Activity -- A measure, course of action, or treatment to directly or indirectly produce, enhance, or maintain forest and rangeland outputs or to achieve administrative or environmental quality objectives.
Adaptive Management -- The process of implementing policy decisions incrementally, so that changes can be made if the desired results are not being achieved. It is a process similar to a scientific experiment in that predictions and assumptions in management plans are tested and experience and new scientific findings are used as the basis to improve resource management practices and future planning.
Allowable Sale Quantity (ASQ) -- The amount of chargeable timber volume which can be sold from a plan area for a decade cannot exceed the allowable sale quantity standard established for the plan area. Each forest plan which provides for a timber sale program must establish a standard setting the allowable sale quantity. The allowable quantity is a ceiling; it is not a future sale level projection or target and does not reflect all of the factors that may influence future sale levels.
Anadromous Fish -- Those species of fish that are born and reared in fresh water, move to the ocean to grow and mature, and return to fresh water to reproduce.
Animal Unit Month (AUM) -- The amount of forage required by a 1,000-pound cow, or the equivalent, for 1 month.
Benefiting Function -- This concept relates to the source of funding for the support needed to conduct integrated resource management projects. Congress has approved the Forest Service's proposal to require that the benefiting or primary purpose program for specific activities pay for the coordination and other support to successfully complete a project. Funds have been shifted among programs in the Forest Service's FY 1995 Budget to facilitate the change.
Best Management Practices -- Known as BMP's, they are methods, measures, or practices selected by an agency to meet its non-point pollution source control needs. Such practices include, but are not limited to, structural and non-structural control, standard operating procedures, and required maintenance procedures. They can be applied before, during, and after pollution-producing activities to reduce or eliminate the introduction of pollutants to a waterway.
Biodiversity -- The variety of life forms and processes within an area. Included in the consideration of diversity are the complexities of genetic variation, number and distribution of species, and the ways in which the variety of biologic communities interact and function.
Board Foot -- A unit of measure represented by a board 1 foot square and 1 inch thick.
Budget Line Items (BLI's) -- Categories within most accounts that identify the purpose, projects, or types of activities financed. Another name for Budget Activities.
Capital Investment Cost -- A cost that increases the amount or usability of natural or developed resources (assets) and is incurred to increase the flow of outputs into the future.
Carbon Sequestration -- The process of carbon fixed by plants and stored for variable periods of time in biomass.
Catastrophic Fire -- A fire which has significant negative impacts on the health and productivity of ecosystems and other human values.
CFC's (Chlorofluorocarbon) -- Any of various compounds consisting of carbon, hydrogen, chlorine, and fluorine, once used as aerosol propellants and refrigerants.
Change On The Range -- "Change on the Range" is part of a broad Forest Service Program called Sharing Common Ground. They are ecosystem management philosophies emphasizing sustaining the health and productivity of rangeland ecosystems.
Chargeable Timber Volume -- Only the timber volume that has been included in the growth and yield projections used for the calculation of the allowable sale quantity is attributable to the allowable sale quantity when sold.
Clean Air Act -- Established to protect and enhance the quality of the Nation's air through air pollution prevention and control.
Clean Water Act -- Establishes policy to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters.
Clearcutting -- A timber-harvesting method for creating an even-aged stand by cutting virtually all of the merchantable trees on an area at one time. Scattered live trees or groups of trees are sometimes left standing within the area for diversity (such as providing for wildlife habitat or for visual quality purposes), but the number of trees retained and their distribution do not meet the silvicultural guidelines for a seed tree or shelterwood regeneration harvest in that forest type.
Composites (wood) -- Products that are made from smaller pieces of wood using physical processes such as very high pressures or glue.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) -- The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Mandates development of a National Contingency plan to establish procedures and standards for responding to releases of hazardous substances, requires development of a ranking system to prioritize waste sites foe evaluation and cleanup, requires regulations be promulgated to assess damages foe injury to natural resources, requires establishment of State Emergency Response Commissions and emergency planning districts, and requires Federal agencies provide information and certain warranties to purchasers of Federal lands concerning the presence of hazardous materials.
Community of Interest -- A term used to describe a planning technique that uses public participation to identify community needs, issues important to communities, and working relationships necessary for to resolve planning problems.
Conservation Ethic -- The conservation ethic refers to the Chief's land and service ethic (Chapter 1).
Consumer Surplus -- The amount above the actual market price of a commodity that a purchaser would pay to avoid doing without the commodity.
Cubic Foot -- A unit for measuring wood equivalent to a cube with 12-inch sides.
Cultural Resource -- The remains of sites, structures, or objects used by humans at least 50 years ago (historical) or predating the European entrance (archaeological).
Disaster Assistance Support Program (DASP) -- A program that provides technical support and relief management assistance to countries throughout the world through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID).
Economic Efficiency -- A technique used to evaluate the effectiveness of inputs (costs) to produce outputs (benefits) and effects when all costs and benefits that can be identified and valued are included in the computations. Economic efficiency is often evaluated using present net value calculations and(or) benefit/cost ratios.
Ecosystem -- A community of living plants and animals interacting with each other and with their physical environment. A geographic area where it is meaningful to address the interrelationships with human social systems, sources of energy, and the ecological processes that shape change over time.
Ecosystem Composition -- The constituent elements of an ecosystem; for example the plant species within an ecosystem.
Ecosystem Function -- The flow of mineral nutrients, water, energy, or species within an ecosystem.
Ecosystem Integrity -- See ecosystem health.
Ecosystem Health -- In a healthy ecosystem, the structure, composition, and function ensure the maintenance of biological diversity, and ecological processes over time.
Ecosystem Management -- A concept of natural resources management wherein National Forest activities are considered within the context of economic, ecological, and social interactions within a defined area or region over both short- and long-term.
Ecosystem Resilience -- The ability to maintain structure and patterns of behavior in the face of disturbance.
Ecosystem Restoration -- The process of reestablishing, to the extent possible, the structure, function, and composition of ecosystems.
Ecosystem Structure -- Various horizontal and vertical physical elements of the ecosystem.
Ecosystem Sustainability -- The ability of an ecosystem to sustain diversity, productivity, resilience to stress, health, renewability, yields of desired values, resource uses, products, or services from an ecosystem while maintaining the integrity of the ecosystem over time.
Endangered Species -- Any species of animals or plants listed as "endangered" by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant part of its habitat.
Endangered Species Act -- Sets a policy for conserving species (and their critical habitat) of fish, wildlife, and plants that are in danger of or threatened with extinction. The Act also sets forward procedures for implementation.
Environmental Justice Executive Order -- Executive Order 12898, "Federal Actions To Address Environmental Justice In Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations" was issued by the President on February 11, 1994. The Executive Order is intended to: 1. focus attention of Federal agencies on the human health and environmental conditions in minority communities and low-income communities 2. foster non-discrimination in the Federal programs that substantially affect human health or the environment; and 3. give minority communities and low-income communities greater opportunities for public participation in, and access to public information on, matters relating to human health and the environment.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) -- A program of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designed to estimate the current status and project trends and detect changes in selected indicators of the condition of the Nation's ecological systems.
Ephemeral Stream Channel -- Streams that contain running water only sporadically, such as during storm events.
Expanded Budget Line Items (EBLI's) -- A further disaggregation of financed bud-get activities that are identified for accountability purposes by the Congress. The Forest Service allocates funds to field units in these categories and compares planned to actual expenditures as part of it's Congressional intent analysis.
Farm Bill -- 1990 Farm Bill is the common name for a collection of Acts passed by the 101st Congress in 1990 such as the Forest Stewardship Act, Agricultural Development and Trade Act, National Forest-Dependent Rural Communities Economic Diversification Act, and the Global Climate Change Prevention Act.
Farmers Home Administration -- Farmers Home Administration is an Agency within the Department of Agriculture. They provide technical and financial assistance programs to qualified citizens or communities usually in rural, farm settings.
Fire Adapted Ecosystems -- Ecosystems that require fire at some frequency and intensity to maintain their structure, function, or composition.
Fire Ecology -- The study of fire and its relationship to the physical, chemical and biological components of an ecosystem.
Fire Prevention -- All activities concerned with minimizing the incidence of wildfire.
Focus Group Meeting -- A meeting of selected participants or the public with the intent to focus on a subject or set of questions and solicit input and comments from small groups.
Forest Health -- See Ecosystem Health--applies to forest ecosystems.
Forest Health Monitoring Program -- A program of the USDA Forest Service and US Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with other federal agencies, and states to monitor, assess, and report on the status, changes, and long-term trends of the health of the Nation's forest ecosystems.
Forest Pests -- Native, introduced, or exotic plants or animals that conflict with ecosystem sustainability and management objectives (see page IV-6 for further elaboration).
Forest Plan -- See Land Management Plan.
Forest Service Employment -- Full-time equivalents (FTE's) of employment by permanent and temporary Forest Service employees.
Full-Time Equivalent (FTE) -- The equivalent of a work year that consists of one or more persons working a total of 2080 hours.
GAP -- The GAP is a biodiversity inventory being conducted by the National Biological Survey. This inventory will provide biological information to Federal, State, and local agencies for planning purposes. Gaps in ecological information are also being identified as part of this project.
General Administration Activities -- Management activities associated with the organizational resources of the Forest Service to ensure efficient and effective use of personnel, capital, and information.
Geographic Information System (GIS) -- Computer hardware and software that permits overlaying physical, biological, social and economic information for display on maps.
Global Change -- Changes in the global environment (alterations in climate, oceans, atmospheric chemistry, and ecological systems) that may change the ability of the Earth to sustain life.
Global Change Research Program -- A cooperative program with other Federal agencies, universities, and industry to study the impacts of global change.
Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA) -- The Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) was passed by Congress in 1992 and requires agencies of the Federal Government to conduct strategic planning and incorporate performance measures into agency planning activities.
Greenhouse Effect -- The sequence of phenomena comprising the absorption of solar radiation, its conversion and re-admission in the infrared, and the absorption of the radiation by atmospheric ozone, water vapor, and carbon dioxide, preventing its dissipation into space and resulting in a steady, gradual rise in the temperature of the atmosphere.
Greenhouse Gases -- greenhouse gases are any molecule that absorbs radiation in approximately the 8 to 14 m wavelength of the infrared spectrum; the wavelengths which the earth radiates into space. Carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, and chlorofluorocarbons are examples of greenhouse gases.
Habitat -- The place where a plant or animal naturally or normally lives and grows.
Habitat Capability -- Capability of an area, given the conditions of topography, vegetation, water, and climate, to support a number of adult individuals of a species, subspecies, or group of species.
Habitat Conservation Assessments -- A technical analysis of habitat conditions and requirements for species, or groups of species, within an ecosystem.
Hazardous Waste Sites -- An area identified by federal state or local government agencies where and accumulation of hazardous materials creates a threat to the health and safety of individuals or the environment.
Heritage Values -- Values associated with a significant archaeological, historical or cultural property.
Intermittent Stream Channel -- Any non-permanent flowing drainage feature having a definable channel and evidence of scour or deposition.
Informed Consent -- A public participation philosophy whose goal is to develop consent by working with groups or individuals potentially affected by a proposed activity.
Infrastructure -- The facilities, utilities, and transportation systems needed to meet public and administrative needs.
Integrated Pest Management -- A process for selecting strategies to regulate a forest pest in which all aspects of a pest-host system are studied and weighed, including the impact on various resource values and the ecological acceptability of the strategy.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change -- A consortium of experts on climate change from 60 countries chartered by the United Nations to determine the likelihood of a future change in climate.
Knutson-Vandenberg Funds -- Funds deposited by timber sale purchasers to the Federal Treasury. These funds are available to the Forest Service for wildlife and fisheries, timber, soil, air, and watershed restoration and enhancement projects, within the timber sale areas. These projects are approved prior to selling of the timber sales. Project approval is documented in timber sale area betterment plans.
Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) -- The goal of the LWCF Act of 1965 is to assist in preserving, developing, and assuring, accessibility to all citizens of the United States of America such quality and quantity of outdoor recreation resources as may be available, and to strengthen the health and vitality of the citizens by providing funds for, and authorizing the Federal acquisition and development of certain lands and other areas.
Land Management Plan -- A plan developed for an individual national forest's renew-able resources that establishes resource goals, objectives, standards, and guidelines for environmentally sound management of those resources in a given period of time. The plan is supported by analysis of the management situation, including demand and supply conditions for resources and services, production potentials, and use and development opportunities.
Land Ownership Adjustments -- Lands acquired through purchase, donation, exchange transfer, sale, grant, and selection.
Landscape -- A distinct association of land types that exhibit a unique combination of local climate, landform, topography, geomorphic process, surfical geology, soil, biota, and human influences. Landscapes are generally of a size that the eye can comprehend in a single view.
Landscape Connectivity -- Condition in which the spatial arrangement of ecosystems allows organisms and ecological processes to move across the landscape. Connectivity is the opposite of fragmentation.
Livestock Management, Satisfactory Condition -- Satisfactory livestock management condition means the soil is adequately protected and that forage species, composition, and production are at or trending toward acceptable levels and meeting livestock forage objectives specified in an approved allotment management plan (AMP). Also includes and applies to wild horse and burro territory.
Livestock Management, Unsatisfactory Condition -- Unsatisfactory livestock management condition means the soil is not adequately protected or the forage species, composition, and production are not at or trending toward acceptable levels for meeting livestock forage objectives. Also includes and applies to wild horse and burro territory.
Multiple Use Sustained Yield Act -- Authorized and directed that the Nation's forests be managed for multiple uses including outdoor recreation, range, timber, watershed, and wildlife and fish and to produce a sustained yield of products and services.
National Biological Service -- The National Biological Service is an agency within the Department of Interior. The Service was created in May of 1993 by Secretary Order No. 3164. The mission of the NBS is to consolidate and enhance existing biological research in the Department of Interior and promote understanding of biological systems and their benefits for society.
National Forest Foundation -- An organization directed by private citizens and dedicated to conserving and promoting our Nation's forests and Forest Service Programs.
National Forest System -- The term used to include the national forests, national grasslands, and other related lands that the Forest Service has administers responsibility.
Native Prairie Ecosystems -- A grassland area dominated by indigenous tall prairie grasses, level or rolling land with deep fertile soils.
Natural Resource Conservation Education Program -- Program through State and Private Forestry that helps people, especially young people, understand and appreciate the Nation's natural resources and how to conserve those resources for future generations.
Neotropical Migrants -- Neotropical migratory birds, more than 200 species, migrate each spring to breeding grounds in the United States and Canada, then fly south to spend the bulk of the year in Mexico, Central or South America, or the Caribbean.
NEPA -- The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 declared a national policy to "encourage productive and enjoyable harmony between man and his environment". NEPA and implementing regulations by the Council on Environmental Quality specify procedure for integrating environmental considerations into agency planning.
NFMA -- The National Forest Management Act of 1976. This act provides guidelines for planning and management of the National Forests.
NGO's -- Non-Government Organizations.
Objective -- A concise, time-specific statement of measurable planned results that respond to pre-established goals. An objective forms the basis for further planning to defining both the precise steps to be taken and the resources to be used in achieving identified goals.
Old Growth -- Old-growth stands are a contiguous group of trees usually at least 180-200 years old with moderate to high canopy closure; a multi-layered multi-species canopy dominated by large overstory trees; a high incidence of large trees, some with large, broken tops and other indications of old and decaying wood; numerous large snags; and heavy accumulations of wood, including large logs on the ground.
Operations and Maintenance Cost -- Costs associated with the upkeep, administrations, and support of existing Forest Service programs, assets, and activities. These costs do not result in a change in the nature of assets or the natural resources.
Organic Act -- The Organic Administration Act of 1897 specified the purposes for which forest reserves might be established and provided for their protection and management.
PACFISH -- A term used to describe an ongoing management approach to conserve and restore riparian areas, and improve freshwater stream habitat for Pacific salmon and steelhead species. It is a West-wide strategy involving management of National Forests and BLM administered lands in Oregon, Washington, California, and Idaho.
Permitted Grazing -- The number of animal unit months permitted for grazing by domestic livestock on National Forest System lands.
Prescribed Fire -- A fire resulting from planned or unplanned ignition which is burning within acceptable ranges of a defined set of environmental parameters including wind direction, humidity, temperature, wind speed, and fuel moisture and the limit of the geographical area to be covered.
Present Net Value (PNV) -- The difference between the discounted benefits of all outputs to which monetary values or estimated prices are assigned and the discounted costs of producing those outputs.
Program -- Set of activities or projects with specific objectives, defined in terms of specific results and responsibilities for accomplishment.
Program Budget -- A plan that allocates annual funds, workforce ceilings, and targets among Forest Service management units to accomplish a program of activities.
Range Grazing Allotment -- A designated area of land available for livestock grazing upon which a specified number and kind of livestock may graze for a certain period.
Range of Variability -- The observed limits of change in composition, structure, and function of an ecosystem over a specified period of time resulting from variations in the frequency, magnitude, and pattern of disturbances.
Rangelands -- Land on which the native vegetation is predominately grasses, grass-like plants, forbs, or shrubs suitable for grazing or browsing use.
RARE II Areas -- Roadless areas inventoried in the second roadless area review and evaluation (36CFR 219.17).
Rangeland Health -- See Ecosystem Health, applies to rangelands.
Receipts -- Program receipts representing actual dollar returns to the United States Treasury in exchange for goods or services from National Forest System lands.
Recreation Opportunity Spectrum -- A framework for stratifying and defining classes of outdoor recreation environments, activities, and experience opportunities. The settings, activities, and opportunities for obtaining experiences have been arranged along a continuum or spectrum divided into six classes-primitive, semiprimitive non-motorized, semiprimitive motorized, roaded natural, rural, and urban.
Recreation Residences -- The term "recreation residences" includes only those residences that occupy planned, approved tracts or those groups of residences established for recreation residence use.
Recreation Use -- All recreation activities occurring on National Forest System lands during a year (also includes wilderness use and wildlife and fish use). Recreation use is measured in visits.
Recreation Use, Less Than Standard -- Use at a recreational facility where established standards in the categories of facility maintenance, resource protection, visitor health, and safety are not fully met.
Recreation Use, Standard -- Use at a recreational facility managed at a relatively high level of cleanliness, water supply, protection, and other visitor services, with repairs and maintenance attended to as necessary.
Recreation Visit -- A recreation visit is an entry of one person to a National Forest System site or area of land/water for the purpose of participating in one or more recreation activities for an unspecified period of time.
Reforestation -- The restocking of an area with trees, either naturally or artificially. Artificial methods include tree planting and seeding by people; natural methods include seeding by nature.
Reserved and Outstanding Rights -- Ownership or rights to the resources of a specific parcel of land where the land surface is owned by another party. Often, a federally owned surface overlies privately held rights to underlying minerals, oil, and gas.
Riparian -- An area of vegetation adjacent to an aquatic ecosystem distinguished by a high water table, certain soil characteristics, and some vegetation that requires free water or conditions that are more moist than normal.
Reprogramming Authority -- Utilization of funds in an appropriation account for purposes other than those contemplated at the time of appropriation. Reprogramming is generally proceeded by consultation between the Federal Agencies and the appropriate congressional committees. It involves formal notification and , in some instances, opportunity for disapproval by congressional committees.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RICRA) -- The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act promotes conservation of valuable material and energy resources, provides for promulgation of guidelines for solid waste management, establishes a regulatory system to track hazardous wastes from the time of generation to disposal, regulates use of underground storage tanks, phases out land disposal of hazardous waste, and waives sovereign immunity of the United States making Federal facilities subject to civil penalties and fines from the US Environmental Protection Agency, State and local environmental agencies.
Road Construction -- The building of new vehicular transportation facilities to a specific construction standard. Includes all new road construction regardless of functional classification, resource area served, or construction source. This includes roads constructed by timber purchasers, mineral claimants or lessees, and other permittees, as well as those constructed with appropriated funds- all of which become a part of the forest development road system.
Roadless Areas -- Undeveloped areas that meet minimum criteria for wilderness consideration under the Wilderness Act. (36CFR 219.17)
Road Operation and Maintenance -- Expenditures to control and maintain forest development roads, including overhead and support. Costs of administering the existing forest development road system include signs for existing roads, condition surveys, as well as actual maintenance work. Also includes inspection, load rating, posting, and bridge maintenance.
Road Reconstruction -- The rebuilding of existing forest development roads to safe standards.
Roads Closed -- Forest development road system that is not continuously open to motor vehicles on a yearlong basis.
RPA Assessment -- An analysis of present and anticipated uses, demand for, and supply of renewable resources. The Assessment is prepared every 10 years in response to the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act.
Rural Community Assistance Program -- As a part of State and Private Forestry this program focuses on helping rural communities capitalize on available local human and natural resources to improve the quality of life and the social and economic situation.
Rural Development -- The utilization, protection, and enhancement of the natural, physical, and human resources needed to make long-term improvements in rural living conditions, provide jobs and income opportunities, and enrich cultural life while maintaining and protecting the environment of rural America. In the Forest Service, rural development is accomplished through the coordinated use of available human, technical, financial, and natural resources in partnership with national, State, and local entities on initiatives for improving the conditions for citizens of rural areas.
Salvage Sale -- A salvage sale is timber sale where the primary reason for entry is that most of the trees are insect-infested or are dying or damaged, or the trees are dead standing or down, and they can still be useful as logs, firewood, or other wood products. Associated healthy trees in the stand can be removed to improve the whole stand, if it is efficient and desirable, in order to leave the stand in a healthier condition.
Salvage Sale Fund -- The salvage sale fund is a special fund available for preparing salvage sales, partial salvage sales, and other qualified sales, and for administering salvage sales and partial salvage sales. The fund is intended to permit an increase in the volume of salvage sales beyond those normally financed by appropriated funds and to prepare sales lost or damaged as a result of fires, insect infestations, and other causes. The National Forest Management Act of 1976 provides the authority for this fund.
Sawtimber -- Trees containing at least one 10-foot sawlog or two non-contiguous 8-foot logs and meeting regional specifications for freedom from defect. Softwood trees must be at least 9 inches in diameter and hardwood trees 11 inches in diameter at breast height (4.5 feet above the ground).
Self Determination -- This term is used with Indian Tribes and Nations to means Indians are given the authority and responsibility to operate programs and engage in enterprises which were formerly done for them by the government or were simply unavailable. It is the freedom to choose one's own fate or course of action without compulsion.
Sensitive Species -- Selected plant and animal species for which population viability is a concern, as evidenced by significant current or predicted downward trends in population numbers or density, and significant current or predicted downward trends in habitat capability that would reduce a species' existing distribution. Sensitive species are not included in the Endangered Species Act.
Sensitive Species Program -- A Forest Service program which identifies plant and animal species for which population viability is a concern. Management is directed to maintain or enhance habitat for those species.
SISK Act -- The Sisk Act or the Land Exchanges with States and Local Governments Act of December 4, 1967, (16 USC 484a) authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to exchange National Forest lands or other lands.
Softwoods -- Usually coniferous trees with needles or scale-like leaves.
Standard Recreation Sites and Areas -- Standard recreation sites and areas include those facilities where management of the recreation program meets established standards. These standards can be aggregated into the following three categories:
1. Facility Maintenance - Facilities are considered to be managed to standard when they are maintained at a level that allows the facility to remain in full use for its entire life expectancy without premature replacement.
2. Resource Protection - The soil, water, air, vegetative, and visual resources are considered to be managed to standard when deterioration of the resources is prevented or held to an acceptable level.
3. Visitor Health, Safety, and Satisfaction - Recreation use is considered standard when all known safety and health hazards are eliminated to the extent practicable where facilities are involved and are mitigated or brought to the users' attention in general forest areas. Users must also receive satisfaction and enjoyment from their recreational experience if it is to be considered standard; this relates to available information, interpretation, condition of areas, and visitor protection and supervision.
State Forester -- The person responsible for administering the natural resource/forestry program in an individual state.
State Urban Forestry Councils -- State Urban Forestry Councils provide technical and financial assistance to urban areas and communities to develop and implement, in concert with the State Urban Forestry coordinator, urban forestry projects. The councils are made up of volunteers within a State.
Statewide Forest Resource Plan -- A statewide forest resource plan prepared by State forestry organizations provides program guidance and direction for forestry-related activities on State-owned and private forest lands. The statewide plan addresses forest and related resources and makes recommendations for programs, policies, outputs, and most specific land uses.
Stewardship Program -- As part of State and Private Forestry, this program provides technical assistance to non-industrial private landowners to manage lands so that non-commodity resources are considered and balanced with commodity outputs.
Sustainability -- A concept which reflects the capacity of a dynamic ecosystem to maintain its composition, function, and structure over time, thus maintaining the productivity of the land and a diversity of plants and animals.
Sustainable Development -- Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Sustainable Forestry -- The collection of actions people use to conserve, augment, modify, or replace features of the forest so as to perpetuate desired qualities over time.
Threatened and Endangered Species Recovery Plans -- Plans approved by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and used by the forests to determine Forest Service objectives to guide recovery activities.
Threatened Species -- Any species of animals or plants listed as "threatened" by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or part of its range.
Timber Bridge -- The Timber Bridge initiative program is a component of market development and expansion efforts to diversify and strengthen local economies by improving transportation networks, expanding the range of markets for wood products, and creating service industries for wood bridge and other highway, marine, and railroad construction.
Trust Responsibilities (related to treaty rights) -- Responsibility of the Forest Service to uphold the laws recognizing Native American governments, the specific rights enjoyed by these governments, and treaties which may have application to specific areas of the National Forest.
Urban and Community Forestry -- A program that promotes improvement in community quality of life through the planting and management of trees, shrubs, and other vegetation. The object of this program is to improve the environment and make major contributions to soil, water, and air quality.
Vital Communities -- Where individuals and families within a community find comfort, security, connectedness, and other aspects of defining a high quality of life. Vitality of communities has social, economic and environmental dimensions.
Water Rights -- A state controlled legal right to use the water of a natural stream or water furnished through a ditch, pipe or delivery system for general or specific purposes, such as irrigation, mining, power, or domestic use, either to its full capacity or to a measured extent or defined portion of time.
Watershed -- The drainage basin contributing water, organic matter, dissolved nutrients, and sediments to a stream or lake.
Watershed Analysis -- A systematic procedure for characterizing watershed and ecological processes to meet specific management and social objectives. Watershed analysis is a stratum of ecosystem management planning applied to watersheds of approximately 20 to 200 square miles.
Watershed Condition Classes -- A relative description of the health of a watershed as measured against management objectives in terms of the factors that affect favorable conditions of water flow and soil capability. National Forest System watersheds range in size from approximately 40,000 to 180,000 acres. Each watershed is assigned to one of the three following watershed condition classes:
Class I - Watersheds that provide a robust basis for sustained production of goods and services. The watershed management is such that no long-term changes are occurring even with major storms. Risks of management-induced deterioration in watershed condition are very low. These watersheds represent an attainable, desirable condition. They are in dynamic equilibrium as evidenced by a stable drainage network. The response to use is accommodated by the current channel network density size and process.
Class II - Watersheds that are not attaining the requirements for Class I but do not require capital investment to restore watershed conditions. Watershed conditions can be improved to Class I levels through integrated multiple-use management. This class includes watersheds where extensive land-disturbing activities are occurring or are scheduled for the near future. Class II watersheds may also include sensitive watersheds that, when subjected to impacts, can quickly fall to Class III conditions.
Class III - Watersheds that require technological and economically feasible capital investments to restore watershed conditions to a level consistent with management goals. Determination of feasibility must also consider environmental, social, and economic desirability. These land treatments and structural measures are necessary to provide an improved watershed equilibrium that can then enable management, through integrated multiple-resource activities, to attain watershed condition goals.
Wetlands -- Areas that are inundated by surface water or ground water with a frequency sufficient to support, and under normal circumstances do or would support, a prevalence of vegetative or aquatic life that require saturated or seasonally saturated soil conditions for growth and reproduction.
Wilderness Area -- An area of undeveloped Federal land that Congress designated as wilderness and that retains its primeval character and influence, without permanent improvements or human habitation, and is protected and managed to preserve its natural conditions. An area that (1) generally appears to have been affected primarily by the forces of nature, with the imprint of man's work substantially unnoticeable; (2) has outstanding opportunities for solitude or a primitive and unconfined type of recreation; (3) comprises at least 5,000 acres of land or is of sufficient size to make practicable its preservation and use in an unimpaired condition; and (4) may also contain ecological, geological, or other features of scientific, educational, scenic, or historical value (Wilderness Act, 1964).
Wilderness Use -- All recreation activities occurring in designated wilderness areas during a year. Wilderness use is measured in visits and is a subset of recreation use.
Wildland-Urban Interface -- An area where urban encroachment into adjacent wildland areas is increasing the complexity and magnitude of problems related to all aspects of natural resource management and protection, including increased fire risks, unauthorized use, and littering.
Wildlife and Fish Use -- All hunting, fishing, and nonconsumptive wildlife and fish recreation activities occurring on National Forest System lands during a year. Wildlife and fish use is measured in visits and is a subset of recreation use.
Windows on the Past -- Windows on the past is a Forest Service program that shares the cultural heritage of our Country with forest visitors. Projects include interpretive trails, living history demonstrations, heritage celebrations, historic site tours and many more. One of the larger projects under this program is Passport in Time, or PIT. PIT is a volunteer program, inviting the public to participate in heritage resource management projects on national forests all across the country. PIT volunteers get real hands-on experience with archaeology excavation, historic structure reconstruction, archaeological survey, oral history, and laboratory analysis.
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