Program Semi-Annual Report
USDA Forest Service International Programs
fire test was conducted in Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso in August of 2001.
Dr. Carlos Gurgel from the Universidade de Brasilia and Michelle Zweede
observe the smoldering of the sampled logs.
The Brazil Program consists
of several components that are independently managed but closely coordinated
to provide the greatest possible payoff to Brazilian and United States
forest managers and forest users. The Sustainable Forest Management
Project provides baseline biological information underlying the development
of advanced forest management strategies, providing assistance with
institution building and analysis for silviculture, environmental conservation,
and in the past ecotourism. It is closely linked with Brazilian Space
Agency (INPE) and NASA led Large-Scale Atmosphere/Biosphere project.
Silvicultural development has concentrated on the multiple advantages
of low-impact harvesting. The Forest Management Project has been focused
on the Tapajós National Forest, but also includes development
and training at Cauaxi in conjunction with the Tropical Forest Foundation.
The Fire and Environmental
Change Project is a coordinated series of research and development activities
addressing questions of biomass burning, global change, and fire-danger
rating in Brazilian ecosystems. The project contributes remote sensing
for fire detection and mapping, and compiles inventories of fire activity
and air pollution through cooperation by the Pacific Southwest Research
Station and NASA with IBAMA and other Brazilian institutions. A fire-hazard
rating system, used to anticipate flammability and fire effects in tropical
ecosystems, is being developed by the Pacific Northwest Research Station
in collaboration with the Brazilian Space Institute and others.
This progress report, covering
the six-month period of March 2001 through October 2001, is one in a
series of outputs describing the mission, scope, activities, and accomplishments
of the USDA Forest Service/USAID Program in Brazil. Additional information
can be obtained from the National Coordinator or the Forest Service's
International Programs website at:
| Fire and Environmental Change | Sustainable
and Environmental Change
· The Fire and Environmental Research Applications Team, USDA
Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, continued a successful
and active cooperative program with Brazilian counterparts. During the
reporting period, FERA completed the first bilingual volume of the Stereo
Photo Series for Quantifying Cerrado Fuels in Central Brazil. It has
been printed and is being distributed in Brazil and the United States.
A bilingual brochure that describes the photo series has been prepared
and printed. Currently, it is being distributed to a large mailing list
that included personnel from all Brazil's Federal and State protected
areas, and agencies and institutions involved in management and conservation
in the Cerrado region.
· Collaborative research
projects continue with the IBAMA, INPE's combustion laboratory, the
University of the State of Sao Paulo, and the University of Washington,
in Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil. One experimental burn was completed
within the arc of deforestation, in Alta Floresta, state of Mato Grosso.
This burn tested combustion hypotheses that have been developed from
· Half of the scheduled
laboratory tests using the combustion furnace at INPE's laboratory facilities
in Cachoeira Paulista were completed. Full analysis of combustion gases
is also being conducted. Laboratory tests will provide improved combustion
rates and better smoke emission factors from Amazon forest burning.
Testing will continue until 2002.
· During September
2001 IBAMA deployed its ForestMapper camera system, aboard the INPE
Bandeirante research aircraft, for natural resource mapping in Amazonia.
The Forest Service provided assistance in system installation and operation
through out 2001.
· A course on thermal
infrared remote sensing and its applications to forest and fire management
was presented during April 2001. The participants included six technical
specialists from INPE, one from IBAMA, one from EMBRAPA and three from
the Brazilian Air force's Technical Center and three University students.
· Seven Forca Tarefa
firefighters from the Brasilia Corpo de Bombeiros and two firefighters
from the states of Para and Mato Grosso participated in hotshot and
heli-rappel training. After training, they worked for five months in
the U.S. National Forests.
Combustion and Carbon Emissions from Tropical Biomass
FERA continued another successful
campaign in collaboration with IBAMA, INPE's combustion laboratory,
the University of the State of Sao Paulo, and the University of Washington,
in Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Results from the FERA-INPE-UNESP
cooperation have been presented in several scientific forums in the
two countries. The group presented papers at the XII Congresso Brasileiro
de Agrometeorologia in Fortaleza, ENCIT 2000, and the Residual Combustion
Workshop in Missoula, Montana. A new INPE scientist and new UNESP students
have joined the group.
The Journal of Geophysical
Research published the manuscript Biomass Fire Consumption and Carbon
Release Rates of Rainforest Clearing Experiments Conducted in Northern
Mato Grosso, Brazil.
Dr. Fernando Costa completed
a one-year sabbatical stay at the USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest
Research Station. Dr. Costa's sabbatical was sponsored by the Forest
Service and Brazil's FAPESP. He conducted a one-year research project
in conjunction with Dr. David Sandberg at the Corvallis Forestry Sciences
Laboratory. Dr. Costa developed a theoretical model of smoldering combustion
of large woody fuels that is applicable to combustion of tropical and
temperate biomass. The model was presented at the Residual Smoldering
Combustion workshop in Missoula, Montana. This report, Smoldering of
a Semi-Infinite Log, was prepared and is being reviewed for publication
on a refereed journal. Upon his return to INPE in Brazil, Dr. Costa
will continue to extend the work he conducted in Corvallis to include
a more complex multidimensional approach to his model. He will collaborate
on continuation of the model development in cooperation with the rest
of INPE, UNESP and FERA group.
INPE-FERA group conducted outreach meetings with Alta Floresta authorities,
local IBAMA personnel, and university students and faculty to explain
the scope of work and objectives of the fire research. The biology program
from UNEMAT will continue participating with work on the floristic inventory
and assessing the effect of the burnings in the regeneration patterns.
Consultations continued with
IBAMA and INPE personnel to develop a fine fuel flammability model that
will be integrated to the PROARCO model to represent local ecological
and weather variability. Ground validation of PROARCO in Alta Floresta
is schedule to start during in 2002 field season in Alta Floresta.
Photo Series to Assess
Flammability in the Cerrado
In addition, FERA continued
the collaborative research program with the University of Brasilia and
IBAMA to assess the flammability of Cerrado ecosystems across a broad
environmental gradient. Field sites were identified for additional photo
series in the cerradao and mata near Brasilia and elsewhere. Fieldwork
conducted during the summer included new sites near Brasilia and in
Chapada dos Guimaraes in Mato Grosso. Volume II will include the cerradao,
campo rupestre, and mata physiognomic forms.
Fire Risk in Reduced-Impact
A field trip was taken to
the FLONA Tapajos by Mr. Jose Carlos DOS Santos. He evaluated the current
status of the logging work that is being conducted there. He also visited
sites where we monitored fire vulnerability in the reduced impact logging
in the past years and evaluated the condition of the newly logged units.
During his visit to the FLONA Tapajos, he began discussions with the
new director of the FLONA and the LBA representatives in Santarem, Para.
We are preparing a plan to continue working at the FLONA and assess
the plan given the ongoing logging work in the National Forest.
Remote Sensing Deployment
and Technology Transfer
During September 2001 IBAMA
deployed its ForestMapper camera system, aboard the INPE Bandeirante
research aircraft, for natural resource mapping in Amazônia. The
ForestMapper was first developed through the Forest Service-IBAMA Cooperation
and transferred to IBAMA in September 2000. The Forest Service provided
assistance in system installation and operation during fiscal year 2001.
The FireMapper development
and fire remote sensing database developed by the Forest Service-IBAMA
Cooperation is now the subject of discussions regarding a potential
Tropical Fire Mapping Mission based on a Brazilian satellite platform.
The Working Group is currently working with INPE and IBAMA to define
the required sensor performance and outline the mechanical and electrical
requirements of the proposed system. IBAMA has also indicated its support
for the development of a second-generation FireMapper system for operational,
airborne, fire monitoring by IBAMA using thermal-infrared wavelengths.
including the remote-sensing-based monitoring of fire intensity, fuel
consumption, and some environmental impacts, was described in a research
report submitted for publication during 2001. The report by P. J. Riggan,
R. N. Lockwood, R. G. Tissell, J. A. Brass, J. A. R. Pereira, H. S.
Miranda, A. C. Miranda, T. Campos, and R. Higgins is entitled: "Remote
measurement of wildfire energy and carbon flux." The basis for
the work was airborne measurements of burnings in the Cerrado near Brasília
and in pasture and slashed forest near Marabá. In this project,
temperature, intensity, spread, and dimensions of fires burning in tropical
savanna and slashed tropical forest in central Brazil were measured
for the first time by remote sensing with an infrared imaging spectrometer
that was designed to accommodate the high radiances of wildland fires.
Furthermore, the first in-situ airborne measurements of sensible heat
and carbon fluxes in fire plumes were combined with remote measurements
of flame properties to provide consistent remote-sensing-based estimators
of the fluxes. These estimators provide a means to determine the regional
and global rates of carbon emission to the atmosphere from wildland
A short course on thermal
infrared remote sensing and its applications to forest and fire management
was presented during April 2001 at the invitation of INPE at the X Simpósio
Brasileiro de Sensoriamento Remoto at Foz de Iguaçu. Registered
attendees included six technical specialists from INPE, one from IBAMA,
three from Brazilian universities, one from EMBRAPA, and three from
the Technical Center of the Força Aérea Brasileira. The
content of the course covered design and properties of infrared sensors
including performance limits, cooling methods, recent advances in detector
arrays, satellite-based systems, and applications for fire and natural
resource remote sensing. James Hoffman of Space Instruments, Inc., and
Philip Riggan made presentations from the Forest Service/PSW Research
Station, and Jim Brass of NASA Ames Research Center.
Training for Brazilian
On July 8, 1998, the Brazilian
Government created a group of 500 firefighters called Força Tarefa.
The task force of firefighters, specialized in fighting wildland fires,
was created to support state and local firefighters in the Amazon Region.
Through an agreement with the Brazilian Air Force, the firefighters
are able to leave at a moments notice from Brasilia to fight any forest
fire in the Amazon.
After the two-weeks of training
in fire suppression policy and tactics, and passing their physical fitness
tests the firefighters began working on fires across the western United
States. The crews fought fires in Southern Utah, Idaho, Wyoming, Nevada,
Washington State, California, Arizona and Alaska. After working for
5 months on hotshot crews, the firefighters are back in Brazil participating
as trainers for IBAMA's fire brigade training school and the Forca Tarefa
wildland fire courses.
Carvalho, Joao A.; Costa,
F.S.; Veras, C.A.G.; Sandberg, D.V.; Alvarado, E.; Bielow, R.; Serra,
A.M., Jr. 2001. Biomass fire consumption and carbon release rates of
rainforest clearing experiments conducted in Northern Mato Grosso, Brazil.
Journal of Geophysical Research 106:17,877-17,887
Gielow, R.; Carvalho, J.
A.; Sandberg, D. V.; Alvarado, E.; Costa, F.S.; , Santos, J.C. 2000.
Secagem natural de troncos em área de derrubada na Amazônia.
Brazilian Congress on Thermal Engineering and Sciences in Rio Grande
do Sul, Brazil. October 3.
Alvarado, E.A.; Sandberg,
D.V. 2001. Logging In Tropical Forest: Literature Review On Ecological
Impacts. Report to USAID in Washington, D. C. http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/fera/brazil.
Gielow, R.; Carvalho, J.A.;
Alvarado, E.; Sandberg, D.V.; Santos, J.C. 2000. Evolução
Do Albedo, Saldo De Radiação E Fluxo De Calor No Solo
Após Derrubada Florestal Seguida De Queimada E Rebrota NA Região
De Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso. Paper Presented at the XII Congresso
Brasileiro de Agrometeorologia in Fortaleza.
USDA FOREST SERVICE, PSW
- Dr. Philip J. Riggan,
Robert N. Lockwood, Robert Tissell
- João Antonio Raposo
- Wilfrid Schroeder
SCRIPPS INSTITUTION OF OCEANOGRAPHY,
EXPERIMENTAL CLIMATE PREDICTION CENTER
NASA AMES RESEARCH CENTER
USDA FOREST SERVICE, PACIFIC
NORTHWEST RESEARCH STATION (PNW)
- Dr. David V. Sandberg,
Supervisory Research Biologist
- Roger D. Ottmar, Research
- Robert E. Vihnanek, Research
UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON
- Ernesto Alvarado, Quantitative
UNIVERSITY OF BRASILIA
- Dra. Heloisa Miranda,
Chair B Department of Ecology
- Dr. Carlos Gurgel, Mechanical
- Saulo Marques de Andrade,
- Marguerite Naomi Sato
UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL DE
SAO PAULO, CAMPUS GUARATINGUETA
- Joao A. De Carvalho, Aeronautical
- Elaine Reis, Doctoral
UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL DO
MATO GROSSO, CAMPUS ALTA FLORESTA
- Alexander Stein de Luca,
INPE (INSTITUTO NACIONAL
DE PESQUISAS ESPACIAIS)
- Dr. Fernando de Souza
Costa, Aerospace Engineer
- Dr. Ralf Gielow, Meteorologist
- Dr. Turibio G. Soares
Neto, Chemical Engineer
- Jose Carlos dos Santos,
Field Research Coordinator
INPA (INSTITUTO NACIONAL
DE PESQUISAS DA AMAZONIA)
- Dr. Niro Higuchi, Tropical
· Michael Keller, a Forest Service researcher, appeared on 3
televised news programs in Palmas, Tocantins in May 2001 to discuss
the relevance of land use change to carbon budgets and the greenhouse
effect. Following the news programs, he was interviewed by 2 local newspapers
in Palmas and the National Gazetta Mercantil. He was also interviewed
on "Bom Dia Mato Grosso" in August 2001.
· On October 6, 2001,
Canopy Damage and Recovery Following Selective Logging in an Amazon
Forest: Integrating Field and Satellite Studies
was submitted to Ecological Applications. This paper was also presented
at the International Programs' Seminar Series.
· An article Biomass
in the Tapajos National Forest, Brazil: Examination of Sampling and
Allometric Uncertainties was published in Forest Ecology and Management.
· Eddy covariance
studies of carbon dioxide and water vapor flux are underway at the tower
sites. Currently, there is more than one year of continuous data acquired
at this site. The data is publicly available at http://beija-flor.ornl.gov/lba
· In 2001, 600 hectares
were harvested in the FLONA Tapajos. During August, researchers from
the US Forest Service and the University of New Hampshire measured logging
residues (coarse woody debris) generated by the harvest activity.
· Two professors from
the Goeldi Museum held a course for Brazilian researchers in the identification
of Amazonian birds and bats enabling them to monitor biodiversity in
timber production forests.
· Two papers have
been delivered to IBAMA in Santarem to summarize the research done on
the effects of selective logging on understory birds and bats in the
· One bat and two
bird expeditions were made to the FLONA Tapajos by Forest Service researchers
and their collaborators from the Goeldi Museum. Data from the visits
has been entered and the analysis is scheduled for the summer of 2002
at Texas Tech University.
| Fire and Enviromental Change | Sustainable
The Effects of Harvesting on the FLONA Tapajos has two goals. (1) To
evaluate the effect of selective timber harvest at the Tapajos National
Forest on a wide range of ecosystem functions, and (2) To evaluate the
economic efficiency and effects on harvest system sustainability for
alternative methods of land management. Research activities can be grouped
into 6 themes in order to illustrate the range of activities that the
USFS and IBAMA will pursue as part of the Tapajos Project. Harvesting
is ongoing at the FLONA Tapajos. In 1999 only 100 ha were harvested,
in 2000 nearly 1000 ha were harvested, in 2001 approximately 600 ha.
were harvested. By the end of 2003, the entire concession of 3200 ha
will be logged.
Researchers from Auburn University
and the Federal Agriculture University of Para (FCAP) surveyed a recently
harvested (Quadra 2, Block 1) and adjoining undisturbed control area.
They took samples to measure the effects of harvesting on soil properties.
This area was previously surveyed in 1996 in preparation for this study.
Several students from Auburn University and FCAP participated. Data
analysis is underway.
During August 2001, USFS
and University of New Hampshire researchers, complemented this survey
by measurement of logging residues (coarse woody debris) generated by
the harvest activity in two 100 ha logged blocks and two control areas.
In addition, they set up studies to measure the ongoing process of branchfall
and tree mortality following logging. Logged blocks were compared to
the controlled area.
Monitoring of the liberation
thinning area treated in 1998 was accomplished during this period. The
measurements included an evaluation of the effectiveness of poisoning
and post-treatment growth comparing the treated and control plots. Data
analysis is currently underway.
Eddy covariance studies of
carbon dioxide and water vapor flux are underway at the tower sites.
Logging took place around the tower at km 83. A control site is now
operational at km 67. Researchers from the University of California,
Irvine and University of Sao Paulo have acquired more than one year
of continuous data at the site. The data is publicly available (http://beija-flor.ornl.gov/lba/).
Another researcher is making equivalent measurements at the control
site at km 67. During this period automated chambers to measure soil
respiration at the control site were installed.
To complement the carbon
budget effort, studies began of coarse woody debris in harvested and
undisturbed blocks at the FLONA Tapajos. This was also extended to the
Cauaxi site. Over 30 km of transects show large and significant difference
between the coarse woody logging debris in conventionally logged blocks
compared to reduced impact logging blocks.
Researchers are monitoring
permanent plots as well as the sites that will be harvested and the
undisturbed permanent plots at the FLONA Tapajos. Over 2000 trees have
been measured with dendrometer bands for precise measurements of diameter
increment over the short term.
Researchers continue to monitor
nutrient and trace gas effects of harvesting. A second survey has begun
on sandy-clay soil. Preliminary indications are that timber harvesting
increases nitrous oxide and methane emissions measurably. However, when
these emissions are extrapolated to a wider area, the effects of harvesting
on trace gases (expressed as a Global Warming Potential) are far smaller
than the effects from the carbon loss.
During this reporting period,
two bird expeditions and one bat expedition were made to the FLONA Tapajós
by USFS collaborators from the Goeldi Museum. Birds were sampled with
mist nets in May and in June 2001, and bats were sampled with mist nets
in September 2001. Approximatly 800 birds were captured during the two
expedtions and approximately 50 bats captured during the one expedition.
These sampling trips completed the field work on the current low-impact
logging study. In addition, foliage height profiles and other vegetation
cover measurements were made on all netting sites in two logged blocks
and two control blocks.
In addition to netting studies,
bird observations and tape recordings of bird vocalizations were made
to document the presence of various species in the FLONA Tapajós
as part of our avian inventory studies. During the last expedition,
a USFS reseracher worked with researchers from the Goeldi Museum to
prepare a manuscript resulting from the Tapajós work entitled
"Birds of the Tapajoós National Forest, Brazilian Amazon:
A preliminary assessment." This manuscript which documents the
presence of approximately 340 bird species in the FLONA Tapajós
also characterizes the avifauna in terra firme forest at this site.
This manuscript is expected to be completed in early 2002.
Data analysis for the studies
of low impact logging effects on birds and bats are scheduled for summer
2002 (June/July) when one of the Museum collaborators will work with
Texas Tech University researchers.
Finally, commercially logged
sites outside the FLONA Tapajós were examined in an effort to
find sites which would enable a comparison of low impact vs. typical
commercially logged sites. Despite a detailed search it was found that
all the commercial sites were unsuitable for comparison with our low
impact sites in the FLONA. The problem with the available commercially
logged sites is that there is high variance in treatment, many of the
sites are in different forest sites, the extent of the cuts vary in
size and uniformity of harvest, and most of the area is now severely
fragmented. These factors will confound our analyses making it impossible
to determine how much of the difference between low-impact logging and
commercial logging results from the commercial practices and how much
results from forest fragmentation, different forest types etc. The issue
of fragmentation is quite serious as we know it has substantial effects
on bird and bat distribution (e.g., Manaus studies) and will likely
obscure commercial logging effects especially when compared with the
low impact logging sites embeded in extensive primary forest in the
FLONA. Because of this limitation, the proposal will be tocompare the
low impact logging sites (harvest rates of 18 m3/ha) with nearby sites
in the FLONA which have been harvested by commercial firms at about
twice the harvest rate (40 m3/ha). This allows a better study design
and will result in an unambiguous data set for analysis of effects of
harvest intensity on bird populations.
| Activities and Progress |
Publications | Staffing
Keller, M., M. Palace, and
G.E. Hurtt. 2001. Biomass in the Tapajos National Forest, Brazil: Examination
of Sampling and Allometric Uncertainties. Forest Ecology and Management
Pereira, R., J.C. Zweede,
G.P. Asner, and M. Keller. In Press. Forest Canopy Damage and Recovery
in Reduced Impact and Conventional Selective Logging in Eastern Para,
Brazil. Forest Ecology and Management.
Asner, G.P., M. Keller, R.
Pereira Jr. and J.C. Zweede. Remote sensing of selective logging in
amazonia: assessing limitations based on detailed field observations,
Landsat ETM+, and textural analysis. Remote Sensing of the Environment.
| Activities and Progress |
Publications | Staffing
USDA Forest Service, Southern
- Dr. Thomas P. Holmes,
Research Forester. Dr. Holmes is the leader of the economic assessment
of the costs and benefits of Low-Impact Logging versus Conventional
Logging in the Brazilian Amazon.
Tropical Forest Foundation
- Johan Zweede B Forester,
provides leadership and expertise in low-impact logging demonstration
and training elements of the component.
- Paulo Barreto is collaborating
in the economic analysis.
University of Florida
- Dr. Doug Carter
- Frederick Boltz
- Geoffrey Blate
International Institute of
- Dr. Michael Keller - Research
Scientist, provides leadership and coordination for the involvement
of numerous scientific institutions working on the FLONA Tapajos and
the LBA Ecology Module.
- Dr. Joseph Wunderle -
Research Scientist, provides expertise and leadership in the avifauna
component of the Tapajos Project.
- Dr. Frank Wadsworth -
Retired Research Silviculturalist provides silvicultural leadership
and expertise in low impact logging.
- Dr. Whendee Silver - also
of the University of California Berkeley, provides expertise and leadership
related to soil nutrients and below ground processes.
- Jason Neff - provides
expertise to describe behavior of organic matter at the FLONA TapajoAlan
Townsend and Greg Asner (University of Colorado) and Mercedes Bustamente
(University of Brasilia) provide expertise in the analysis of satellite
imagery and soil and vegetation samples from the vicinity of the FLONA
Highlights | Activities
and Progress | Publications | Staffing