WORKING GROUP RECOMMENDATIONS FOR 2000 AND BEYOND
Fire Monitoring and Remote Sensing Validations
Monitoring Selective Harvesting and Deforestation
Fire Modeling, Risk, and Impacts
The Airborne Sciences Aircraft was deployed by the Pacific Southwest Research Station to Brazil for a three-week mission mapping fires in northern Mato Grosso, southern Mato Grosso do Sul, eastern Para, and Tocantins state in September 1999. The team flew its specialized Extended Dynamic Range Imaging Spectrometer for approximately 80 mission hours, many over and in one of the most dense and extensive smoke palls yet observed in central Brazil. During this reporting period computer software was written and tested to provide quick-examination of remote sensing data quality, map aircraft transect locations for missions, locate fires within the remote sensing data, and readily extract fire data for estimating fire properties. Locations of flight transects and mapped fires were catalogued for the 1999 campaign and an examination of individual large fires was begun.
The Working Group is developing a low-cost, thermal-infrared imaging spectrometer for fire and ecosystem monitoring, the FireMapper, through a Research Joint Venture between the Forest Service and Space Instruments Inc. Space Instruments has also developed a compatible visible and near-infrared camera system, the ForestMapper, for IBAMA through support by the Supplemental Program. Integration of hardware and engineered software was completed on these systems during this reporting period and the systems were tested in the laboratory. Instrument calibrations and modifications of the Forest Service Airborne Sciences Aircraft for flight testing are now being implemented. Both systems are scheduled for use during the August 2000 airborne campaign in Brazil.
Dr. Joao Andrade visited the Fire and Environmental Research Applications Team (FERA) in Corvallis, Oregon, to prepare the layout of number and content of publications on the cooperative work from 1997 to 1999. The publications will include combustion trials and flammability tests near Alta Floresta. Two manuscripts have been finished. During Dr. Andrade's visit, a schedule for field and laboratory was also discussed. The 2000 field season will include a pilot study on an operational slash and burn site. One half of the experimental sites will be logged in 2000, the second half will be logged in 2001. All the sites will be burned in 2001.
In addition, FERA discussed with Dr. Andrade a plan to monitor escaped fires occurring on the vicinity of Alta Floresta during the peak of the fire season. The plan is to follow the daily progression of those fires and monitor weather, fuel, and vegetation conditions, and use the information to model when fires will potentially go out or restart. Potential farms for conducting the combustion pilot study and flammability monitoring have been identified. Negotiations with farmers have already started.
Support continued for Mr. Gustavo Negrieros, whose Ph.D. dissertation has been completed and it is scheduled for defense during the summer of 2000. This dissertation will be the basis for developing a fine fuel moisture model for the Amazon forest.
Mr. Jose Carlos dos Santos is currently in the middle of a 40-day training visit with FERA at the Seattle Forestry Sciences Laboratory. Mr. dos Santos is participating with FERA on the work being conducted on the Frostfire experiment in Fairbanks, fuel consumption at the Manchu and Kenai sites in Alaska, and fuel consumption and mortality in northeastern Oregon. The training includes learning the field sampling techniques that FERA uses in the United States and elsewhere. Mr. dos Santos visit is sponsored by Brazil's CNPq.
During Mr. Santos visit, FERA discussed with him the design and schedule of new field experiments for smoldering consumption and escaped fire analysis on the Fazenda Caiabi and neighbor farms for the 2000 field season. Cooperation with the Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso has expanded to allow more active participation in the field of faculty and students of the Biology Department. Up to now, a master student at INPA, Manaus, completed field research supervised by INPA, INPE, and FERA personnel and will defend this fall.
FERA continued the cooperation with UNESP and INPE on the combustion studies in laboratory. Drs. Sandberg and Alvarado are participating in the planning of research on smoldering combustion at the INPE Combustion Laboratory. A combustion furnace was built at INPE's Combustion Laboratory in Cachoeira Paulista, Sao Paulo. Furnace instrumentation will be completed during this summer and preliminary tests will be conducted during the summer. A full set of combustion tests during the fall will be conducted with logs from the Amazon forest as part of a doctoral dissertation research conducted by Ms. Elaine Reis. INPE has applied to IBAMA for authorization of harvesting and burning for the 2000 and 2001 field sites and to transport logs from Alta Floresta to INPE's facilities for Ms. Reis' research.
Dr. Fernando Costa has applied before INPE, FAPESP and CNPq to spend a two-year postdoctoral visit with FERA's group at the Corvallis Forestry Sciences Laboratory. Dr. Costa will initiate modeling and field studies of smoldering combustion that will be applicable to combustion of biomass in different forest ecosystems.
Dr. Sandberg initiated discussions during the San Diego meeting in January with personnel of INPE and IBAMA to collaborate on the development of a fine fuel flammability model that will be integrated to the PROARCO algorithm to represent local ecological and weather variations. Planning visits to INPE San Jose dos Campos and IBAMA in Brasilia are scheduled for this summer.
The assessment of fire risk on reduced-impact harvesting trials continued at the Tapajos National Forest, in partnership with the National Research Institute for the Amazon (INPA) and the Tropical Forest Foundation. During 1999, INPE became a partner in the work that FERA conducted at the FLONA Tapajos. INPE's participation will allow us to have a better control on the instrumentation, use of INPE laboratory facilities, and administrative support. A field season was completed at the FLONA Tapajos.
The field season extended from September 1999 to February 2000. Flammability trials and weather monitoring at the Floresta Nacional do Tapajos were conducted during the entire period. Preliminary analysis showed high fuel moistures and mild weather as compared with previous dry seasons. A significant reduction in fire risk, as compared with the previous year was noted due mainly to frequent rains during last dry season.
A new block of forest was harvested by IBAMA near the camp at the Km 83 on November 1999. Pre- and post-harvesting weather and canopy disturbance monitoring was initiated at the newly harvested unit under the low-impact logging treatment. This monitoring will show immediate effects of low-impact harvesting on forest flammability. FERA plans to continue monitoring this recently logged unit in 2000.
For the first time this year, we were able to start flammability trials on small plots. Weekly flammability trials were conducted at the FLONA Tapajos. As mentioned above, weather conditions were not favorable to start a sustained fire.
Two growing seasons after the harvesting, regeneration is quickly occupying the gaps created by the logging, thus restoring the ability to retain more relative humidity and reducing fire susceptibility.
FERA continued a collaborative research program with the University of Brasilia and IBAMA to assess the flammability of Cerrado ecosystems across a broad environmental gradient. In 1999, field data collection was completed for the development of the photo series for biomass and flammability estimation. The sites from Gran Certado Veredas National Park completed a set of over 50 sites that covers the major Cerrado fuel types.
Data analysis continued from the 40 photo series sites covering the typical range of Cerrado vegetation in Brazil. Additional photo series sites were selected to supplement the coverage of fuel types already sampled, especially in the Cerrado Denso vegetation types.
Layout of the photo series and preparation of the manuscript for printing in both Portuguese and English continued. The photo series will provide a quick and easy means for quantifying and describing existing fuel properties by fire and resource managers, and researchers. A visit by a Brazilian collaborator is scheduled for fall of 2000 to finish the photo series work.
A plan to continue collaboration between FERA, University of Brasilia, and IBAMA was outlined at the San Diego meeting in January. The continued collaboration will be built upon the completed photo series. FERA will continue collaboration on biomass consumption modeling in Cerrado ecosystems. FERA also initiated consultations with Brazilian counterparts to cooperate on a study on fire ecology and flammability project in the Cerrado ecosystem.
A new project with INPE, IBAMA, and the Experimental Climate Prediction Center at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) was begun during 1999 to apply a Regional Spectral Model (RSM) of climate to provide daily to seasonal predictions of fire-weather severity and assess climate variables affecting smoke accumulation and long-term changes in forest susceptibility to fire. A global spectral model with Internet-accessible forecasts was implemented toward the end of the 1999 fire season. The higher-resolution regional-scale model was implemented on the Internet during early 2000 (see http://ecpc.ucsd.edu/projects/brazil.html). RSM simulations will be continued with evaluations beginning this year. Archived data will be examined to determine forecast skill and usefulness. The intent of the modeling effort is to better characterize weather and climate effects on fire hazard and behavior and to use climate information to control permitting of agricultural burning to maximize smoke dispersal and minimize emissions and near-ground concentrations of air pollutants.
The integrated fire assessment is building upon past airborne campaigns to determine the impact of widespread burning in tropical forest and savanna on regional air pollution and global climate. Carbon and energy flux from fires are key to these impacts.
During this reporting period a manuscript entitled "Remote Measurement of Wildfire Energy and Carbon Flux" was completed and submitted for peer review. The manuscript reports successful results in the application of remote sensing to the estimation of fuel consumption rates, carbon flux to the atmosphere, and wildfire thermal properties in both Cerrado and tropical forest fires. Also published during this reporting period was a paper entitled "Estimating Fire Properties by Remote Sensing," which describes the effects of scale important in large-area fire monitoring from space or high altitudes. In it we conclude that multi-spectral thermal and short-wave remote sensing at resolution near 100 m can successfully describe the thermal properties of wildland fires.
For the first time in fire science, research on quantitative modeling of flaming, smoldering, and residual combustion is being conducted on woody biomass. This bi-national research team is conducting parallel studies in outdoor burning in the Amazonian forest and INPE's laboratory facilities. This cooperation has produced two master theses on biomass combustion in the laboratory, with another master thesis scheduled for defense at INPA this fall. Two doctoral students are currently working on the project; a new master's student will join the group.
Dr. David V. Sandberg, Supervisory
Roger D. Ottmar, Research Forester
Robert E. Vihnanek, Research Forester
USDA FOREST SERVICE, PACIFIC
SOUTHWEST RESEARCH STATION (PSW)
Dr. Philip J. Riggan, Ecologist/Project
Robert N. Lockwood, Ecologist
Robert Tissell, Computer Analyst
Jennifer Rechel, Geographer
Ernesto Alvarado, Quantitative
Gustavo de Hees Negreiros, Ph.D. Candidate
UNIVERSITY OF BRASILIA
Dra. Heloisa Miranda, Chair
B Department of Ecology
Dr. Carlos Gurgel, Mechanical Engineer
Saulo Marques de Andrade, Ecologist
UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL DE SAO PAULO, CAMPUS GUARATINGUETA
Joao A. De Carvalho, Aeronautical
Elaine Reis, Doctoral Student
UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL DO MATO GROSSO, CAMPUS ALTA FLORESTA
Antonio Malheiros, Forest Ecolgist
INPE (INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE PESQUISAS ESPACIAIS)
Dr. Fernando de Soza Costa,
Dr. Ralf Gielow, Meteorologist
Jose Carlos dos Santos, Field Research Coordinator
Aguinaldo Martins Serra, Doctoral Student R
enata Alves, Ecologist
INPA (INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE PESQUISAS DA AMAZONIA)
Dr. Niro Higuchi, Tropical
Ligia Toledo, Graduate Student
Joao Antonio Raposo Pereira,
Helvecio Mafra Filho, Computer Analyst
NATIONAL CENTER FOR ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH
James A. Brass
SCRIPPS INSTITUTION OF OCEANOGRAPHY, EXPERIMENTAL CLIMATE PREDICTION CENTER
Dr. John Roads
TROPICAL FORESTRY FOUNDATION
In 1999, with substantial help from the Tropical Forest Foundation and EMBRAPA, TREVISO prepared an acceptable harvest plan for the ITTO site. Delays in plan preparation and poor quality work by TREVISO, resulted in the company logging only 100 ha. versus a planned 640 hectares. TREVISO will receive additional support so that this year (2000) they can produce successful plans and catch up to their desired harvest rate.
Pre-harvest measurements and post-harvest measurements have continued at the FLONA Tapajos site. At this time, regular sampling of litterfall, fine roots, and soil solution chemistry are underway on both sand and clay soils. Hudson Silva and Jadson Dizencourt Dias, two recent biology graduates from the Federal University of Para, Santarem campus are conducting the day-to-day samplings and lab work including an investigation comparing the greenhouse gases, nitrous oxide and methane fluxes from logged versus intact forest. Preliminary results from that study suggest that logging damage to soil may significantly increase the source of methane and nitrous oxide compared to intact sites. Log decks and skid trails are the primary sources for the increased fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide respectively. Further research is required to confirm the magnitude of this effect and to examine its generality. Fine root growth in logged sites is a key nutrient conserving mechanism after harvest. Dr. Whendee Silver (US Berkeley and IITF) and Dr. Michael Keller (IITF) are coordinating these measurements. A major experiment on root mortality (a significant impact of logging) will begin in May 2000. Dr. William de Mello of the Universidade Federal Fluminense (Rio de Janeiro state) is collaborating with our group by providing laboratory analyses. In turn, we will support student training in his laboratory. Raimundo Cosme de Oliveiera Junior (EMBRAPA Santarem) is providing local support and supervision to the measurement program. In addition, Megan McGroddy (Ph.D. Candidate, UC Berkeley) continues experimental fertilizations of in-growth cores to diagnose limitations on fine root productivity of sand and clay soil sites.
The LBA Ecology project (NASA sponsored) has completed infrastructure for field and laboratory work in Santarem and the FLONA Tapajos. In Santarem, five 4-wheel drive vehicles with associated fuel, maintenance, and insurance are provided for researcher use. Priority is given to LBA Ecology investigators but other partners may have access. Four additional vehicles will be available in July 2000.
A laboratory office and storage facility has been rented in Santarém. This facility has been extensively renovated. A wet lab will be equipped with refrigerators, drying ovens, balances, a purified water system, a fume hood and analytical equipment. NASA has provided all funds for the renovations. IITF and partners have provided laboratory equipment. A gas chromatography laboratory is currently operational with 4 gas analysis systems. Equipment for that laboratory is being provided by NASA, the University of New Hampshire, and IITF. LBA Ecology is providing basic office services including copy machines, phone lines, a fax machine, and a radio link internet connection through a local internet service provider. LBA Ecology has installed a backup power at the laboratory provided by a 30-kW generator.
A base camp has been completed. It can accommodate lodging needs, laboratory space, and storage space for up to 20 scientists studying logging effects in the FLONA Tapajos. The camp built at km 84 south of Santarém provide sleeping quarters for 20 people, located close to a bathhouse with showers, toilets, and sinks. The camp also has a full kitchen with a separate dining area that would doubles as a meeting space. There is an additional structure dedicated to storage. Living quarters for a cook and for security personnel complete the camp. The camp is supplied with power from generators (12-kW generator along with a 6-kW backup generator) and potable water from its own deep well. LBA Ecology will staff and maintain this camp through 2003.
Paired sites (primary forest control site and a logged site) have been equipped with a 65-m tower for micrometeorological measurements. There will be a single tower at the control site and 2 towers at the logging site (for exploration of spatial variability). Only one tower at the logging site was completed in 2000. A second will be completed in 2001. Each site has two 3.5-m x 6-m scientific huts of brick construction. One of the huts is air-conditioned for instrumentation. Instrumentation for measurement of greenhouse gases (nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide along with the tracer gas Radon-222 has been installed by personnel from LBA and IITF and is currently being tested. Each tower site is complemented by two generators which provide primary and backup power (20-kW diesel). Associated fuel, maintenance, and a fuel storage facility have been constructed. In addition to the micrometeorological towers, canopy access scaffolding towers have been constructed.
Dr. Greg Asner (University of Colorado) and Michael Keller continue work on analysis of logging damage using remote sensing techniques ("Low-Cost Evaluation of EO-1 Hyperion and ALI for Detection and Biophysical Characterization of Forest Logging in Amazonia."). The first field work for this project will begin in July 2000 at Cauaxi. The EO1 satellite was successfully launched and the logged sites have a very high priority for acquisition. Asner and Keller will use a historical sequence of logging sites to measure canopy damage and relate that to logging intensity. The historical sequence will also allow them to measure recovery of the canopy following logging. Reduced impact and conventional sites will be compared. Asner and Keller acquired 2 SPOT images in September 1999 for the Cauaxi site. These have been registered to base maps and processing to extract canopy structure information is underway. Additional field work is needed to complete work on the SPOT imagery. Cauaxi image data will be compared to field data gathered by Asner and Keller in March 1999. Keller and Asner intend to solicit additional funds from NASA to continue the work on remote sensing of logging damage.
Publication of much of the science work has begun. Whendee Silver and colleagues have received notice of the acceptance of a paper on root processes at the FLONA Tapajos. Keller of IITF has begun to publish initial results of the Tapajos study. A paper on the biomass of the area was recently submitted to Forest Ecology and Management.
The cost-benefit analysis study conducted by USAID/LAC, USAID/G/ENV, the Forest Service and the Tropical Forest Foundation has been widely disseminated. An electronic copy of the full report is available on the Forest Service International Programs Web site:
Holmes, Thomas P. G. M. Blate, J. C. Zweede, R. Pereira Jr., P. Barreto, F. Boltz and R. Bausch. Financial Costs and Benefits of Reduced-Impact Logging Relative to Conventional Logging in the Eastern Amazon.
A summary of the technical report was prepared in booklet form and is available from the Tropical Forest Foundation: Financial Costs and Benefits of Reduced-Impact Logging in the Eastern Amazon
Ten thousand copies of the booklet are currently being printed for dissemination to the following groups:
USDA FOREST SERVICE, SOUTHERN RESEARCH STATION
Dr. Thomas P. Holmes, Research Forester. Dr. Holmes is the leader of the economic assessment of the costs and benefits of Low-Impact Logging versus Conventional Logging in the Brazilian Amazon.
TROPICAL FOREST FOUNDATION
Johan Zweede B Forester, provides leadership and expertise in low-impact logging demonstration and training elements of the component. Geoffrey Blate Others
Paulo Barreto is collaborating in the economic analysis.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Dr. Doug Carter Frederick Boltz.
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TROPICAL FORESTRY
William G. Edwards - Assistant
Director provides overall leadership in the forest management component
particularly capacity building.
Dr. Michael Keller - Research Scientist, provides leadership and coordination for the involvement of numerous scientific institutions working on the FLONA Tapajos and the LBA Ecology Module.
Dr. Joseph Wunderle - Research Scientist, provides expertise and leadership in the avifauna component of the Tapajos Project.
Dr. Frank Wadsworth - Research Silviculturalist provides silvicultural leadership and expertise in low impact logging.
Dr. Whendee Silver - also of the University of California Berkeley, provides expertise and leadership related to soil nutrients and below ground processes.
Johan Zweede - Forester, provides leadership and expertise in low impact logging demonstration and training elements of the component.
Jason Neff - provides expertise
to describe behavior of organic matter at the FLONA Tapajos.
Alan Townsend and Greg Asner (University of Colorado) and Mercedes Bustamente (University of Brasilia) provide expertise in the analysis of satellite imagery and soil and vegetation samples from the vicinity of the FLONA Tapajos.