risk in Reduced-Impact
Also, due to burning restrictions
and wet weather this year, the fieldwork at the FLONA Tapajos was scaled
down this field season. Researchers continue analyzing data on flammability
and weather monitoring at the Floresta Nacional do Tapajos. Analysis
includes data from low impact logging occurred in 1997 and 1999. The
results are being presented in scientific meetings and will be submitted
to peer-reviewed journals.
Plans for the 2001 field
season have been completed. New partnerships are being developed with
scientists participating in the NASA's LBA project at the FLONA Tapajos.
A literature review by Drs.
Alvarado and Sandberg on Logging In Tropical Forest: Literature Review
On Ecological Impacts was complete. The report was submitted to USAID
in Washington, D. C. The report is also available in PDF format from
the FERA's Internet web site (http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/fera/brazil)
Photo Series to Assess
Flammability in the Cerrado
During the reporting period,
FERA and collaborators completed a final manuscript of the Volume 1
of the Cerrado Photoseries. The manuscript has been translated to Portuguese
and will be published in the two languages. During the reporting period,
the draft of the photoseries was completed, and translated to Portuguese.
Referees in Brazil reviewed the draft. The review comments were incorporated
and the final manuscript and photos were prepared for publication.
FERA continues the collaborative
research program with the University of Brasilia and IBAMA to assess
the flammability of Cerrado ecosystems across a broad environmental
gradient. Field sites have been identifies for additional photoseries
in the cerradao and mata near Brasilia. IBAMA's authorization has been
requested to sample sites near Brasilia and in Chapada dos Guimaraes
in Mato Grosso. The fieldwork will be conducted in July 2001. This additional
work will be incorporated in a second volume of the photoseries. assessing
For the first time, research
on quantitative modeling of flaming, smoldering, and residual combustion
has been conducted in woody biomass. This bi-national research team
is conducting parallel studies on open burnings in the Amazonian forest
and at INPE's laboratory facilities. The cooperation has produced several
master theses on biomass combustion, forest structure, and floristic
inventory. Two doctoral students are currently working on the project,
and a new masters student will join the group. The bilateral cooperation
has enabled a Brazilian scientist to spend a post doctorate residence
with the USFS PNW Research Station.
The collaboration has produced
papers that are being published in refereed journals and several papers
have been presented in scientific meeting in Brazil and the United States.
The work that the group is conducting in the Amazon forest has been
recognized by the LBA project as an important component for understanding
biomass combustion and smoke emissions in the region.
F.S. Costa, C.A.G. Veras,
D.V. Sandberg, E. Alvarado, R. Gielow, A.M. Serra Jr., J.C. Santos (In
Press). Biomass fire consumption and carbon release rates of rainforest
clearing experiments conducted in Northern Mato Grosso, Brazil. Journal
of Geophysical Research.
R. Gielow, J. A. Carvalho,
D. V. Sandberg, E. Alvarado, F. S. Costa, J. C.Santos. Secagem natural
de troncos em área de derrubada na Amazônia. Brazilian Congress on Thermal
Engineering and Sciences in Rio Grande do Sul. October 3, 2000.
E. A. Alvarado and D. V.
Sandberg. 2001. Logging In Tropical Forest: Literature Review On Ecological
Impacts. Report to USAID in Washington, D. C. The report is also available
in PDF from the FERA's web site (http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/fera/brazil)
R. Gielow, J.A. Carvalho
Jr, E. Alvarado, D.V. Sandberg, and J. C.Santos . Evolução Do Albedo,
Saldo De Radiação E Fluxo De Calor No Solo Após Derrubada Florestal
Seguida De Queimada E Rebrota Na Região De Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso.
Paper Submitted to the XII Congresso Brasileiro de Agrometeorologia
USDA FOREST SERVICE, PACIFIC
NORTHWEST RESEARCH STATION (PNW)
- Dr. David V. Sandberg,
Supervisory Research Biologist
- Roger D. Ottmar, Research
- Robert E. Vihnanek, Research
USDA FOREST SERVICE, PACIFIC
SOUTHWEST RESEARCH STATION (PSW)
- Dr. Philip J. Riggan,
- Robert N. Lockwood, Ecologist
- Robert Tissell, Computer
- Jennifer Rechel, Geographer
UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON
- Ernesto Alvarado, Quantitative
- Gustavo de Hees Negreiros,
UNIVERSITY OF BRASILIA
- Dra. Heloisa Miranda,
Chair B Department of Ecology
- Dr. Carlos Gurgel, Mechanical
- Saulo Marques de Andrade,
UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL DE
SAO PAULO, CAMPUS GUARATINGUETA
- Joao A. De Carvalho, Aeronautical
- Elaine Reis, Doctoral
UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL DO
MATO GROSSO, CAMPUS ALTA FLORESTA
- Antonio Malheiros, Forest
INPE (INSTITUTO NACIONAL
DE PESQUISAS ESPACIAIS)
- Dr. Fernando de Souza
Costa, Aerospace Engineer (Currently a post-doctorate research associate
at the PNW Station in Corvallis, Oregon)
- Dr. Ralf Gielow, Meteorologist
Jose Carlos dos Santos, Field Research Coordinator
INPA (INSTITUTO NACIONAL
DE PESQUISAS DA AMAZONIA)
- Dr. Niro Higuchi, Tropical
- Joao Antonio Raposo Pereira,
- Helvecio Mafra Filho,
Computer Analyst NASA Ames Research Center
- James A. Brass Robert
Higgins Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Experimental Climate
- Dr. John Roads
Effects of Harvesting
on the FLONA Tapajos and Other Areas
The Effects of Harvesting
project has two goals. The first goal is to evaluate the effect of selective
timber harvest at the Tapajos National Forest on a wide range of ecosystem
functions. The second goal is the evaluation of the economic efficiency
and effects on harvest system sustainability for alternative methods
of land management. The research activities for the effects of harvesting
can be grouped into 6 themes (Harvesting Systems, Biophysics, Biogeochemistry,
Wildlife and Biodiversity). Harvest is ongoing at the FLONA Tapajos
with an expected area of 600 ha. to be harvested in 2001.
Drs. Ken McNabb, and Graeme
Lockaby from Auburn University, and Luiz Gonzaga da Silva surveyed a
recently harvested (Quadra 2, Block 1) and adjoining undisturbed control
area. They took samples to measure the effects of harvesting on soil
properties. This area was previously surveyed in 1996 in preparation
for this study. Several students from Auburn University and FCAP participated.
Data analysis is underway. During January 2001, Michael Keller and Michael
Palace from USFS and University of New Hampshire complemented this survey
by measurement of logging residues (coarse woody debris) generated by
the harvest activity in this block.
The impact of the harvest
on the forest canopy and the prospects for detecting this damage from
satellite observation is a growing theme in these studies. Rodrigro
Pereira Jr. from Fundacao Floresta Tropical and colleagues submitted
a paper to Forest Ecology and Management entitled "Forest Canopy Damage
and Recovery in Reduced Impact and Conventional Selective Logging in
Eastern Para, Brazil." The abstract for this paper is included as an
appendix. A second paper led by Greg Asner of the University of Colorado
evaluating the use of LANDSAT data to evaluate logging damage is nearly
Eddy covariance studies of
carbon dioxide and water vapor flux have begun at the tower site prior
to the anticipated 2001 harvest. Instrumentation was installed in June
2000 and has functioned superbly. Dr. Michael Goulden, University of
California, Irvine; Dr. Humberto Rocha, USP have acquired nearly 1 year
of continuous data at the site that will be logged sometime after June
2001. Dr. Steve Wofsy, Harvard University has installed instrumentation
at a control site that has been functioning since April. To complement
the carbon budget effort, Michael Keller has begun studies of coarse
woody debris in harvested and undisturbed blocks at the FLONA Tapajos.
This will be extended to Cauaxi later in 2001. Dr. Scott Saleska of
Harvard University is monitoring permanent plots, and Drs. Goulden and
Rocha are monitoring harvested and undisturbed sites. Over 2000 trees
have been measured with dendrometer bands for precise measurements of
diameter increment over the short term. An instrumented "flux" tower
(left) and a walk-up canopy tower at the new facility in Santarém, Brazil.
Effects of Low Impact
Logging on Understory Diversity
Birds And Bats in the FLONA
Tapajos Two sampling expeditions have been completed in the 2 control
blocks and 2 low-impact (20m3/ha) logging blocks in the FLONA Tapajos.
Mist net sampling was completed in November-December 2000 and in May
2001. In the Nov-Dec. period both birds and bats were sampled over 16
days in each period using mist nets placed in treefall gaps and forest
understory of both control and logged blocks. In addition, sampling
also occurred in log storage sites ("patios"). Data are currently being
entered in the computer from both trips, but analyses have not yet been
completed. The last sampling of birds and bats occurred in June 2001.
Preliminary studies of the effects of low impact logging indicated very
small effects on the bird populations, at least in the first two years
following harvest. Avian frugivores and small avian omnivores have increased
in the harvest site, relative to the controls. Most of the bird populations
in other diet groups have remained unchanged, at least in the first
Bigleaf Mahagony in southeast
Para: Its Life History and Management
A fifth year of field studies
at four sites in southeast Pará was completed in October 2000. Results
from field studies on mahogany in southeast Para will have a direct
impact on forestry policy in the Brazilian Amazon. By providing concrete
information on mahogany's life history - how fast it grows, how it reproduces,
how and where it successfully regenerates - a blueprint can be offered
to forest mangers for encouraging mahogany replacement after extraction.
The principle field site in Marajoara is still being monitored, observed
and guarded against illegal encroachment.
The groundwork for a new
applied research project in the western Amazonian state of Acre was
laid, in cooperation with forest engineers at the State Secretariat
of Forestry and Extractivism in Rio Branco. This project will investigate
costs and benefits of mahogany's managed extraction with enrichment
planting at large spatial scales. Future plans also include developing
extension materials designed and distributed to various audiences. "Forest
Manager" spans a wide range of experience and objectives and includes
trained foresters employed by the logging industry, ranchers with remnant
trees in logged forest holdings, small-holder agriculturists and rubber
tappers on extractive reserves in Acre.
APPENDIX: (From a paper
submitted to Forest Ecology and Management)
Damage and Recovery in Reduced Impact and Conventional Selective Logging
in Eastern Para, Brazil
Jr., Johan Zweede, Gregory P. Asner, and Michael Keller
We investigated ground and
canopy damage and recovery following conventional logging and reduced
impact logging (RIL) of moist tropical forest in the eastern Amazon
of Brazil. Paired conventional and RIL blocks were selectively logged
with a harvest intensity of approximately 23 m3 ha-1 (geometric volume)
in the dry seasons (July- December) of 1996 and 1998. Ground damage
(= roads + skid trails + log decks) in the conventional logging treatments
occupied 8.9-11.2% of total operational area. In contrast, ground damage
in RIL treatments ranged from 4.6-4.8% of the total area. Forest canopy
damage was assessed using gap fraction measurements collected with an
automated optical canopy analyzer (LAI-2000; Licor Inc.) in March 1999.
Canopy opening varied by time since logging. The recently logged (1998)
blocks had integrated canopy gap fractions of 21.6% and 10.9% of total
area for conventional and RIL blocks, respectively. The blocks logged
in 1996 had more closed canopies with 16.5% and 4.9% gap fraction for
conventional and RIL blocks, respectively. For comparison, undisturbed
forest had a canopy gap fraction of 1.3%. Measurements of ground disturbance
and gap fraction using the Licor LAI-2000 generally agree with other
field evaluations of RIL and conventional logging. Detailed understanding
of canopy structural changes resulting from different logging intensities
are critical to the prospect of logging damage estimation using current
and future remote sensing products.
USDA Forest Service, Southern
- Dr. Thomas P. Holmes,
Research Forester. Dr. Holmes is the leader of the economic assessment
of the costs and benefits of Low-Impact Logging versus Conventional
Logging in the Brazilian Amazon.
Tropical Forest Foundation
- Johan Zweede B Forester,
provides leadership and expertise in low-impact logging demonstration
and training elements of the component. Others
- Paulo Barreto is collaborating
in the economic analysis.
University of Florida
- Dr. Doug Carter Frederick
- Geoffrey Blate
International Institute of
- Dr. Michael Keller - Research
Scientist, provides leadership and coordination for the involvement
of numerous scientific institutions working on the FLONA Tapajos and
the LBA Ecology Module.
- Dr. Joseph Wunderle -
Research Scientist, provides expertise and leadership in the avifauna
component of the Tapajos Project.
- Dr. Frank Wadsworth -
Retired Research Silviculturalist provides silvicultural leadership
and expertise in low impact logging.
- Dr. Whendee Silver -
also of the University of California Berkeley, provides expertise
and leadership related to soil nutrients and below ground processes.
- Jason Neff - provides
expertise to describe behavior of organic matter at the FLONA TapajoAlan
Townsend and Greg Asner (University of Colorado) and Mercedes Bustamente
(University of Brasilia) provide expertise in the analysis of satellite
imagery and soil and vegetation samples from the vicinity of the FLONA