United States            Suitability of North American                             
Department of            Tree Species to the Gypsy Moth:                           
Agriculture              A Summary of Field                                        
                         and Laboratory Tests                                      
Forest Service                                                                     
                                                                                   
Northeastern Forest                                                                
Experiment Station                                                                 
                                                                                   
General Technical                                                                  
Report NE-                                                                         

                         Andrew M. Liebhold                                        
                         Kurt W. Gottschalk                                        
                         Rose-Marie Muzika                                         
                         Michael E. Montgomery                                     
                         Regis Young                                               
                         Kathleen O'Day                                            
                         Brooks Kelley                                             










Abstract

As the gypsy moth expands its range into new portions of the United States, there is a need to predict which tree species will be attacked by this defoliating insect. There have been several studies describing feeding preferences of the gypsy moth, but these results have not been summarized in a single list. We report and summarize all of the major tests of foliage suitability to gypsy moth for tree species that are found in the United States. Foliage suitability to gypsy moth is a trait that is correlated among closely related species. As a result, it is possible to extrapolate foliage suitability of North American tree species for which no screenings have been performed. A list of foliage suitability is summarized as susceptible, resistant, or immune, for every tree species in the United States.



The Authors

ANDREW M. LIEBHOLD is a research entomologist, KURT W. GOTTSCHALK is a research forester, ROSE-MARIE MUZIKA is a research ecologist, MICHAEL E. MONTGOMERY is a research entomologist, REGIS YOUNG and, KATHLEEN O'DAY are biological technicians, BROOKS KELLEY is a former computer assistant with the USDA Forest Service's, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. Liebhold, Gottschalk, Muzika, Young, and Kelley are located in Morgantown, West Virginia. Montgomery and O'Day are located in Hamden, Connecticut.


Manuscript received for publication 27 April 1995


USDA Forest Service

5 Radnor Corporate Center, Suite 200

Radnor, PA 19087-4585

August 1995

Introduction

The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), was introduced in the United States around 1869 around Boston. Since that time, it has spread slowly to the North, West, and South, and its current range includes all of the Northeastern States, as well as portions of Michigan, Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, and North Carolina (Liebhold et al. 1992). Over the next 50 years it is likely that the gypsy moth will expand its range to include much of the Southeast and Midwest. Over the last 100 years, defoliation by this insect has caused considerable damage to several of the most valuable tree species in the Northeast, particularly the oaks (Quercus spp). To prepare for this pest in currently uninfested regions, there is a need to identify the tree species that the gypsy moth is likely to attack.

Several studies have attempted to classify the susceptibility of various tree species to defoliation by the gypsy moth. Perhaps the most meaningful studies have been those that quantified defoliation levels on individual tree stands with high-density populations of gypsy moth (Campbell and Sloan 1977; Gansner and Herrick 1985). While these studies provide useful information on the susceptibility of different tree species to the gypsy moth, the geographic scope of such empirical field data is limited to the Northeastern United States. Information about the susceptibility of tree species that are not found in this region is available only from laboratory studies (e.g., Forbush and Fernald 1896; Mosher 1915; Miller and Hanson 1989a).

In reviewing gypsy moth feeding trials, Montgomery (1991) pointed out that it is difficult to compare these studies because virtually no two used the same techniques. In some trials, gypsy moths were confined to the foliage of two or more species; in others, there were no choices. Further, some studies based evaluations of host suitability solely on growth (i.e., weight gain), others on survival, and still others on the propensity of gypsy moths to feed on the foliage. In fact, The suitability of a tree species in the field is a combination of both choice and performance (Montgomery 1991).

Apart from the difficulties in comparing data from non-standardized trials, there is a need to combine information on tree suitability into a single source. The objective of this report was to tabulate the results of field observations and laboratory feeding trials to obtain a generalization of the suitability of tree species. For each species we developed a ranking (1-3) of foliage suitability. For species with extensive tests in the literature, this rank represents a summary of these tests. For tree species for which there are few or no reports, the rank is a "best guess" based on the results of field and laboratory tests of closely related species.

Methods

The scope of this study was confined to tree species that are native to or common in the United States. We define a tree as any woody plant that attains a diameter at breast height of 6 or more inches. We obtained an initial list of tree species from USDA Forest Service forest inventory data, but added additional species listed elsewhere (Little 1979; Gleason and Cronquist 1991; Hitchcock and Cronquist 1976; Radford et al. 1983; Morin 1993; Bailey 1951; Silba 1986). For purposes of tabulation, all species were listed in taxonomic order (phylum, class, order, and so on). The phylogenetic classification follows that of Cronquist (1988). Latin binomial names of gymnosperms were used as they appear in Morin (1993). Nomenclature of all other tree species were extracted from published lists of various regional floras (Gleason and Cronquist 1991; Hitchcock and Cronquist 1976; Radford et al. 1983).

The results of four field studies of host suitability were included in the summary (Campbell and Sloan 1977; Gansner and Herrick 1985; Lechowicz and Jobin 1983; Maufette et al. 1983). While there are other publications that report defoliation levels on different tree species, only these studies examined a broad range of species, though they differed in the way that host preference was measured and interpreted. Campbell and Sloan (1977) and Gansner and Herrick (1985) reported suitability in terms of observed defoliation levels. By contrast, Lechowicz and Jobin (1983) and Maufette et al. (1983) reported preference in terms of an "electivity index" which was based on larval numbers found on a given species relative to the species' dominance in the stand. We categorized the results of these studies into one of three relative ranks (Table 1) using Montgomery's (1991) concepts of "susceptible," "resistant," and "immune" as guidelines.

The results of seven laboratory feeding trials were included in the summary (Edwards et al. 1981; Forbush and Fernald 1896; Miller and Hanson 1989a, b; Montgomery 1994; Mosher 1915; Nielsen 1992). Again, there are other publications that report gypsy moth performance on different tree species but they lack a sufficiently broad range of tree species to be included here. As described by Montgomery (1991), these studies differ in procedures used to assess foliage suitability, but it is possible to categorize the results into relative ranks (Table 1). For each of the Miller and Hanson (1981a, b) trials, we extracted two groups of data: one summarized information on larval survival; the other summarized pupal weights. The 1-3 ranking was applied to each of these. Two classifications were derived from Mosher (1915). One classification gives the actual ranks (1-4) that Mosher reported in a summary table. The other classification was derived by incorporating our interpretation of Mosher's narrative description of his feeding trial results into Montgomery's 1-3 ranks. The feeding trials of Edwards et al. (1981) and Forbush and Fernald (1896) are different from the other five laboratory feeding trials in that these authors noted only whether or not larvae fed on the shoot when confined with it for several days. These studies identify which species are immune to attack but do not distinguish between resistant and susceptible species. Since they resemble binomial ranks, they were scored as (+) or (-) to indicate plants fed on or not fed on, respectively.

We also included the results of one review article (Montgomery 1991) because it is the only study that reinterpreted previous feeding trials after adjusting for variations among trials. Montgomery accomplished this adjustment by expressing foliage suitability as the ratio of pupal weight of larvae reared on a host species divided by the pupal weight of larvae reared on white oak, (Quercus alba) in the same study. Thus, the continuous relative index produced was then divided into three ranks (Table 1).

We combined all of the results of all 15 studies into a single rank statistic for each species. Again, this rank follows the same categories described by Montgomery (1991). In several cases there was disagreement as to the results of different studies. We usually gave the field studies greater importance than laboratory studies in forming the summary rank. Generally, the results of Mosher (1915), Edwards et al. (1981), and Forbush and Fernald (1896) were given little significance since their methods were problematic (Montgomery 1991). No data were available for several species. In these cases we used taxonomic affinities to guide the formation of a "guess." Results obtained from congeneric species were used to extrapolate ranks to these species. For species lacking congeneric species that were used in published studies, we used information from similar species in the same family.

Results

Results of previous studies on foliage suitability as well as our composite summary suitability rating are given in Table 2. This table lists the scientific names of trees in alphabetical order. Table 3 is an index to common names, and Table 4 is the taxonomic checklist for all species listed in Table 2.

Table 2 generally supports Lechowicz and Maufette's (1986) conclusion that variation in foliage suitability to the gypsy moth is highly related to taxonomic affinity of tree species. Foliage suitability tends to be similar both among congeneric species, and among genera within the same family. For example, feeding trials indicated high foliage suitability for virtually all Quercus species tested to date. Similarity within genera and higher taxonomic groups was the basis for our use of the suitability of closely related tree species to extrapolate the suitability of species for which there is no known information. However, caution should be used in drawing conclusions based on these extrapolations as there often is considerable variation in foliage suitability within the same genus (e.g., Betula), and variation is even greater among genera within the same family (e.g., Pinaceae).

Montgomery (1991) pointed out the difficulty in interpreting the results of gypsy moth feeding trials. Table 2 shows that variation in measurement and interpretation techniques used in the different studies often resulted in contradictory conclusions. Clearly, actual measurements of gypsy moth defoliation levels in the field are more meaningful indicators of hosts suitability. Montgomery also pointed out that there often is considerable variation in foliage suitability within a species.

We expect that more reliable estimates of suitability will become available as additional tests are completed. The feeding trials summarized here are currently constitute the best available information for predicting future effects on these species, but these data should be updated periodically. Definitive measures of foliage suitability will not be available for North American tree species until gypsy moth populations become established in the range of all of these species.

Acknowledgments

This compilation of the material presented in this publication was funded primarily by the Gypsy Moth Environmental Impact Statement project, USDA Forest Service, State and Private Forestry. We gratefully acknowledge this assistance. We also thank Yuri Baranchikov, Jeff Miller, and Helen Thompson for reviewing an earlier draft of this manuscript.

References

Bailey, Liberty H. 1951. Manual of cultivated plants. New York: Macmillan. 1116 p.

Barbosa, P.; Greenblatt, J. 1979. Suitability, digestibility, and assimilation of various host plants of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.). Oecologia. 43: 111-119.

Campbell, Robert W.; Sloan, Ronald J. 1977. Forest stand responses to defoliation by the gypsy moth. Forest Science Monograph. 19. 34 p.

Cronquist, A. 1988. Evolution and classification of flowering plants. New York: New York Botanical Garden.

Edwards, Tordon J.; Nishimatsu, Carol F.; Fusco, Robert A. 1981. Gypsy moth larva host plant screening and evaluation. on file at Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Morgantown, WV. 37 p.

Forbush, Edward H.; Fernald, Charles H. 1896. The gypsy moth. Porthetria Dispar (Linn.). Boston: Wright & Potter. 495 p.

Gansner, David A.; Herrick, Owen W. 1985. Host preferences of gypsy moth on a new frontier of infestation. Res. Note NE-330. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 3p.

Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p.

Hitchcock, Leo C.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1976. Flora of the Pacific Northwest, an illustrated manual. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p.

Lechowicz, Martin J.; Jobin, Luc. 1983. Estimating the susceptibility of tree species to attack by the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. Ecological Entomology. 8: 171-183.

Lechowicz, M.J.; Mauffette, Y. 1986. Host preferences of the gypsy moth in eastern North American versus European forests. Revue d'Entomologie du Quebec. 31: 43-51.

Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 375 p.

Mauffette, N.; Lechowicz, J.; Jobin, L. 1983. Host preferences of the gypsy moth, Lymantria Dispar (L.) in southern Quebec. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 13: 53-60.

Miller, Jeffrey C.; Hanson, Paul E. 1989a. Laboratory feeding tests on the development of gypsy moth larvae with reference to plant taxa and allelochemicals. Stn. Bull. 674. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, Agriculture Experiment Station. 63 p.

Miller, Jeffrey C.; Hanson, Paul E. 1989b. Laboratory studies on development of gypsy moth, Lymantria Dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), larvae on foliage of gymnosperms. Canadian Entomologist. 121(6): 425-429.

Montgomery, Michael E. 1991. Variation in the suitability of tree species for gypsy moth. In: Gottschalk, Kurt W.; Twery, Mark J.; Smith, Shirley I., eds. Proceedings, U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency gypsy moth research review 1990; 1990 January 22-25; East Windsor, CT. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-146. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 1-13.

Montgomery, Michael E. 1994. Comparison on several tree species of growth and survival of newly-hatched larvae of gypsy moth from three continents. on file at Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Hamden, Connecticut. 2 p.

Morin, Nancy R., ed. 1993. Flora of North America, north of Mexico, volume 2: pteridophytes and gymnosperms. Oxford University Press. 475 p.

Mosher, F. H. 1915. Food plants of the gypsy moth in America. Bull. No. 250. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 39 p.

Nielsen, D.G. 1992. Ability of gypsy moth to utilize urban and native woody plants in the Pacific Northwest. on file at Ohio Agric. Research and Dev. Center, Wooster, OH. 7 p.

Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1983. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p.

Silba, John. 1986. Encyclopedia coniferae. Phytologia Memoirs VIII, Moldenke and Moldenke. 217 p.

Twery, Mark J. 1991. Effects of defoliation by gypsy moth. In: Gottschalk, Kurt W.; Twery, Mark J.; Smith, Shirley I., eds. Proceedings, U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency gypsy moth research review; 1990; 1990 January 22-25; East Windsor, CT. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-146. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 27-39.

Table 1.--Description of suitability ranks summarized from the literature


No.                                               Basis of rank                     

1    Campbell and Sloan 1977  Composite defoliation ratio between each tree         
     (Table 6, page 17)       species and white oak                                 
                              1 defoliation ratio > 0.5                             
                              2 0.1 < defoliation ratio < 0.5                       
                              3 defoliation ratio < 0.1                             

2    Gansner and Herrick      Average defoliation by species:                       
     1985 (Figure 2, page 2)  1 defoliation > 30%                                   
                              2 10% < defoliation < 30%                             
                              3 defoliation < 10%                                   

3    Lechowicz and Jobin      Composite Electivity Index (E) based on larval        
     1983                     abundance:                                            
     (Table 2, page 178)      1 E* > 0                                              
                              2 -0.62 < E* < 0                                      
                              3 E* < -0.62                                          

4    Mauffette et al. 1983    Composite Electivity Index (E) based on larval        
     (Table 3, page 58)       abundance:                                            
                              1 E* > 0.1                                            
                              2 -0.3 < E* < 0.1                                     
                              3 E* < -0.3                                           

 5   Miller and Hanson 1989a  Larval survival:                                      
     (Appendix I, pages       1 Larval survival from 1st instar, 100% pupation      
     30-48)                   2 Larvae did not survive at all instars, less than    
                              100% pupation                                         
                              3 Larvae did not molt, no pupation                    

6    Miller and Hanson 1989a  Pupal weight:                                         
     (Appendix I, pages       1 pupa > 1000 mg                                      
     30-48)                   2 700 mg < pupa < 1000 mg                             
                              3 pupa < 700 mg                                       

7    Miller and Hanson 1989b  Larval survival:                                      
     (Table 1, pages          1 survival from 1st instar, 100% pupation             
     427-428)                 2 survival from 1st instar, less than 100% pupation   
                              3 survival from later than 1st instar, less than      
                              100% pupation                                         

8    Miller and Hanson 1989b  Pupal weight:                                         
     (Table I, pages          1 pupa >1000 mg                                       
     427-428)                 2 700 mg < pupa < 1000 mg                             
                              3 pupa < 700 mg                                       

9    Montgomery 1994          Average weights of 1st instars after 10 days          
                              feeding:                                              
                              1 larva > 8 mg                                        
                              2 2.5 mg < larva < 8 mg                               
                              3 larva < 2.5 mg                                      




No.                                               Basis of rank                     

10   Nielsen 1992             Larval growth and survival:                           
                              1 High growth and survival of new larvae              
                              2 Growth rate is less than group 1, but considered    
                              good hosts                                            
                              3 Supported growth to about the same extent as red    
                              maple                                                 
                              4 Larvae did not survive                              

11   Mosher 1915 (plant       Larval foliage preferences:                           
     classification tables,   1 Favored food                                        
     pages 33-34)             2 Favored after the earlier larval stages             
                              3 Not particularly favored                            
                              4 Unfavored                                           

12   Mosher 1915              Larval foliage preferences:                           
     (reinterpretation of     1 susceptible                                         
     narratives)              2 resistant                                           
                              3 immune                                              

13   Edwards et al. 1981      Tests of foliage preferences by larvae:               
     (Appendix 5, pages       + accepted flora                                      
     35-37)                   - non or poorly accepted flora                        

14   Forbush and Fernald      Tests of foliage preferences by larvae:               
     1896 (plant lists,       + accepted flora                                      
     pages 318-323)           - accepted only when forced by starvation             

15   Montgomery 1991 (From    Ratio of the pupal weight on the host to the pupal    
     Table 2, page 5)         weight on white oak within the same study:            
                              1 ratio > 0.9                                         
                              2 0.5 < ratio < 0.9                                   
                              3 ratio < 0.5                                         



Table 2.--Gypsy moth suitability rankings (see Table 1 for codes and references)


                                           Reference no.            

Tree       Species        Combine 1  2   3  4  5  6   7  8  9   10 11 12 13  14 15 
                             d                                                     
                          ranking                                                  

Abelia     chinensis         3                 3                                   
           var.                                                                    
           grandiflora                                                             

Abies      amabilis          3                                                     

Abies      balsamea          3                                     4  3   -  +     

Abies      bifolia           3                                     4  3   -  +     

Abies      bracteata         2                                                     

Abies      concolor          2                        2  2                         

Abies      fraseri           3                                                     

Abies      grandis           2                        3  2                +        

Abies      holophylla        3                        3  3                +        

Abies      lasiocarpa        3                                                     

Abies      lowiana           3                                                     

Abies      magnifica         3                                                     

Abies      procera           2                        3  3                         

Acacia     baileyana         2                 1   3                               

Acacia     farnesiana        2                                                     

Acacia     greggii           2                                                     

Acacia     koa               2                                                     

Acacia     longifolia        2                 2   2                               

Acacia     spp.              2                                            +        

Acacia     tortuosa          2                                                     

Acacia     wrightii          2                                                     

Acer       barbatum          2                                                     

Acer       campestre         2                                                     

Acer       circinatum        2                 1   3                               

Acer       ginnala           3                               3                     

Acer       glabrum           2                                                     

Acer       grandidentatum    2                                                     
                                                                                   

Acer       japonicum         2                                                     

Acer       leucoderme        2                                                     

Acer       macrophyllum      2                 1   1            3                  

Acer       negundo           2              3  1   2         2     1  1      +     

Acer       nigrum            2                                                     

Acer       palmatum          2                                                     

Acer       pensylvanicum     3        3     3                      4  3            

Acer       platanoides       2                 1   2               3  2            

Acer       pseudoplatanus    2                                               +     
                                                                                   

Acer       rubrum            2    2   2  3  3                2     3  2      +  2  

Acer       saccharinum       3           1  3                      3  3      +     

Acer       saccharum         2    2   3     2                      3  2      +  3  

Acer       spicatum          3           2                         4  3            

Acer       tataricum         2                                                     

Acoelorrha wrightii          3                                                     
phe                                                                                

Adonidia   merrillii         3                                                     

Aesculus   californica       3                 3                                   

Aesculus   glabra            3                               3                     

Aesculus   hippocastanum     3                 3                             +     

Aesculus   octandra          3                                                     

Aesculus   pavia             2                                               +     

Aesculus   sylvatica         2                                                     

Ailanthus  altissima         2                                               +     

Albizia    julibrissin       3                 3                                   

Aleurites  fordii            2                                                     

Alnus      maritima          1                                                     

Alnus      oblongifolia      1                                                     

Alnus      rhombifolia       2                 1   3                               

Alnus      rugosa            1                                     1  1            



Reference no.


Tree        species       Continu 1  2   3  4  5  6   7  8  9   10 11 12 13  14 15 
                            ed                                                     
                          ranking                                                  

Alnus      serrulata         2                                               +  3  

Alnus      sinuata           2                                                     

Alnus      tenuifolia        1                 1   2                               

Alvaradoa  amorphoides       2                                                     

Amelanchie alnifolia         2                 1   3                         +     
r                                                                                  

Amelanchie arborea           2                                                  2  
r                                                                                  

Amelanchie canadensis        2                               3        1      +     
r                                                                                  

Amelanchie laevis            2                                                     
r                                                                                  

Amelanchie spp.              2        2  1  1                      1  1            
r                                                                                  

Amphitecna latifolia         3                                                     
                                                                                   

Amyris     elemifera         2                                                     

Annona     glabra            2                                                     

Aralia     spinosa           3                 3                             +     

Arbutus    arizonica         2                                                     

Arbutus    menziesii         1                 1   2                               

Arbutus    texana            2                                                     

Arbutus    unedo             2                 1   3                               

Ardisia    escallonioides    2                                                     
                                                                                   

Ardisia    japonica          3                 3                                   

Arecastrum romanzoffianum    3                                                     
                                                                                   

Asimina    triloba           2                                                     

Avicennia  germinans         2                                                     

Betula     alba              2                                               +     

Betula     alleghaniensis    3        3  3  3                      3  2   +  +     
                                                                                   

Betula     lenta             2    2   2                      2     3  2   +  +  3  

Betula     nigra             1    1                          2     1  1   +  +     

Betula     occidentalis      2                                                     

Betula     papyrifera        1    1   2  2  2                      1  1   +  +  1  

Betula     pendula           1                 1   1                               

Betula     populifolia       1    1         2                1     1  1   +  +  1  

Betula     pumila            1                                                     

Betula     verrucosa         1                 1   1                               

Bourreria  ovata             3                                                     

Broussonet papyrifera        3                                                     
ia                                                                                 

Bumelia    lanuginosa        2                                                     

Bursera    simaruba          2                                                     

Callitris  glaucophylla      3                                                     

Calocedrus decurrens         3                                                     
                                                                                   

Calycanthu floridus          3                                               -     
s                                                                                  

Calyptrant pallens           2                                                     
hes                                                                                

Calyptrant zuzygium          2                                                     
hes                                                                                

Canella    winterana         2                                                     

Canotia    holacantha        2                                                     

Capparis   cynophallophor    2                                                     
           a                                                                       

Caragana   arborescens       2                                                     

Carica     papaya            2                                                     

Carpinus   caroliniana       2                               2     3  2      +  2  

Carya      aquatica          2                                                     

Carya      cordiformis       2           2  3                      3  3            

Carya      floridana         2                                                     

Carya      glabra            2                                     3  3      +     

Carya      illinoensis       2                                                     

Carya      laciniosa         2                                               +     

Carya      myristiciformi    2                                                     
           s                                                                       

Carya      ovalis            2                                                     

Carya      ovata             3              3                      3  3            

Carya      pallida           2                                                     

Carya      spp.              2    2   1                                            

Carya      texana            2                                                     



Reference no.


Tree        species       Combine 1  2   3  4  5  6   7  8  9   10 11 12 13  14 15 
                             d                                                     
                          ranking                                                  

Carya      tomentosa         2                               1     3  2      +  2  

Caryota    urens             3                                                     

Castanea   dentata           2    2                                2  2      +     

Castanea   ozarkensis        2                                                     

Castanea   pumila            2                                            -  +     

Castanopsi chrysophylla      1                                                     
s                                                                                  

Casuarina  equisetifolia     2                                                     

Casuarina  stricta           2                 2                                   

Catalpa    bignonioides      3                                               +     

Catalpa    speciosa          3                 3                      3   -        

Catalpa    spp.              3                                     4  3            

Ceanothus  arboreus          3                                                     

Ceanothus  integerrimus      3                 3                                   

Ceanothus  maritimus         2                 1   2                               

Ceanothus  spinosus          3                                                     

Ceanothus  spp.              3                 3                                   

Ceanothus  thyrsiflorus      3                                                     

Cedrus     atlantica         2                        2  2      3                  

Cedrus     deodara           2                        1  1      3                  

Cedrus     libani            2                        2  3      3                  

Celtis     laevigata         3                                                     

Celtis     occidentalis      3                               3     4  3            

Celtis     tenuifolia        3                                                     

Cephalanth occidentalis      2                                               +     
us                                                                                 

Cercidium  floridum          2                                                     

Cercidium  microphyllum      2                                                     

Cercis     canadensis        3                 3                             +     

Cercis     occidentalis      3                 3                                   

Cercocarpu betuloides        2                                                     
s                                                                                  

Cercocarpu breviflorus       2                                                     
s                                                                                  

Cercocarpu intricatus        2                                                     
s                                                                                  

Cercocarpu ledifolius        2                                                     
s                                                                                  

Cercocarpu montanus          2                                                     
s                                                                                  

Cereus     giganteus         2                                                     

Chaenomele lagenaria         2                                               +     
s                                                                                  

Chamaecypa lawsoniana        3                                                     
ris                                                                                

Chamaecypa nootkatensis      3                                                     
ris                                                                                

Chamaecypa thyoides          3    2                             3                  
ris                                                                                

Chilopsis  linearis          3                                                     

Chionanthu virginicus        2                                               +     
s                                                                                  

Chrysobala icaco             2                                                     
nus                                                                                

Chrysophyl oliviforme        2                                                     
lum                                                                                

Cinnamomum camphora          1                 1   3                               
                                                                                   

Citharexyl fruticosum        2                                                     
um                                                                                 

Citrus     aurantifolia      2                                                     

Citrus     limon             3                                               -     

Citrus     sinensis          2                 2   2                               

Cladrastis lutea             2                                               +     
                                                                                   

Clethra    alnifolia         3                                     4  3            

Clethra    spp.              3                                     4               

Cliftonia  monophylla        2                                                     

Coccoloba  diversifolia      2                                                     

Coccoloba  uvifera           2                                                     

Coccothrin argentata         3                                                     
ax                                                                                 

Cocos      nucifera          3                                                     

Colubrina  elliptica         2                                                     

Conocarpus erectus           2                                                     
                                                                                   

Cordia     sebestena         3                                                     

Cornus     alternifolia      3                                                     



Reference no.


Tree        species       Combine 1  2   3  4  5  6   7  8  9   10 11 12 13  14 15 
                             d                                                     
                          ranking                                                  

Cornus     drummondii        3                                                     

Cornus     florida           2        2        2                   4  3   -  +     

Cornus     nuttallii         3                                                     

Cornus     racemosa          3                                                     

Cornus     rugosa            3                                                     

Cornus     spp.              3                                     4  3            

Cornus     stolonifera       3                 2                   4  3            

Corylus    americana         1                                     1  1      +     

Corylus    avellana          1                 1   2                               

Corylus    cornuta           2                 1   2               1  1   +        

Cotinus    coggygria         1                 1   1                         +     

Cotinus    obovatus          1                                                     

Cowania    mexicana          2                                                     

Crataegus  berberifolia      1                                                     

Crataegus  brachyacantha     1                                                     

Crataegus  coccinea          1                                               +     

Crataegus  crus-galli        1                                               +     

Crataegus  douglasii         1                                                     

Crataegus  intricata         1                                                     

Crataegus  marshallii        1                                                     

Crataegus  mollis            1                                                     

Crataegus  monogyna          2                 1   3                               

Crataegus  opaca             1                                                     

Crataegus  oxyacantha        1                                               +     

Crataegus  pruinosa          1                                                     

Crataegus  saligna           1                                                     

Crataegus  spathulata        1                                                     

Crataegus  spp.              1                                     1  1   +        

Cunningham lanceolata        3                        3                            
ia                                                                                 

Cupressocy leylandii         3                        3  3                         
paris                                                                              

Cupressus  arizonica         3                                                     

Cupressus  bakeri            3                                                     

Cupressus  goveniana         3                                                     

Cupressus  guadalupensis     3                                                     

Cupressus  macnabiana        3                                                     

Cupressus  macrocarpa        3                                                     

Cupressus  sargentii         3                                                     

Cydonia    oblonga           2                                               +     

Cyrilla    racemiflora       2                                                     

Dalea      spinosa           2                                                     

Diospyros  texana            3                                                     

Diospyros  virginiana        3                 2   2               4  3            

Dipholis   salicifolia       2                                                     

Drypetes   lateriflora       3                                                     

Elaeagnus  angustifolia      3                               3               +     

Elliottia  racemosa          2                                                     

Eriobotrya japonica          2                 2                                   
                                                                                   

Erythrina  herbacea          2                                                     

Eucalyptus botryiodes        2                 2                                   
                                                                                   

Eucalyptus camaldulensis     2                 1   2                               
                                                                                   

Eucalyptus camphora          2                 2                                   
                                                                                   

Eucalyptus cinerea           1                 1   1         1                     
                                                                                   

Eucalyptus diversifolia      2                 3                                   
                                                                                   

Eucalyptus globulus          2                                                     
                                                                                   

Eucalyptus gunnii            1                 1   1                               
                                                                                   

Eucalyptus leucoxylon        2                 2   3                               
                                                                                   

Eucalyptus polyanthemos      2                 2                                   
                                                                                   

Eucalyptus pulchella         2                 1   2                               
                                                                                   

Eucalyptus rudis             2                 3                                   
                                                                                   



Reference no.


Tree        species       Combine 1  2   3  4  5  6   7  8  9   10 11 12 13  14 15 
                             d                                                     
                          ranking                                                  

Eucalyptus sideroxylon       2                 2                                   
                                                                                   

Eucalyptus spp.              2                                            +        
                                                                                   

Eucalyptus tereticornis      2                                                     
                                                                                   

Euonymus   atropurpureus     2                                                     

Euonymus   europaeus         2                                               +     

Euonymus   japonicus         2                 2                                   

Euonymus   occidentalis      2                                                     

Exostema   caribaeum         2                                                     

Exothea    paniculata        2                                                     

Fagus      grandifolia       2    2   2  2  2                1     1  2      +  2  

Fagus      sylvatica         2                 1   2                         +     

Fatsia     japonica          3                 3                                   

Ficus      aurea             2                                                     

Ficus      benjamina         3                 3                                   

Ficus      carica            2                 3                                   

Ficus      elastica          2                                               +     

Ficus      lyrata            2                                                     

Firmiana   simplex           2                                                     

Forestiera acuminata         3                                                     
                                                                                   

Fraxinus   americana         3           3  4                      4  3      +  3  

Fraxinus   anomala           3                                                     

Fraxinus   caroliniana       3                                                     

Fraxinus   cuspidata         3                                                     

Fraxinus   excelsior         3                                               +     

Fraxinus   greggii           3                                                     

Fraxinus   latifolia         3                 3                                   

Fraxinus   nigra             3              3                      4  3            

Fraxinus   pennsylvanica     3              3                3        3            

Fraxinus   profunda          3                                                     

Fraxinus   quadrangulata     3                                     4  3      +     

Fraxinus   spp.              3    3   3                         4         -        

Fraxinus   texensis          3                                                     

Fraxinus   velutina          3                                                     

Garrya     fremontii         3                 3                                   

Ginkgo     biloba            3                                               -     

Gleditsia  aquatica          3                                                     

Gleditsia  triacanthos       3                 2                   4  2      +     

Gordonia   lasianthus        2                                                     

Grevillea  'noellii'         3                 3                                   

Grevillea  robusta           3                 3                                   

Guaiacum   sanctum           2                                                     

Guettarda  elliptica         2                                                     

Guettarda  scabra            2                                                     

Gyminda    latifolia         2                                                     

Gymnanthes lucida            3                                                     
                                                                                   

Gymnocladu dioicus           3                                     4  3      +     
s                                                                                  

Hakea      spp.              2                                            +        

Halesia    carolina          3                 3             3                     

Hamamelis  virginiana        1                               1     1  1      +     

Heteromele arbutifolia       2                 2   3                      +        
s                                                                                  

Hibiscus   rosa-sinensis     2                 2   3                               

Hibiscus   tiliaceus         2                                                     

Hippomane  mancinella        3                                                     

Ilex       aquifolium        3                 3                                   

Ilex       cassine           3                                                     

Ilex       coriacea          3                                                     

Ilex       decidua           3                                                     

Ilex       glabra            3                                     4  3            

Ilex       krugiana          3                                                     



Reference no.


Tree        species       Combine 1  2   3  4  5  6   7  8  9   10 11 12 13  14 15 
                             d                                                     
                          ranking                                                  

Ilex       montana           3                                                     

Ilex       opaca             3                                     4  3   -        

Ilex       verticillata      3                                     4  3      +     

Ilex       vomitoria         3                                                     

Jasminum   nudiflorum        3                 3                                   

Juglans    californica       2                                                     

Juglans    cinerea           2           2  4                      4  3   -  +     

Juglans    hindsii           2                                                     

Juglans    major             2                                                     

Juglans    microcarpa        2                                                     

Juglans    nigra             2                 2   3               4  3   -        

Juniperus  ashei             3                                                     

Juniperus  californica       3                                                     

Juniperus  coahuilensis      3                                                     

Juniperus  communis          3                                     4  3      +     

Juniperus  deppeana          3                                                     

Juniperus  erythrocarpa      3                                                     

Juniperus  flaccida          3                                                     

Juniperus  monosperma        3                                                     

Juniperus  occidentalis      3                                                     

Juniperus  osteosperma       3                                                     

Juniperus  pinchotii         3                                                     

Juniperus  scopulorum        3                                                     

Juniperus  virginiana        3    3                                4  3      +     

Krugiodend ferreum           2                                                     
ron                                                                                

Laguncular racemosa          2                                                     
ia                                                                                 

Larix      decidua           1                        1  1         1         +     

Larix      laricina          1    1                                1  1            

Larix      lyallii           1                                                     

Larix      occidentalis      1                        1  2   2               +     

Leitneria  floridana         2                                                     

Lindera    benzoin           3                                     4  3            

Liquidamba styraciflua       1                 1   2                  2   +  +  1  
r                                                                                  

Liriodendr tulipifera        3        3        3                   4  3   -  +     
on                                                                                 

Lithocarpu densiflorus       1                 2   1                               
s                                                                                  

Lyonia     ferruginea        2                                                     

Lyonothamn floribundus       2                                                     
us                                                                                 

Lysiloma   latisiliquum      2                                                     

Maclura    pomifera          3                                     4  3            

Magnolia   acuminata         3                                                     

Magnolia   ashei             3                                                     

Magnolia   fraseri           3                                                     

Magnolia   grandiflora       3                                                     

Magnolia   macrophylla       3                                                     

Magnolia   pyramidata        3                                                     

Magnolia   soulangeana       3                 3                             -     

Magnolia   tripetala         3                                                     

Magnolia   virginiana        3                                                     

Manilkara  bahamensis        2                                                     

Mastichode foetidissimum     2                                                     
ndron                                                                              

Melaleuca  decussata         1                 1   1                               

Melaleuca  quinquenervia     2                                                     

Melia      azedarach         2                                                     

Mespilus   germanica         2                                                     

Metasequoi glyptostroboid    2                        2  3                         
a          es                                                                      

Metopium   toxiferum         1                                                     

Morus      alba              3                 3             3     4  3            

Morus      alba var.         2                                               +     
           tatarica                                                                

Morus      microphylla       3                                                     



Reference no.


Tree        species       Combine 1  2   3  4  5  6   7  8  9   10 11 12 13  14 15 
                             d                                                     
                          ranking                                                  

Morus      nigra             3                                                     

Morus      rubra             3                                     4  3      +     

Myrica     californica       2                 1   3                               

Myrica     cerifera          2                                     3  2      +     

Nyssa      aquatica          3                                                     

Nyssa      biflora           3                                                     

Nyssa      ogeche            3                                                     

Nyssa      sylvatica         3    2   3                            3  2            

Olea       europaea          3                 3                                   

Olneya     tesota            2                                                     

Osmanthus  americanus        3                                                     

Ostrya     knowltonii        2                                                     

Ostrya     virginiana        1    1      1  1                      3  2      +     

Oxydendrum arboreum          2                               3                     
                                                                                   

Parkinsoni aculeata          2                                                     
a                                                                                  

Paulownia  tomentosa         3                 3                                   

Persea     americana         2                 2   2                               

Persea     borbonia          2                                                     

Photinia   glabra            1                 1   1         2                     

Photinia   serrulata         2                                                     

Photinia   spp.              3                                  3                  

Picea      abies             2                                     2  2   +  +     

Picea      brewerana         2                                                     

Picea      engelmannii       2                                                     

Picea      glauca            2                                     2  2   +  +     

Picea      glauca var.       2                        3  3         2      +        
           albertiana                                                              

Picea      mariana           2                                     2  2            

Picea      pungens           2                        1  1                         

Picea      rubens            2                                     2  2            

Picea      sitchensis        2                                                     

Picea      spp.              2    2                                       +        

Picramnia  pentandra         2                                                     

Pinckneya  pubens            2                                                     

Pinus      albicaulis        2                                                     

Pinus      aristata          2                                                     

Pinus      attenuata         2                                                     

Pinus      balfouriana       2                                                     

Pinus      banksiana         2                                     2  2            

Pinus      cembroides        2                                                     

Pinus      clausa            2                                                     

Pinus      contorta          2                        2  1                         

Pinus      coulteri          2                                            +        

Pinus      discolor          2                                                     

Pinus      echinata          2                                                     

Pinus      edulis            2                                                     

Pinus      elliottii         2                                                     

Pinus      engelmannii       2                                                     

Pinus      flexilis          2                                                     

Pinus      glabra            2                                                     

Pinus      halepensis        2                        2  1                +        

Pinus      jeffreyi          2                        2  2                +        

Pinus      lambertiana       2                                                     

Pinus      longaeva          2                                                     

Pinus      monophylla        2                        2  3                         

Pinus      monticola         2                        2  3   2     2  2            

Pinus      mugo              2                        3  1                         

Pinus      muricata          2                                                     

Pinus      nigra             2                                                     

Pinus      palustris         2                                                     



Reference no.


Tree        species       Combine 1  2   3  4  5  6   7  8  9   10 11 12 13  14 15 
                             d                                                     
                          ranking                                                  

Pinus      pinea             2                        3  2                         

Pinus      ponderosa         2                        2  1                         

Pinus      pungens           2                                                     

Pinus      quadrifolia       2                                                     

Pinus      radiata           2                        2  3                +        

Pinus      resinosa          2                                     2  2            

Pinus      rigida            2    2   3                            2  2      +     

Pinus      sabiniana         2                        3  1                +        

Pinus      serotina          2                                                     

Pinus      strobiformis      2                                                     

Pinus      strobus           2    2   3  1  3                      2  2      +  3  

Pinus      sylvestris        2    3                                2  2      +     

Pinus      taeda             2                                                  3  

Pinus      thunbergiana      3                        3                            

Pinus      torreyana         2                                                     

Pinus      virginiana        2                                                     

Pinus      washoensis        2                                                     

Piscidia   piscipula         2                                                     

Pistacia   texana            1                                                     

Pistacia   vera              1                 1   1                               

Planera    aquatica          2                                                     

Platanus   occidentalis      3    3                                4  2   -  +     

Platanus   orientalis        2                                                     

Platanus   racemosa          3                 3                                   

Platanus   wrightii          3                                                     

Populus    alba              2                                     3  2      +     

Populus    angustifolia      1                                                     

Populus    balsamifera       1                                  3  1  2      +     

Populus    deltoides         2              3                      3  3   +     1  

Populus    fremontii         2                 1   3         2                     

Populus    grandidentata     1        1  1  1                1     1  1      +  1  

Populus    heterophylla      1                                                     

Populus    nigra var.        1                 1   1               1  2      +     
           italica                                                                 

Populus    sargentii         1                                                     

Populus    spp.              1    1                                                

Populus    tremuloides       1        1     2  1   3                  1      +  1  

Populus    trichocarpa       1                 1   3                               

Prosopis   glandulosa        2                                                     

Prosopis   pubescens         2                                                     

Prunus     alleghaniensis    2                                                     
                                                                                   

Prunus     americana         2                                                     

Prunus     angustifolia      2                                                     

Prunus     arrmeniaca        1                 1   1                               

Prunus     avium             2                                               +     

Prunus     caroliniana       2                                                     

Prunus     cerasifera        2                                               +     
           var. pissardi                                                           

Prunus     domestica         2                                               +     

Prunus     emarginata        2                                                     

Prunus     fremontii         2                                            +        

Prunus     glandulosa        2                 2   3                               

Prunus     hortulana         2                                                     

Prunus     japonica          2                                               +     

Prunus     laurocerasus      2                 1   3                               

Prunus     lyonii            2                 2                                   

Prunus     maritima          2                                     2  2      +     

Prunus     mexicana          2                                                     

Prunus     munsoniana        2                                                     

Prunus     myrtifolia        2                                                     



Reference no.


Tree        species       Combine 1  2   3  4  5  6   7  8  9   10 11 12 13  14 15 
                             d                                                     
                          ranking                                                  

Prunus     nigra             2                                                     

Prunus     padus             2                                                     

Prunus     pensylvanica      3           2  3                      3  3      +     

Prunus     persica           2                 2                                   

Prunus     pumila            2                                  2                  

Prunus     serotina          2    2   2  3  2                1     3  2   +  +     

Prunus     spinosa           2                                                     

Prunus     spp.              2    2                                                

Prunus     subcordata        2                                                     

Prunus     umbellata         2                                                     

Prunus     virginiana        2                 1   2               3  3      +     

Pseudophoe sargentii         3                                                     
nix                                                                                

Pseudotsug macrocarpa        2                        2  2                         
a                                                                                  

Pseudotsug menziesii         2                        2  1   2  2         +        
a                                                                                  

Psidium    guajava           2                                                     

Ptelea     trifoliata        2                                                     

Punica     granatum          2                 1   3                         +     

Pyracantha coccinea          2                 1   3         1            +        
                                                                                   

Pyrus      spp.              1    1                                1      +        

Pyrus      angustifolia      1                                  1            +     

Pyrus      communis          2                 1   3                  2      +     

Pyrus      coronaria         1                                                     

Pyrus      fusca             1                                                     

Pyrus      ioensis           1                                                     

Pyrus      malus             1                 1   2                         +     

Quercus    agrifolia         1                 1   1                               

Quercus    alba              1    1   1                            1  1   +  +  1  

Quercus    arizonica         1                                                     

Quercus    austrina          1    1   1                            1  1   +  +  1  

Quercus    bicolor           1    1                                1  1   +  +     

Quercus    chapmanii         1                                                     

Quercus    chrysolepis       1                 1   1                               

Quercus    cinerea           1                 1   1                               

Quercus    coccinea          1    1   1                            1  1   +  +     

Quercus    douglasii         1                 1   3                      +        

Quercus    dunnii            1                                                     

Quercus    durandii          1                                                     

Quercus    ellipsoidalis     1                                            +     1  

Quercus    emoryi            1                                                     

Quercus    engelmannii       1                 1   1                               

Quercus    falcata           1                                            +     1  

Quercus    gambelii          1                                                     

Quercus    garryana          1                 1   1                               

Quercus    grisea            1                                                     

Quercus    hemisphaerica     1                                                     

Quercus    hypoleucoides     1                                                     

Quercus    ilicifolia        1                                     1  1   +  +     

Quercus    imbricaria        1                                     1  1   +        

Quercus    incana            1                                                     

Quercus    kelloggii         1                 1   2                      +        

Quercus    laevis            1                                                     

Quercus    laurifolia        1                                                     

Quercus    lobata            1                 1   1                      +        

Quercus    lyrata            1                                                     

Quercus    macrocarpa        1                                     1  1   +        

Quercus    margaretta        1                                     1  1   +        

Quercus    marilandica       1                                            +        

Quercus    michauxii         1                                                     

Quercus    muehlenbergii     1                                            +        



Reference no.


Tree        species       Combine 1  2   3  4  5  6   7  8  9   10 11 12 13  14 15 
                             d                                                     
                          ranking                                                  

Quercus    myrtifolia        1                                                     

Quercus    nigra             1                                               +  1  

Quercus    nuttallii         1                                                     

Quercus    oblongifolia      1                                                     

Quercus    oglethorpensis    1                                                     
                                                                                   

Quercus    pagoda            1                                                     

Quercus    palustris         1                                     1  1   +  +     

Quercus    phellos           1                                            +     2  

Quercus    prinoides         1                                                     

Quercus    prinus            1    1   1                            1  1   +     1  

Quercus    rubra             1    1   1  1  1  1   2         1  1     1   +  +  1  

Quercus    shumardii         1                                  1                  

Quercus    spp.              1                                            +        

Quercus    stellata          1                                     1  1   +     1  

Quercus    suber             1                 1   1                      +        

Quercus    velutina          1    1   1                      1     1  1   +  +  2  

Quercus    virginiana        1                                                     

Quercus    wislizenii        1                 2   2                               

Rapanea    guianensis        2                                                     

Reynosia   septentrionali    2                                                     
           s                                                                       

Rhamnus    californica       3                 3                                   

Rhamnus    caroliniana       3                                                     

Rhamnus    cathartica        3                                                     

Rhamnus    frangula          3                                                     

Rhamnus    purshiana         2                 1   3                               

Rhizophora mangle            2                                                     
                                                                                   

Rhus       copallina         1                                     1  1            

Rhus       glabra            1                               1     1  1      +     

Rhus       integrifolia      2                                            +        

Rhus       typhina           1                 1   1               1  2      +     

Robinia    neomexicana       3                                                     

Robinia    pseudoacacia      3        3        2   1         2     4  2   -  +     

Robinia    spp.              2    2                                                

Robinia    viscosa           3                                                     

Rosa       bracteata         2                                                     

Rosa       eglanteria        2                 1   3               4  3            

Rosa       setigera          2                                                     

Rosa       spp.              1                 1   3                               

Roystonea  elata             3                                                     

Sabal      palmetto          3                                                     

Salix      alaxensis         1                                                     

Salix      alba              1                                     1  1      +     

Salix      alba  var.        1                 1   1                               
           tristis                                                                 

Salix      amygdaloides      1                                                     

Salix      babylonica        1                 1   1                      +  +     

Salix      bebbiana          1                                                     

Salix      bonplandiana      1                                                     

Salix      caroliniana       1                                                     

Salix      cordata           1                                               +     

Salix      discolor          1                 1   1               1  1            

Salix      eriocephala       1                                                     

Salix      exigua            1                                     1               

Salix      fragilis          1                                               +     

Salix      hookerana         1                                                     

Salix      laevigata         1                                                     

Salix      lasiandra         1                                                     

Salix      lasiolepis        1                                                     

Salix      lucida            1                                                  1  

Salix      mackenzieana      1                                                     



Reference no.


Tree        species       Combine 1  2   3  4  5  6   7  8  9   10 11 12 13  14 15 
                             d                                                     
                          ranking                                                  

Salix      nigra             1                                                     

Salix      pentandra         2                                     4  3            

Salix      scouleriana       1                 1   2                               

Salix      spp.              1    1         1                             +        

Salix      taxifolia         1                                                     

Salix      viminalis         1                                                     

Sambucus   callicarpa        2                                            +        

Sambucus   canadensis        3                                     4  3      +     

Sapindus   drummondii        2                                                     

Sapindus   marginatus        2                                                     

Sapindus   saponaria         2                                                     

Sapium     sebiferum         3                                                     

Sassafras  albidum           2    1   2                      1     3  3   +  +     

Schinus    molle             1                 1   1                               

Sequoia    sempervirens      2                        2  1                         

Sequoiaden giganteum         2                        2  2                         
dron                                                                               

Simarouba  glauca            2                                                     

Sophora    affinis           3                                                     

Sophora    japonica          3                               3                     

Sophora    secundiflora      2                                                     

Sorbus     americana         1                                     1  1      +     

Sorbus     aucuparia         1                                                     

Spirea     bumalda           3                               3                     

Stewartia  koreana           3                               3                     

Stewartia  ovata             2                 1   3                               

Swietenia  mahogani          2                                                     

Symphorica albus             3                 3                                   
rpos                                                                               

Symplocos  tinctoria         2                                                     

Tamarix    parviflora        2                                                     

Taxodium   distichum         3                               3     4  3            

Taxodium   mucronatum        3                                                     

Taxus      brevifolia        3                                                     

Taxus      floridana         3                                                     

Thrinax    microcarpa        3                                                     

Thrinax    parviflora        3                                                     

Thuja      occidentalis      3                                  3  4  3      +     

Thuja      orientalis        3                                                     

Thuja      plicata           3                                            +        

Tilia      americana         1    1   2  2  2  1   3               1  1   +  +     

Tilia      caroliniana       1                                                     

Tilia      cordata           1                 1   3                               

Tilia      europaea          1                                     1  2      +     

Tilia      floridana         1                                                     

Tilia      heterophylla      1                                                     

Torreya    californica       3                                                     

Torreya    taxifolia         3                                                     

Toxicodend vernix            1                                                     
ron                                                                                

Trema      micrantha         2                                                     

Tsuga      canadensis        2    2   3                            2  2   +  +  3  

Tsuga      caroliniana       2                                                     

Tsuga      heterophylla      2                        2  1      3         +        

Tsuga      mertensiana       2                        3  3                         

Ulmus      alata             2                                                     

Ulmus      americana         2              2  1   2               3  2   +  +     

Ulmus      crassifolia       2                                                     

Ulmus      glabra            2                                               +     

Ulmus      parvifolia        1                 1   1         2                     

Ulmus      procera           2                                     3  2      +     

Ulmus      pumila            2                                                     



Reference no.


Tree        species       Combine 1  2   3  4  5  6   7  8  9   10 11 12 13  14 15 
                             d                                                     
                          ranking                                                  

Ulmus      rubra             3           3  3                      3  3      +     

Ulmus      serotina          2                                                     

Ulmus      spp.              2    2   2                                            

Ulmus      thomasii          2                                               +     

Umbellular californica       3                 3                                   
ia                                                                                 

Vauquelini californica       2                                                     
a                                                                                  

Viburnum   acerifolium       3                                     4  3      +     

Viburnum   ellipticum        2                 2   2                               

Viburnum   lantana           2                                               +     

Viburnum   lentago           3                                     4  2      +     

Viburnum   opulus            3                                     4  3      +     

Viburnum   prunifolium       2                                               +     

Viburnum   pubescens         2                                               +     

Viburnum   rhytidophyllum    2                 2   3                               
                                                                                   

Viburnum   spp.              3                                  4                  

Viburnum   tomentosum        3                               3               +     

Washington filifera          3                                                     
ia                                                                                 

Ximenia    americana         3                                                     

Zanthoxylu americanum        2                                                     
m                                                                                  

Zanthoxylu clava-herculis    2                                                     
m                                                                                  

Zanthoxylu fagara            2                                                     
m                                                                                  

Zanthoxylu flavum            2                                                     
m                                                                                  



Table 3.--Index of common names of tree species


Common name                  Scientific   name                         

abelia, glossy           Abelia          chinensis var. grandiflora     

acacia                   Acacia          spp.                           

acacia, Bailey           Acacia          baileyana                      

acacia, catclaw          Acacia          greggii                        

acacia, koa              Acacia          koa                            

acacia, sweet            Acacia          farnesiana                     

acacia, twisted          Acacia          tortuosa                       

acacia, Wright           Acacia          wrightii                       

ailanthus                Ailanthus       altissima                      

alder, Arizona           Alnus           oblongifolia                   

alder, hazel             Alnus           serrulata                      

alder, mountain          Alnus           tenuifolia                     

alder, seaside           Alnus           maritima                       

alder, Sitka             Alnus           sinuata                        

alder, smooth            Alnus           serrulata                      

alder, speckled          Alnus           rugosa                         

alder, thinleaf          Alnus           tenuifolia                     

alder, white             Alnus           rhombifolia                    

allspice, Carolina       Calycanthus     floridus                       

allspice, hairy          Calycanthus     floridus                       

almond, dwarf flowering  Prunus          glandulosa                     

apple, common            Pyrus           malus                          

apple, crab              Pyrus           spp.                           

apple, Oregon crab       Pyrus           fusca                          

apple, prairie crab      Pyrus           ioensis                        

apple, southern crab     Pyrus           angustifolia                   

apple, sweet crab        Pyrus           coronaria                      

apricot, desert          Prunus          fremontii                      

apricot                  Prunus          armeniaca                      

aralia, Japanese         Fatsia          japonica                       

arbor vitae, Chinese     Thuja           orientalis                     

arbor vitae, oriental    Thuja           orientalis                     

ardisia                  Ardisia         japonica                       

arrowwood, downy         Viburnum        pubescens                      

arrowwood, maple leaved  Viburnum        acerifolium                    

ash                      Fraxinus        spp.                           

ash, black               Fraxinus        nigra                          

ash, blue                Fraxinus        quadrangulata                  

ash, Carolina            Fraxinus        caroliniana                    

ash, European            Fraxinus        excelsior                      

ash, fragrant            Fraxinus        cuspidata                      

ash, green               Fraxinus        pennsylvanica                  

ash, Gregg               Fraxinus        greggii                        

ash, Oregon              Fraxinus        latifolia                      

ash, pumpkin             Fraxinus        profunda                       

ash, singleleaf          Fraxinus        anomala                        

ash, Texas               Fraxinus        texensis                       

ash, velvet              Fraxinus        velutina                       

ash, white               Fraxinus        americana                      

aspen, bigtooth          Populus         grandidentata                  

aspen, quaking           Populus         tremuloides                    

avocado                  Persea          americana                      

Bahama strongback        Bourreria       ovata                          

baldcypress              Taxodium        distichum                      

basswood, American       Tilia           americana                      

basswood, Carolina       Tilia           caroliniana                    

basswood, Florida        Tilia           floridana                      

basswood, white          Tilia           heterophylla                   

bayberry                 Myrica          cerifera                       

bayberry, Pacific        Myrica          californica                    

bayberry, southern       Myrica          cerifera                       




Common name                  Scientific   name                         

beech, American          Fagus           grandifolia                    

beech, European          Fagus           sylvatica                      

birch, black             Betula          lenta                          

birch, bog               Betula          pumila                         

birch, cut leaf weeping  Betula          pendula                        

birch, cut leaved        Betula          alba                           

birch, European white    Betula          verrucosa                      

birch, gray              Betula          populifolia                    

birch, paper             Betula          papyrifera                     

birch, red               Betula          nigra                          

birch, river             Betula          nigra                          

birch, sweet             Betula          lenta                          

birch, water             Betula          occidentalis                   

birch, yellow            Betula          alleghaniensis                 

bitterbush               Picramnia       pentandra                      

black calabash           Amphitecna      latifolia                      

black haw                Viburnum        prunifolium                    

black mangrove           Avicennia       germinans                      

blue Chinese fir         Cunninghamia    lanceolata                     

blueblossom              Ceanothus       thyrsiflorus                   

boxelder                 Acer            negundo                        

buckeye, California      Aesculus        californica                    

buckeye, Ohio            Aesculus        glabra                         

buckeye, painted         Aesculus        sylvatica                      

buckeye, red             Aesculus        pavia                          

buckeye, yellow          Aesculus        octandra                       

buckthorn, California    Rhamnus         californica                    

buckthorn, Carolina      Rhamnus         caroliniana                    

buckthorn, cascara       Rhamnus         purshiana                      

buckthorn, European      Rhamnus         cathartica                     

buckthorn, glossy        Rhamnus         frangula                       

buckwheat tree           Cliftonia       monophylla                     

burningbush, eastern     Euonymus        atropurpureus                  

burningbush, western     Euonymus        occidentalis                   

butternut                Juglans         cinerea                        

buttonbush               Cephalanthus    occidentalis                   

cajeput tree             Melaleuca       quinquenervia                  

camphor tree             Cinnamomum      camphora                       

canella                  Canella         winterana                      

canotia                  Canotia         holacantha                     

catalpa                  Catalpa         spp.                           

catalpa, hardy           Catalpa         speciosa                       

catalpa, northern        Catalpa         speciosa                       

catalpa, southern        Catalpa         bignonioides                   

catclaw, Gregg           Acacia          greggii                        

catclaw, Wright          Acacia          wrightii                       

ceanothus                Ceanothus       maritimus                      

ceanothus                Ceanothus       spp.                           

ceanothus, feltleaf      Ceanothus       arboreus                       

ceanothus, greenbark     Ceanothus       spinosus                       

ceanothus, spiny         Ceanothus       spinosus                       

Cedar of Lebanon         Cedrus          libani                         

cedar, Alaska            Chamaecyparis   nootkatensis                   

cedar, Atlantic white    Chamaecyparis   thyoides                       

cedar, Atlas             Cedrus          atlantica                      

cedar, deodar            Cedrus          deodara                        

cedar, Port Orford       Chamaecyparis   lawsoniana                     

cercocarpus, alderleaf   Cercocarpus     montanus                       

cercocarpus, birchleaf   Cercocarpus     betuloides                     

cercocarpus, curlleaf    Cercocarpus     ledifolius                     

cercocarpus, hairy       Cercocarpus     breviflorus                    




Common name                  Scientific   name                         

cercocarpus, little      Cercocarpus     intricatus                     
leaf                                                                    

cherry                   Prunus          spp.                           

cherry laurel, common    Prunus          laurocerasus                   

cherry, bitter           Prunus          emarginata                     

cherry, black            Prunus          serotina                       

cherry, Catalina         Prunus          lyonii                         

cherry, European bird    Prunus          padus                          

cherry, pin              Prunus          pensylvanica                   

cherry, sand             Prunus          pumila                         

cherry, sweet            Prunus          avium                          

cherry, West Indies      Prunus          myrtifolia                     

chestnut,  American      Castanea        dentata                        

China berry              Melia           azedarach                      

chinkapin,  Allegheny    Castanea        pumila                         

chinkapin, giant         Castanopsis     chrysophylla                   

chinkapin, Ozark         Castanea        ozarkensis                     

chittamwood              Bumelia         lanuginosa                     

chokecherry              Prunus          virginiana                     

Christmasberry           Heteromeles     arbutifolia                    

cliffrose                Cowania         mexicana                       

coast beefwood           Casuarina       stricta                        

coconut palm             Cocos           nucifera                       

cocoplum                 Chrysobalanus   icaco                          

coffeetree, Kentucky     Gymnocladus     dioicus                        

coralbean, eastern       Erythrina       herbacea                       

coralbean, southeastern  Erythrina       herbacea                       

corkwood                 Leitneria       floridana                      

cottonwood, black        Populus         trichocarpa                    

cottonwood, eastern      Populus         deltoides                      

cottonwood, Fremont      Populus         fremontii                      

cottonwood, narrowleaf   Populus         angustifolia                   

cottonwood, plains       Populus         sargentii                      

cottonwood, swamp        Populus         heterophylla                   

crabapple                Pyrus           spp.                           

cranberry bush           Viburnum        opulus                         

cucumbertree             Magnolia        acuminata                      

cypress pine, white      Callitris       glaucophylla                   

cypress, Arizona         Cupressus       arizonica                      

cypress, Baker           Cupressus       bakeri                         

cypress, Gowen           Cupressus       goveniana                      

cypress, Guadalupe       Cupressus       guadalupensis                  

cypress, Leyland         Cupressocyparis leylandii                      
                                                                        

cypress, MacNab          Cupressus       macnabiana                     

cypress, Monterey        Cupressus       macrocarpa                     

cypress, Sargent         Cupressus       sargentii                      

cypress, Tecate          Cupressus       guadalupensis                  

cyrilla, swamp           Cyrilla         racemiflora                    

dahoon                   Ilex            cassine                        

deer brush               Ceanothus       integerrimus                   

desertwillow             Chilopsis       linearis                       

devils walkingstick      Aralia          spinosa                        

devilwood                Osmanthus       americanus                     

dogwood                  Cornus          spp.                           

dogwood, alternate leaf  Cornus          alternifolia                   

dogwood, flowering       Cornus          florida                        

dogwood, gray            Cornus          racemosa                       

dogwood, Pacific         Cornus          nuttallii                      

dogwood, red osier       Cornus          stolonifera                    

dogwood, roughleaf       Cornus          drummondii                     

dogwood, roundleaf       Cornus          rugosa                         

doveplum                 Coccoloba       diversifolia                   

elder, American          Sambucus        canadensis                     

elder, Pacific red       Sambucus        callicarpa                     




Common name                  Scientific   name                         

elliottia                Elliottia       racemosa                       

elm                      Ulmus           spp.                           

elm, American            Ulmus           americana                      

elm, cedar               Ulmus           crassifolia                    

elm, Chinese             Ulmus           parvifolia                     

elm, European            Ulmus           procera                        

elm, rock                Ulmus           thomasii                       

elm, September           Ulmus           serotina                       

elm, Siberian            Ulmus           pumila                         

elm, slippery            Ulmus           rubra                          

elm, water               Planera         aquatica                       

elm, winged              Ulmus           alata                          

elm, Wych                Ulmus           glabra                         

eucalyptus               Eucalyptus      spp.                           

eucalyptus, bluegum      Eucalyptus      globulus                       

eucalyptus, horncap      Eucalyptus      tereticornis                   

eucalyptus, silver       Eucalyptus      cinerea                        
dollar                                                                  

euonymus, evergreen      Euonymus        japonicus                      

falsebox                 Gyminda         latifolia                      

falsebox, West Indies    Gyminda         latifolia                      

fig, benjamin            Ficus           benjamina                      

fig, common              Ficus           carica                         

fig, fiddle leaf         Ficus           lyrata                         

fig, Florida strangler   Ficus           aurea                          

filbert, European        Corylus         avellana                       

fir, balsam              Abies           balsamea                       

fir, bigcone Douglas     Pseudotsuga     macrocarpa                     

fir, blue Chinese        Cunninghamia    lanceolata                     

fir, bristlecone         Abies           bracteata                      

fir, California red      Abies           magnifica                      

fir, California white    Abies           lowiana                        

fir, Douglas             Pseudotsuga     menziesii                      

fir, Fraser              Abies           fraseri                        

fir, grand               Abies           grandis                        

fir, Manchurian          Abies           holophylla                     

fir, noble               Abies           procera                        

fir, Pacific silver      Abies           amabilis                       

fir, Rocky Mountain      Abies           bifolia                        
alpine                                                                  

fir, Sierra white        Abies           lowiana                        

fir, subalpine           Abies           lasiocarpa                     

fir, white               Abies           concolor                       

fire thorn               Pyracantha      coccinea                       

fishpoison tree,         Piscidia        piscipula                      
Florida                                                                 

Florida fiddlewood       Citharexylum    fruticosum                     

Florida silverpalm       Coccothrinax    argentata                      

fringe tree              Chionanthus     virginicus                     

gallberry, large         Ilex            coriacea                       

geiger tree              Cordia          sebestena                      

ginko                    Ginkgo          biloba                         

Grevillea                Grevillea       'noellii'                      

guava, common            Psidium         guajava                        

Guiana plum              Drypetes        lateriflora                    

guiana rapanea           Rapanea         guianensis                     

gum bumelia              Bumelia         lanuginosa                     

gum, black               Nyssa           sylvatica                      

gum, cider               Eucalyptus      gunnii                         

gum, desert              Eucalyptus      rudis                          

gum, red                 Eucalyptus      camaldulensis                  

gum, silver dollar       Eucalyptus      polyanthemos                   

gumbo limbo              Bursera         simaruba                       

hackberry, dwarf         Celtis          tenuifolia                     

hackberry, Georgia       Celtis          tenuifolia                     

hackberry, northern      Celtis          occidentalis                   




Common name                   Scientific  name                         

Hakea                    Hakea           spp.                           

hawthorn                 Crataegus       spp.                           

hawthorn, barberry       Crataegus       berberifolia                   

hawthorn, barberryleaf   Crataegus       berberifolia                   

hawthorn, Biltmore       Crataegus       intricata                      

hawthorn, black          Crataegus       douglasii                      

hawthorn, blueberry      Crataegus       brachyacantha                  

hawthorn, cockspur       Crataegus       crus-galli                     

hawthorn, downy          Crataegus       mollis                         

hawthorn, English        Crataegus       oxyacantha                     

hawthorn, frosted        Crataegus       pruinosa                       

hawthorn, littlehip      Crataegus       spathulata                     

hawthorn, oneseed        Crataegus       monogyna                       

hawthorn, parsley        Crataegus       marshallii                     

hawthorn, riverflat      Crataegus       opaca                          

hawthorn, scarlet        Crataegus       coccinea                       

hawthorn, willow         Crataegus       saligna                        

hazelnut, American       Corylus         americana                      

hazelnut, beaked         Corylus         cornuta                        

hemlock, Carolina        Tsuga           caroliniana                    

hemlock, eastern         Tsuga           canadensis                     

hemlock, mountain        Tsuga           mertensiana                    

hemlock, western         Tsuga           heterophylla                   

Hercules club            Zanthoxylum     clava-herculis                 

hibiscus, Chinese        Hibiscus        rosa-sinensis                  

hibiscus, sea            Hibiscus        tiliaceus                      

hickory                  Carya           spp.                           

hickory, bitternut       Carya           cordiformis                    

hickory, black           Carya           texana                         

hickory, mockernut       Carya           tomentosa                      

hickory, nutmeg          Carya           myristiciformis                

hickory, pignut          Carya           glabra                         

hickory, red             Carya           ovalis                         

hickory, sand            Carya           pallida                        

hickory, scrub           Carya           floridana                      

hickory, shagbark        Carya           ovata                          

hickory, shellbark       Carya           laciniosa                      

hickory, water           Carya           aquatica                       

holly, American          Ilex            opaca                          

holly, English           Ilex            aquifolium                     

holly, tawnyberry        Ilex            krugiana                       

honeylocust              Gleditsia       triacanthos                    

hophornbeam, eastern     Ostrya          virginiana                     

hophornbeam, Knowlton    Ostrya          knowltonii                     

hoptree, common          Ptelea          trifoliata                     

hornbeam, American       Carpinus        caroliniana                    

horsechestnut            Aesculus        hippocastanum                  

horsetail casuarina      Casuarina       equisetifolia                  

horsetail tree           Casuarina       equisetifolia                  

huisache                 Acacia          farnesiana                     

huisachillo              Acacia          tortuosa                       

incense cedar            Calocedrus      decurrens                      

inkberry                 Ilex            glabra                         

inkwood                  Exothea         paniculata                     

ironbark, red            Eucalyptus      sideroxylon                    

ironbark, white          Eucalyptus      leucoxylon                     

Jamaica caper            Capparis        cynophallophora                

jasmine, winter          Jasminum        nudiflorum                     

Jerusalem thorn          Parkinsonia     aculeata                       

juniper, alligator       Juniperus       deppeana                       

juniper, Ashe            Juniperus       ashei                          

juniper, California      Juniperus       californica                    

juniper, common          Juniperus       communis                       




Common name                   Scientific  name                         

juniper, drooping        Juniperus       flaccida                       

juniper, one seed        Juniperus       monosperma                     

juniper, Pinchot         Juniperus       pinchotii                      

juniper, redberry        Juniperus       pinchotii                      

juniper, redberry        Juniperus       erythrocarpa                   

juniper, Rocky Mountain  Juniperus       scopulorum                     

juniper, Utah            Juniperus       osteosperma                    

juniper, western         Juniperus       occidentalis                   

larch, European          Larix           decidua                        

larch, subalpine         Larix           lyallii                        

larch, western           Larix           occidentalis                   

laurel, California       Umbellularia    californica                    

laurelcherry, Carolina   Prunus          caroliniana                    

leadwood                 Krugiodendron   ferreum                        

lemon                    Citrus          limon                          

lemonade berry           Rhus            integrifolia                   

lime                     Citrus          aurantifolia                   

linden, European         Tilia           europaea                       

linden, little leaf      Tilia           cordata                        

loblolly bay             Gordonia        lasianthus                     

locust                   Robinia         spp.                           

locust, black            Robinia         pseudoacacia                   

locust, clammy           Robinia         viscosa                        

locust, honey            Gleditsia       triacanthos                    

locust, New Mexico       Robinia         neomexicana                    

locust, water            Gleditsia       aquatica                       

loquat tree              Eriobotrya      japonica                       

Lyontree                 Lyonothamnus    floribundus                    

lysiloma, Bahama         Lysiloma        latisiliquum                   

madrone, Arizona         Arbutus         arizonica                      

madrone, Pacific         Arbutus         menziesii                      

madrone, Texas           Arbutus         texana                         

magnolia, Ashe           Magnolia        ashei                          

magnolia, bigleaf        Magnolia        macrophylla                    

magnolia, cucumber       Magnolia        acuminata                      

magnolia, Fraser         Magnolia        fraseri                        

magnolia, pyramid        Magnolia        pyramidata                     

magnolia, southern       Magnolia        grandiflora                    

magnolia, umbrella       Magnolia        tripetala                      

mahogany, West Indies    Swietenia       mahogani                       

manchineel               Hippomane       mancinella                     

mangrove, button         Conocarpus      erectus                        

mangrove, red            Rhizophora      mangle                         

mangrove, white          Laguncularia    racemosa                       

maple, Amur              Acer            ginnala                        

maple, bigleaf           Acer            macrophyllum                   

maple, bigtooth          Acer            grandidentatum                 

maple, black             Acer            nigrum                         

maple, boxelder          Acer            negundo                        

maple, canyon            Acer            grandidentatum                 

maple, chalk             Acer            leucoderme                     

maple, Florida           Acer            barbatum                       

maple, fullmoon          Acer            japonicum                      

maple, hedge             Acer            campestre                      

maple, Japanese          Acer            palmatum                       

maple, mountain          Acer            spicatum                       

maple, Norway            Acer            platanoides                    

maple, red               Acer            rubrum                         

maple, Rocky Mountain    Acer            glabrum                        

maple, silver            Acer            saccharinum                    

maple, striped           Acer            pensylvanicum                  

maple, sugar             Acer            saccharum                      




Common name                   Scientific  name                         

maple, sycamore          Acer            pseudoplatanus                 

maple, Tatar             Acer            tataricum                      

maple, vine              Acer            circinatum                     

marlberry                Ardisia         escallonioides                 

mastic, false            Mastichodendron foetidissimum                  
                                                                        

mazzard                  Prunus          avium                          

medlar, Chinese          Photinia        serrulata                      

medlar, European         Mespilus        germanica                      

melaleuca, lilac         Melaleuca       decussata                      

mescalbean               Sophora         secundiflora                   

mesquite, honey          Prosopis        glandulosa                     

mesquite, screwbean      Prosopis        pubescens                      

Mexican alvaradoa        Alvaradoa       amorphoides                    

mountain ash, American   Sorbus          americana                      

mountain ash, European   Sorbus          aucuparia                      

mulberry, black          Morus           nigra                          

mulberry, paper          Broussonetia    papyrifera                     

mulberry, red            Morus           rubra                          

mulberry, Russian        Morus           alba var. tatarica             

mulberry, Texas          Morus           microphylla                    

mulberry, white          Morus           alba                           

myrtle of the river      Calyptranthes   zuzygium                       

nannyberry               Viburnum        lentago                        

nectarine                Prunus          persica                        

oak                      Quercus         spp.                           

oak, Arizona gray        Quercus         grisea                         

oak, Arizona white       Quercus         arizonica                      

oak, bear                Quercus         ilicifolia                     

oak, black               Quercus         velutina                       

oak, blackjack           Quercus         marilandica                    

oak, blue                Quercus         douglasii                      

oak, bluejack            Quercus         cinerea                        

oak, bluejack            Quercus         incana                         

oak, bluff               Quercus         austrina                       

oak, bur                 Quercus         macrocarpa                     

oak, California black    Quercus         kelloggii                      

oak, California red      Quercus         kelloggii                      

oak, California white    Quercus         lobata                         

oak, canyon live         Quercus         chrysolepis                    

oak, Chapman             Quercus         chapmanii                      

oak, cherrybark          Quercus         pagoda                         

oak, chestnut            Quercus         prinus                         

oak, chinkapin           Quercus         muehlenbergii                  

oak, coast live          Quercus         agrifolia                      

oak, cork                Quercus         suber                          

oak, Darlington          Quercus         hemisphaerica                  

oak, Durand              Quercus         durandii                       

oak, Emory               Quercus         emoryi                         

oak, Engelmann           Quercus         engelmannii                    

oak, Gambel              Quercus         gambelii                       

oak, gray                Quercus         grisea                         

oak, interior live       Quercus         wislizenii                     

oak, laurel              Quercus         laurifolia                     

oak, live                Quercus         virginiana                     

oak, Mexican blue        Quercus         oblongifolia                   

oak, myrtle              Quercus         myrtifolia                     

oak, northern pin        Quercus         ellipsoidalis                  

oak, northern red        Quercus         rubra                          

oak, Nuttall             Quercus         nuttallii                      

oak, Oglethorpe          Quercus         oglethorpensis                 

oak, Oregon white        Quercus         garryana                       

oak, overcup             Quercus         lyrata                         




Common name                   Scientific  name                         

oak, pin                 Quercus         palustris                      

oak, post                Quercus         stellata                       

oak, sand post           Quercus         margaretta                     

oak, scarlet             Quercus         coccinea                       

oak, shingle             Quercus         imbricaria                     

oak, Shumard             Quercus         shumardii                      

oak, silverleaf          Quercus         hypoleucoides                  

oak, southern red        Quercus         falcata                        

oak, swamp chestnut      Quercus         michauxii                      

oak, swamp white         Quercus         bicolor                        

oak, turkey (scrub)      Quercus         laevis                         

oak, valley              Quercus         lobata                         

oak, water               Quercus         nigra                          

oak, white               Quercus         alba                           

oak, willow              Quercus         phellos                        

olive                    Olea            europaea                       

olive, Russian           Elaeagnus       angustifolia                   

orange                   Citrus          sinensis                       

orange, Osage            Maclura         pomifera                       

oysterwood               Gymnanthes      lucida                         

pagoda tree, Japanese    Sophora         japonica                       

pale lidflower           Calyptranthes   pallens                        

palm, buccaneer          Pseudophoenix   sargentii                      

palm, California         Washingtonia    filifera                       

palm, coconut            Cocos           nucifera                       

palm, Manila             Adonidia        merrillii                      

palm, paurotis           Acoelorrhaphe   wrightii                       

palm, queen              Arecastrum      romanzoffianum                 

palm, wine               Caryota         urens                          

palmetto, cabbage        Sabal           palmetto                       

paloverde, blue          Cercidium       floridum                       

paloverde, yellow        Cercidium       microphyllum                   

papaya                   Carica          papaya                         

paradise tree            Simarouba       glauca                         

parasoltree, Chinese     Firmiana        simplex                        

paulownia, royal         Paulownia       tomentosa                      

pawpaw                   Asimina         triloba                        

peach                    Prunus          persica                        

pear                     Pyrus           communis                       

pecan                    Carya           illinoensis                    

pepperbush               Clethra         spp.                           

pepperbush, sweet        Clethra         alnifolia                      

peppermint, white        Eucalyptus      pulchella                      

peppertree, California   Schinus         molle                          

persimmon, common        Diospyros       virginiana                     

persimmon, Texas         Diospyros       texana                         

photinia                 Photinia        spp.                           

photinia, Japanese       Photinia        glabra                         

pigeonplum               Coccoloba       diversifolia                   

pinckneya                Pinckneya       pubens                         

pine, Aleppo             Pinus           halepensis                     

pine, Apache             Pinus           engelmannii                    

pine, Austrian           Pinus           nigra                          

pine, bishop             Pinus           muricata                       

pine, bristlecone        Pinus           aristata                       

pine, Coulter            Pinus           coulteri                       

pine, Digger             Pinus           sabiniana                      

pine, eastern white      Pinus           strobus                        

pine, foxtail            Pinus           balfouriana                    

pine, intermountain      Pinus           longaeva                       
bristlecone                                                             

pine, Italian stone      Pinus           pinea                          

pine, jack               Pinus           banksiana                      




Common name                   Scientific  name                         

pine, Japanese black     Pinus           thunbergiana                   

pine, Jeffrey            Pinus           jeffreyi                       

pine, knobcone           Pinus           attenuata                      

pine, limber             Pinus           flexilis                       

pine, loblolly           Pinus           taeda                          

pine, lodgepole          Pinus           contorta                       

pine, longleaf           Pinus           palustris                      

pine, Monterey           Pinus           radiata                        

pine, pitch              Pinus           rigida                         

pine, pond               Pinus           serotina                       

pine, ponderosa          Pinus           ponderosa                      

pine, red                Pinus           resinosa                       

pine, sand               Pinus           clausa                         

pine, Scotch             Pinus           sylvestris                     

pine, Scots              Pinus           sylvestris                     

pine, shortleaf          Pinus           echinata                       

pine, slash              Pinus           elliottii                      

pine, southwestern       Pinus           strobiformis                   
white                                                                   

pine, spruce             Pinus           glabra                         

pine, sugar              Pinus           lambertiana                    

pine, Swiss mountain     Pinus           mugo                           

pine, table mountain     Pinus           pungens                        

pine, Torrey             Pinus           torreyana                      

pine, Virginia           Pinus           virginiana                     

pine, Washoe             Pinus           washoensis                     

pine, western white      Pinus           monticola                      

pine, whitebark          Pinus           albicaulis                     

pinyon                   Pinus           edulis                         

pinyon, border           Pinus           discolor                       

pinyon, Mexican          Pinus           cembroides                     

pinyon, Parry            Pinus           quadrifolia                    

pinyon, singleleaf       Pinus           monophylla                     

pistache, Texas          Pistacia        texana                         

pistachio                Pistacia        vera                           

planetree, Oriental      Platanus        orientalis                     

plum, Allegheny          Prunus          alleghaniensis                 

plum, American           Prunus          americana                      

plum, beach              Prunus          maritima                       

plum, Canada             Prunus          nigra                          

plum, Chickasaw          Prunus          angustifolia                   

plum, common             Prunus          domestica                      

plum, darling            Reynosia        septentrionalis                

plum, flatwoods          Prunus          umbellata                      

plum, Guiana             Drypetes        lateriflora                    

plum, hortulan           Prunus          hortulana                      

plum, Japanese           Prunus          japonica                       

plum, Klamath            Prunus          subcordata                     

plum, Mexican            Prunus          mexicana                       

plum, purple leaved      Prunus          cerasifera var. pissardi       

plum, wildgoose          Prunus          munsoniana                     

poisontree, Florida      Metopium        toxiferum                      

pomegranate              Punica          granatum                       

pond apple               Annona          glabra                         

poplar                   Populus         spp.                           

poplar, balsam           Populus         balsamifera                    

poplar, Lombardy         Populus         nigra var. italica             

poplar, tulip            Liriodendron    tulipifera                     

poplar, white            Populus         alba                           

poplar, yellow           Liriodendron    tulipifera                     

possum haw               Ilex            decidua                        




Common name                   Scientific  name                         

prickly ash, common      Zanthoxylum     americanum                     

prickly ash, lime        Zanthoxylum     fagara                         

princewood               Exostema        caribaeum                      

princewood, Caribbean    Exostema        caribaeum                      

privet, swamp            Forestiera      acuminata                      

quince                   Cydonia         oblonga                        

quince, Japanese         Chaenomeles     lagenaria                      

rapanea, guiana          Rapanea         guianensis                     

redbay                   Persea          borbonia                       

redbud, California       Cercis          occidentalis                   

redbud, eastern          Cercis          canadensis                     

redbud, western          Cercis          occidentalis                   

redcedar, eastern        Juniperus       virginiana                     

redcedar, western        Thuja           plicata                        

redwood, coast           Sequoia         sempervirens                   

redwood, dawn            Metasequoia     glyptostroboides               

rose                     Rosa            spp.                           

rose, climbing prairie   Rosa            setigera                       

rose, Macartney          Rosa            bracteata                      

rose, sweetbriar         Rosa            eglanteria                     

roseberry                Juniperus       coahuilensis                   

roughbark lignumvitae    Guaiacum        sanctum                        

royalpalm, Florida       Roystonea       elata                          

rubber tree, India       Ficus           elastica                       

Russian olive            Elaeagnus       angustifolia                   

rustica rubra            Magnolia        soulangeana                    

saguaro                  Cereus          giganteus                      

sassafras                Sassafras       albidum                        

satinleaf                Chrysophyllum   oliviforme                     

satinwood, West Indies   Zanthoxylum     flavum                         

seagrape                 Coccoloba       uvifera                        

sequoia, giant           Sequoiadendron  giganteum                      

serviceberry             Amelanchier     spp.                           

serviceberry, downy      Amelanchier     arborea                        

serviceberry, eastern    Amelanchier     canadensis                     

serviceberry, smooth     Amelanchier     laevis                         

serviceberry, western    Amelanchier     alnifolia                      

Siberian pea tree        Caragana        arborescens                    

silk oak                 Grevillea       robusta                        

silk tassel              Garrya          fremontii                      

silk tree                Albizia         julibrissin                    

silver bell              Halesia         carolina                       

silverbell, Carolina     Halesia         carolina                       

sloe                     Prunus          spinosa                        

smokethorn               Dalea           spinosa                        

smoke tree               Cotinus         coggygria                      

smoketree, American      Cotinus         obovatus                       

snowberry                Symphoricarpos  albus                          

soapberry, Florida       Sapindus        marginatus                     

soapberry, western       Sapindus        drummondii                     

soapberry, wingleaf      Sapindus        saponaria                      

soldierwood              Colubrina       elliptica                      

sophora, Texas           Sophora         affinis                        

sourwood                 Oxydendrum      arboreum                       

spicebush                Lindera         benzoin                        

spindle tree, European   Euonymus        europaeus                      

spirea                   Spirea          bumalda                        

spruce                   Picea           spp.                           

spruce, black            Picea           mariana                        

spruce, blue             Picea           pungens                        

spruce, Brewer           Picea           brewerana                      

spruce, dwarf Alberta    Picea           glauca var. albertiana         

spruce, Engelmann        Picea           engelmannii                    




Common name                  Scientific   name                         

spruce, Norway           Picea           abies                          

spruce, red              Picea           rubens                         

spruce, Sitka            Picea           sitchensis                     

spruce, tigertail        Picea           polita                         

spruce, white            Picea           glauca                         

Stewartia                Stewartia       koreana                        

Stewartia, mountain      Stewartia       ovata                          

strawberry tree          Arbutus         unedo                          

sugarberry               Celtis          laevigata                      

sumac, lemonade          Rhus            integrifolia                   

sumac, poison            Toxicodendron   vernix                         

sumac, shining           Rhus            copallina                      

sumac, smooth            Rhus            glabra                         

sumac, staghorn          Rhus            typhina                        

sweetbay                 Magnolia        virginiana                     

sweetgum                 Liquidambar     styraciflua                    

sweetleaf, common        Symplocos       tinctoria                      

sycamore                 Platanus        occidentalis                   

sycamore, American       Platanus        occidentalis                   

sycamore, Arizona        Platanus        wrightii                       

sycamore, California     Platanus        racemosa                       

Sydney golden wattle     Acacia          longifolia                     

tallowtree, Chinese      Sapium          sebiferum                      

tallowwood               Ximenia         americana                      

tamarack                 Larix           laricina                       

tamerisk, smallflower    Tamarix         parviflora                     

tanoak                   Lithocarpus     densiflorus                    

tesota                   Olneya          tesota                         

thatchpalm, brittle      Thrinax         microcarpa                     

thatchpalm, Jamaica      Thrinax         parviflora                     

torchwood                Amyris          elemifera                      

torreya, California      Torreya         californica                    

torreya, Florida         Torreya         taxifolia                      

toyon                    Heteromeles     arbutifolia                    

tree lyonia              Lyonia          ferruginea                     

tree of heaven           Ailanthus       altissima                      

trema, Florida           Trema           micrantha                      

tulip poplar             Liriodendron    tulipifera                     

tulip tree               Liriodendron    tulipifera                     

tung oil tree            Aleurites       fordii                         

tupelo, black            Nyssa           sylvatica                      

tupelo, Ogeechee         Nyssa           ogeche                         

tupelo, swamp            Nyssa           biflora                        

tupelo, water            Nyssa           aquatica                       

vauquelinia, Torrey      Vauquelinia     californica                    

velvetseed, elliptic     Guettarda       elliptica                      
leaf                                                                    

velvetseed, roughleaf    Guettarda       scabra                         

viburnum                 Viburnum        tomentosum                     

viburnum, leatherleaf    Viburnum        rhytidophyllum                 

viburnum, oval leafed    Viburnum        ellipticum                     

wahoo, eastern           Euonymus        atropurpureus                  

wahoo, western           Euonymus        occidentalis                   

walnut, Arizona          Juglans         major                          

walnut, black            Juglans         nigra                          

walnut, Hinds            Juglans         hindsii                        

walnut, little           Juglans         microcarpa                     

walnut, northern         Juglans         hindsii                        
California                                                              

walnut, southern         Juglans         californica                    
California                                                              

waterlocust              Gleditsia       aquatica                       

waxmyrtle, Pacific       Myrica          californica                    

wayfaring tree           Viburnum        lantana                        

white cedar, northern    Thuja           occidentalis                   

wild dilly               Manilkara       bahamensis                     




Common Name                   Scientific  name                         

willow                   Salix           spp.                           

willow bustic            Dipholis        salicifolia                    

willow, arroyo           Salix           lasiolepis                     

willow, basket           Salix           viminalis                      

willow, Bebb             Salix           bebbiana                       

willow, black            Salix           nigra                          

willow, Bonpland         Salix           bonplandiana                   

willow, coastal plain    Salix           caroliniana                    

willow, crack            Salix           fragilis                       

willow, diamond          Salix           eriocephala                    

willow, feltleaf         Salix           alaxensis                      

willow, golden weeping   Salix           alba  var. tristis             

willow, heart leaved     Salix           cordata                        

willow, Hooker           Salix           hookerana                      

willow, laurel leaved    Salix           pentandra                      

willow, Mackenzie        Salix           mackenzieana                   

willow, Pacific          Salix           lasiandra                      

willow, peachleaf        Salix           amygdaloides                   

willow, pussy            Salix           discolor                       

willow, red              Salix           laevigata                      

willow, sandbar          Salix           exigua                         

willow, Scouler          Salix           scoulerana                     

willow, shining          Salix           lucida                         

willow, weeping          Salix           babylonica                     

willow, white            Salix           alba                           

willow, yewleaf          Salix           taxifolia                      

winterberry, common      Ilex            verticillata                   

winterberry, mountain    Ilex            montana                        

witchhazel               Hamamelis       virginiana                     

yaupon                   Ilex            vomitoria                      

yellow poplar            Liriodendron    tulipifera                     

yellowwood               Cladrastis      lutea                          

yew, Florida             Taxus           floridana                      

yew, Pacific             Taxus           brevifolia                     



Table 4.--Taxonomic checklist of tree species, codes following species names describe continent of origin (NA = North America, AS = Asia, AU = Australia, AF = Africa, EU = Europe)

Class: Ginkgoopsida

Order: Ginkgoales

Family: Ginkgoaceae

Ginkgo biloba AS

Class: Coniferopsida

Order: Coniferales

Family: Pinaceae

Abies bracteata NA

Abies amabilis NA

Abies grandis NA

Abies balsamea NA

Abies fraseri NA

Abies lasiocarpa NA

Abies bifolia NA

Abies concolor NA

Abies lowiana NA

Abies magnifica NA

Abies procera NA

Abies holophylla AS

Cedrus atlantica AF

Cedrus deodara AS

Cedrus libani AS

Tsuga caroliniana NA

Tsuga mertensiana NA

Tsuga canadensis NA

Tsuga heterophylla NA

Pseudotsuga macrocarpa NA

Pseudotsuga menziesii NA

Larix decidua EU

Larix laricina NA

Larix occidentalis NA

Larix lyallii NA

Picea abies EU

Picea mariana NA

Picea rubens NA

Picea glauca NA

Picea glauca var. albertiana NA

Picea engelmannii NA

Picea pungens NA

Picea sitchensis NA

Picea brewerana NA

Picea spp. EU, NA

Pinus Strobus albicaulis NA

Pinus Strobus strobus NA

Pinus Strobus monticola NA

Pinus Strobus lambertiana NA

Pinus Strobus flexilis NA

Pinus Strobus strobiformis NA

Pinus Strobus cembroides NA

Pinus Strobus edulis NA

Pinus Strobus quadrifolia NA

Pinus Strobus monophylla NA

Pinus Strobus discolor NA

Pinus Strobus balfouriana NA

Pinus Strobus aristata NA

Pinus Strobus longaeva NA

Pinus Pinus resinosa NA

Pinus Pinus nigra AS, EU

Pinus Pinus mugo EU

Pinus Pinus pinea EU

Pinus Pinus halepensis EU

Pinus Pinus sylvestris AS, EU

Pinus Pinus thunbergiana AS

Pinus Pinus palustris NA

Pinus Pinus taeda NA

Pinus Pinus echinata NA

Pinus Pinus glabra NA

Pinus Pinus rigida NA

Pinus Pinus serotina NA

Pinus Pinus pungens NA

Pinus Pinus elliottii NA

Pinus Pinus ponderosa NA

Pinus Pinus washoensis NA

Pinus Pinus jeffreyi NA

Pinus Pinus engelmannii NA

Pinus Pinus sabiniana NA

Pinus Pinus coulteri NA

Pinus Pinus torreyana NA

Pinus Pinus banksiana NA

Pinus Pinus contorta NA

Pinus Pinus virginiana NA

Pinus Pinus clausa NA

Pinus Pinus radiata NA

Pinus Pinus attenuata NA

Pinus Pinus muricata NA

Family: Taxodiaceae

Sequoia sempervirens NA

Sequoiadendron giganteum NA

Taxodium distichum NA

Taxodium mucronatum NA

Cunninghamia lanceolata AS

Metasequoia glyptostroboides AS

Family: Cupressaceae

Cupressus arizonica NA

Cupressus bakeri NA

Cupressus macnabiana NA

Cupressus sargentii NA

Cupressus goveniana NA

Cupressus macrocarpa NA

Cupressus guadalupensis NA

Chamaecyparis thyoides NA

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana NA

Chamaecyparis nootkatensis NA

Cupressocyparis leylandii NA

Thuja occidentalis NA

Thuja plicata NA

Thuja orientalis AS

Calocedrus decurrens NA

Juniperus communis AS, EU, NA

Juniperus flaccida NA

Juniperus scopulorum NA

Juniperus virginiana NA

Juniperus deppeana NA

Juniperus ashei NA

Juniperus occidentalis NA

Juniperus osteosperma NA

Juniperus californica NA

Juniperus monosperma NA

Juniperus coahuilensis NA

Juniperus pinchotii NA

Juniperus erythrocarpa NA

Callitris glaucophylla AU

Order: Taxales

Family: Taxaceae

Taxus brevifolia NA

Taxus floridana NA

Torreya californica NA

Torreya taxifolia NA

Class: Magnoliopsida

Subclass: Magnoliidae

Order: Magnoliales

Family: Magnoliaceae

Magnolia virginiana NA

Magnolia grandiflora NA

Magnolia acuminata NA

Magnolia tripetala NA

Magnolia fraseri NA

Magnolia macrophylla NA

Magnolia ashei NA

Magnolia pyramidata NA

Magnolia soulangeana AS

Liriodendron tulipifera NA

Family: Annonaceae

Annona glabra NA, SA

Asimina triloba NA

Family: Canellaceae

Canella winterana NA, SA

Order: Laurales

Family: Calycanthaceae

Calycanthus floridus NA

Family: Lauraceae

Persea americana NA

Persea borbonia NA

Sassafras albidum NA

Lindera benzoin NA

Cinnamomum camphora AS

Umbellularia californica NA

Subclass: Hamamelidae

Order: Hamamelidales

Family: Platanaceae

Platanus occidentalis NA

Platanus orientalis AS, EU

Platanus racemosa NA

Platanus wrightii NA

Family: Hamamelidaceae

Liquidambar styraciflua NA

Hamamelis virginiana NA

Order: Urticales

Family: Ulmaceae

Ulmus alata NA

Ulmus americana NA

Ulmus crassifolia NA

Ulmus glabra AS, EU

Ulmus parvifolia AS

Ulmus procera EU

Ulmus pumila AS

Ulmus rubra NA

Ulmus serotina NA

Ulmus thomasii NA

Ulmus spp. AS, EU, NA

Planera aquatica NA

Trema micrantha NA, SA

Celtis laevigata NA

Celtis occidentalis NA

Celtis tenuifolia NA

Family: Moraceae

Maclura pomifera NA

Broussonetia papyrifera AS

Morus alba AS

Morus alba var. tatarica AS

Morus microphylla NA

Morus nigra AS

Morus rubra NA

Ficus aurea NA

Ficus benjamina AS

Ficus carica AS

Ficus elastica AS

Ficus lyrata AF

Order: Leitneriales

Family: Leitneriaceae

Leitneria floridana NA

Order: Juglandales

Family: Juglandaceae

Juglans californica NA

Juglans cinerea NA

Juglans hindsii NA

Juglans major NA

Juglans microcarpa NA

Juglans nigra NA

Carya illinoensis NA

Carya cordiformis NA

Carya aquatica NA

Carya laciniosa NA

Carya tomentosa NA

Carya ovata NA

Carya ovalis NA

Carya glabra NA

Carya myristiciformis NA

Carya texana NA

Carya pallida NA

Carya floridana NA

Carya spp. AS, NA

Order: Myricales

Family: Myricaceae

Myrica californica NA

Myrica cerifera NA

Psidium guajava NA, SA

Order: Fagales

Family: Fagaceae

Fagus grandifolia NA

Fagus sylvatica AS, EU

Castanea dentata NA

Castanea ozarkensis NA

Castanea pumila NA

Castanopsis chrysophylla NA

Lithocarpus densiflorus NA

Quercus eucobalanus alba NA

Quercus eucobalanus stellata NA

Quercus eucobalanus margaretta NA

Quercus Leucobalanus lyrata NA

Quercus Leucobalanus macrocarpa NA

Quercus Leucobalanus bicolor NA

Quercus Leucobalanus michauxii NA

Quercus Leucobalanus prinus NA

Quercus Leucobalanus muehlenbergii NA

Quercus Leucobalanus prinoides NA

Quercus Leucobalanus gambelii NA

Quercus Leucobalanus durandii NA

Quercus Leucobalanus oglethorpensis NA

Quercus Leucobalanus austrina NA

Quercus Leucobalanus douglasii NA

Quercus Leucobalanus lobata NA

Quercus Leucobalanus garryana NA

Quercus Leucobalanus engelmannii NA

Quercus Leucobalanus suber AF, EU

Quercus Erythrobalanus imbricaria NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus cinerea NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus phellos NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus laurifolia NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus hemisphaerica NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus nigra NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus marilandica NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus ilicifolia NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus pagoda NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus falcata NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus laevis NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus virginiana NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus chrysolepis NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus wislizenii NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus velutina NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus rubra NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus palustris NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus shumardii NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus ellipsoidalis NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus coccinea NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus arizonica NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus emoryi NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus dunnii NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus kelloggii NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus agrifolia NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus grisea NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus oblongifolia NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus hypoleucoides NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus chapmanii NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus incana NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus myrtifolia NA

Quercus Erythrobalanus nuttallii NA

Family: Betulaceae

Corylus americana NA

Corylus avellana EU

Corylus cornuta NA

Ostrya knowltonii NA

Ostrya virginiana NA

Carpinus caroliniana NA

Betula alba AS, EU

Betula alleghaniensis NA

Betula lenta NA

Betula nigra NA

Betula occidentalis NA

Betula papyrifera NA

Betula pendula AS, EU

Betula populifolia NA

Betula pumila NA

Betula verrucosa AS, EU

Alnus maritima NA

Alnus oblongifolia NA

Alnus rhombifolia NA

Alnus rugosa NA

Alnus serrulata NA

Alnus sinuata NA

Alnus tenuifolia NA

Order: Casuarinales

Family: Casuarinaceae

Casuarina equisetifolia AS, AU

Casuarina stricta AU

Subclass: Caryophyllidae

Order: Caryophyllales

Family: Cactaceae

Cereus giganteus NA

Order: Polygonales

Family: Polygonaceae

Coccoloba diversifolia NA

Coccoloba uvifera NA, SA

Subclass: Dilleniidae

Order: Theales

Family: Theaceae

Gordonia lasianthus NA

Stewartia ovata NA

Stewartia koreana NA

Order: Malvales

Family: Tiliaceae

Tilia americana NA

Tilia caroliniana NA

Tilia cordata EU

Tilia europaea EU

Tilia floridana NA

Tilia heterophylla NA

Family: Sterculiaceae

Firmiana simplex AS

Family: Malvaceae

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis AS

Hibiscus tiliaceus AS

Order: Violales

Family: Tamaricaceae

Tamarix parviflora EU, AS

Family: Caricaceae

Carica papaya NA, SA

Order: Salicales

Family: Salicaceae

Populus alba AS, EU

Populus angustifolia NA

Populus balsamifera NA

Populus deltoides NA

Populus fremontii NA

Populus grandidentata NA

Populus heterophylla NA

Populus nigra var. italica AS, EU

Populus sargentii NA

Populus tremuloides NA

Populus trichocarpa NA

Populus spp. AS, EU, NA

Salix caroliniana NA

Salix amygdaloides NA

Salix nigra NA

Salix lucida NA

Salix pentandra EU

Salix alba AF, AS, EU

Salix alba var. tristis AF, AS, EU

Salix fragilis AS, EU

Salix babylonica AS

Salix exigua NA

Salix bebbiana NA

Salix scoulerana NA

Salix eriocephala NA

Salix cordata NA

Salix discolor NA

Salix viminalis AS, EU

Salix alaxensis AS, NA

Salix bonplandiana NA

Salix hookerana NA

Salix laevigata NA

Salix lasiandra NA

Salix lasiolepis NA

Salix mackenzieana NA

Salix taxifolia NA

Order: Capparales

Family: Capparaceae

Capparis cynophallophora NA, SA

Order: Ericales

Family: Cyrillaceae

Cliftonia monophylla NA

Cyrilla racemiflora NA, SA

Family: Clethraceae

Clethra alnifolia NA

Family: Ericaceae

Arbutus arizonica NA

Arbutus menziesii NA

Arbutus texana NA

Arbutus unedo EU

Elliottia racemosa NA

Lyonia ferruginea NA

Oxydendrum arboreum NA

Order: Ebenales

Family: Sapotaceae

Manilkara bahamensis NA

Bumelia lanuginosa NA

Chrysophyllum oliviforme NA

Dipholis salicifolia NA

Mastichodendron oetidissimum NA

Family: Ebenaceae

Diospyros texana NA

Diospyros virginiana NA

Family: Styracaceae

Halesia carolina NA

Family: Symplocaceae

Symplocos tinctoria NA

Order: Primulales

Family: Myrsinaceae

Ardisia escallonioides NA

Ardisia japonica AS

Rapanea guianensis NA

Subclass: Rosidae

Order: Rosales

Family: Rosaceae

Spirea bumalda AS

Rosa bracteata AS

Rosa eglanteria EU

Rosa setigera NA

Rosa spp. AS, EU, NA

Prunus alleghaniensis NA

Prunus americana NA

Prunus armeniaca AS

Prunus angustifolia NA

Prunus avium AS, EU

Prunus caroliniana NA

Prunus cerasifera var. pissardi AS

Prunus domestica AS

Prunus emarginata NA

Prunus fremontii NA

Prunus glandulosa AS

Prunus hortulana NA

Prunus japonica AS

Prunus laurocerasus AS, EU

Prunus lyonii NA

Prunus maritima NA

Prunus mexicana NA

Prunus munsoniana NA

Prunus myrtifolia NA, SA

Prunus nigra NA

Prunus padus EU, AS

Prunus pensylvanica NA

Prunus persica AS

Prunus pumila NA

Prunus serotina NA

Prunus spinosa AS, EU

Prunus subcordata NA

Prunus umbellata NA

Prunus virginiana NA

Prunus spp. AS, EU, NA, SA

Pyrus angustifolia NA

Pyrus communis AS, EU

Pyrus coronaria NA

Pyrus fusca NA

Pyrus ioensis NA

Pyrus malus AS, EU

Pyrus spp. EU, NA

Chaenomeles lagenaria AS

Cydonia oblonga AS

Eriobotrya japonica AS

Heteromeles arbutifolia NA

Sorbus americana NA

Sorbus aucuparia AS, EU

Amelanchier alnifolia NA

Amelanchier arborea NA

Amelanchier canadensis NA

Amelanchier laevis NA

Amelanchier spp. NA

Crataegus berberifolia NA

Crataegus brachyacantha NA

Crataegus coccinea NA

Crataegus crus-galli NA

Crataegus douglasii NA

Crataegus intricata NA

Crataegus marshallii NA

Crataegus mollis NA

Crataegus monogyna AS, EU

Crataegus opaca NA

Crataegus oxyacantha AF, EU

Crataegus pruinosa NA

Crataegus saligna NA

Crataegus spathulata NA

Crataegus spp. AF, AS, EU, NA

Cercocarpus betuloides NA

Cercocarpus breviflorus NA

Cercocarpus intricatus NA

Cercocarpus ledifolius NA

Cercocarpus montanus NA

Chrysobalanus icaco AF, NA, SA

Cowania mexicana NA

Lyonothamnus floribundus NA

Mespilus germanica AS, EU

Photinia glabra AS

Photinia serrulata AS

Photinia spp. AS

Pyracantha coccinea AS, EU

Vauquelinia californica NA

Order: Fabales

Family: Mimosaceae

Albizia julibrissin AS

Family: Caesalpinaceae

Cercis canadensis NA

Cercis occidentalis NA

Gleditsia aquatica NA

Gleditsia triacanthos NA

Gymnocladus dioicus NA

Family: Fabaceae

Cladrastis lutea NA

Robinia neomexicana NA

Robinia pseudoacacia NA

Robinia viscosa NA

Robinia spp. NA

Acacia baileyana AU

Acacia farnesiana NA

Acacia greggii NA

Acacia koa NA

Acacia longifolia AU

Acacia tortuosa NA, SA

Acacia wrightii NA

Acacia spp. AU, NA, SA

Caragana arborescens AS

Cercidium floridum NA

Cercidium microphyllum NA

Dalea spinosa NA

Erythrina herbacea NA

Olneya tesota NA

Lysiloma latisiliquum NA

Parkinsonia aculeata NA

Piscidia piscipula NA

Prosopis glandulosa NA

Prosopis pubescens NA

Sophora affinis NA

Sophora japonica AS

Sophora secundiflora NA

Order: Proteales

Family: Elaeagnaceae

Elaeagnus angustifolia AS, EU

Family: Proteaceae

Grevillea 'noellii' AU

Grevillea robusta AU

Hakea spp. AU

Order: Myrtales

Family: Myrtaceae

Eucalyptus botryiodes AU

Eucalyptus camaldulensis AU

Eucalyptus camphora AU

Eucalyptus cinerea AU

Eucalyptus diversifolia AU

Eucalyptus globulus AU

Eucalyptus gunnii AU

Eucalyptus leucoxylon AU

Eucalyptus polyanthemos AU

Eucalyptus pulchella AU

Eucalyptus rudis AU

Eucalyptus sideroxylon AU

Eucalyptus tereticornis AU

Eucalyptus spp. AU

Melaleuca decussata AU

Melaleuca quinquenervia AU

Calyptranthes pallens NA

Calyptranthes zuzygium NA

Family: Punicaceae

Punica granatum AS, EU

Family: Combretaceae

Conocarpus erectus AF, NA, SA

Laguncularia racemosa AF, NA, SA

Order: Rhizophorales

Family: Rhizophoraceae

Rhizophora mangle AF, NA, SA

Order: Cornales

Family: Nyssaceae

Nyssa aquatica NA

Nyssa biflora NA

Nyssa ogeche NA

Nyssa sylvatica NA

Family: Cornaceae

Cornus alternifolia NA

Cornus drummondii NA

Cornus florida NA

Cornus nuttallii NA

Cornus racemosa NA

Cornus rugosa NA

Cornus stolonifera NA

Cornus spp. NA

Family: Garryaceae

Garrya fremontii NA

Order: Santalales

Family: Olacaceae

Ximenia americana NA, SA

Order: Celastrales

Family: Celastraceae

Canotia holacantha NA

Euonymus atropurpureus NA

Euonymus europaeus AS, EU

Euonymus japonicus AS

Euonymus occidentalis NA

Gyminda latifolia NA

Family: Aquifoliaceae

Ilex aquifolium AS, EU

Ilex cassine NA

Ilex coriacea NA

Ilex decidua NA

Ilex glabra NA

Ilex krugiana NA

Ilex montana NA

Ilex opaca NA

Ilex verticillata NA

Ilex vomitoria NA

Order: Euphorbiales

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Drypetes lateriflora NA

Gymnanthes lucida NA

Hippomane mancinella NA, SA

Sapium sebiferum AS

Order: Rhamnales

Family: Rhamnaceae

Ceanothus arboreus NA

Ceanothus integerrimus NA

Ceanothus maritimus NA

Ceanothus spinosus NA

Ceanothus thyrsiflorus NA

Ceanothus spp. NA

Colubrina elliptica NA

Rhamnus californica NA

Rhamnus caroliniana NA

Rhamnus cathartica AS, EU

Rhamnus frangula AF, AS, EU

Rhamnus purshiana NA

Krugiodendron ferreum NA

Reynosia septentrionalis NA

Order: Sapindales

Family: Sapindaceae

Exothea paniculata NA

Sapindus drummondii NA

Sapindus marginatus NA

Sapindus saponaria NA, SA

Family: Hippocastanaceae

Aesculus californica NA

Aesculus glabra NA

Aesculus hippocastanum AS, EU

Aesculus octandra NA

Aesculus pavia NA

Aesculus sylvatica NA

Aleurites fordii AS

Family: Aceraceae

Acer barbatum NA

Acer campestre AS, EU

Acer circinatum NA

Acer ginnala AS

Acer glabrum NA

Acer grandidentatum NA

Acer japonicum AS

Acer leucoderme NA

Acer macrophyllum NA

Acer negundo NA

Acer nigrum NA

Acer palmatum AS

Acer pensylvanicum NA

Acer platanoides AS, EU

Acer pseudoplatanus AS, EU

Acer rubrum NA

Acer saccharinum NA

Acer saccharum NA

Acer spicatum NA

Acer tataricum AS, EU

Family: Burseraceae

Bursera simaruba NA, SA

Family: Anacardiaceae

Cotinus coggygria AS, EU

Cotinus obovatus NA

Metopium toxiferum NA

Pistacia texana NA

Pistacia vera AS, EU

Rhus copallina NA

Rhus integrifolia NA

Rhus glabra NA

Rhus typhina NA

Schinus molle NA, SA

Toxicodendron vernix NA

Family: Simaroubaceae

Ailanthus altissima AS

Alvaradoa amorphoides NA

Picramnia pentandra NA, SA

Simarouba glauca NA

Family: Meliaceae

Melia azedarach AS

Swietenia mahogani NA

Family: Rutaceae

Zanthoxylum americanum NA

Zanthoxylum clava-herculis NA

Zanthoxylum fagara NA, SA

Zanthoxylum flavum NA

Amyris elemifera NA

Citrus aurantifolia AS

Citrus limon AS

Citrus sinensis AS

Ptelea trifoliata NA

Family: Zygophyllaceae

Guaiacum sanctum NA

Order: Apiales

Family: Araliaceae

Aralia spinosa NA

Fatsia japonica AS

Subclass: Asteridae

Order: Lamiales

Family: Boraginaceae

Bourreria ovata NA

Cordia sebestena NA, SA

Family: Verbenaceae

Avicennia germinans AF, NA, SA

Citharexylum fruticosum NA, SA

Order: Scrophulariales

Family: Oleaceae

Chionanthus virginicus AS, NA

Forestiera acuminata NA

Fraxinus americana NA

Fraxinus anomala NA

Fraxinus caroliniana NA

Fraxinus cuspidata NA

Fraxinus excelsior AS, EU

Fraxinus greggii NA

Fraxinus latifolia NA

Fraxinus nigra NA

Fraxinus pennsylvanica NA

Fraxinus profunda NA

Fraxinus quadrangulata NA

Fraxinus texensis NA

Fraxinus velutina NA

Fraxinus spp. AS, EU, NA

Jasminum nudiflorum AS

Olea europaea EU

Osmanthus americanus NA

Family: Bignoniaceae

Amphitecna latifolia NA, SA

Catalpa bignonioides NA

Catalpa speciosa NA

Catalpa spp. AS, NA

Chilopsis linearis NA

Paulownia tomentosa AS

Order: Rubiales

Family: Rubiaceae

Cephalanthus occidentalis NA

Exostema caribaeum NA

Guettarda elliptica NA, SA

Guettarda scabra NA, SA

Pinckneya pubens NA

Order: Dipsacales

Family: Caprifoliaceae

Symphoricarpos albus NA

Viburnum acerifolium NA

Viburnum ellipticum NA

Viburnum lantana AS, EU

Viburnum lentago NA

Viburnum opulus AF, AS, EU

Viburnum prunifolium NA

Viburnum pubescens NA

Viburnum rhytidophyllum AS

Viburnum tomentosum AS,

Viburnum spp. AF, AS, EU, NA

Sambucus callicarpa NA

Sambucus canadensis NA

Abelia chinensis var. grandiflora AS

Class: Liliopsida

Subclass: Arecidae

Order: Arecales

Family: Arecaceae

Arecastrum romanzoffianum SA

Caryota urens AS

Coccothrinax argentata NA

Cocos nucifera AS

Acoelorrhaphe wrightii NA

Pseudophoenix sargentii NA

Roystonea elata NA

Sabal palmetto NA

Thrinax microcarpa NA

Thrinax parviflora NA

Adonidia merrillii AS

Washingtonia filifera NA


Liebhold, Andrew M.; Gottschalk, Kurt W.; Muzika, Rose-Marie; Montgomery, Michael E.; Young, Regis; O'Day, Kathleen; Kelley, Brooks. 1995. Suitability of North American tree species to gypsy moth: a summary of field and laboratory tests. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE- . Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. P.




As the gypsy moth expands its range into new portions of the United States, there is a need to predict which tree species will be attacked by this defoliating insect. There have been several studies describing feeding preferences of the gypsy moth, but these results have not been summarized in a single list. We report and summarize all of the major tests of foliage suitability to gypsy moth for tree species found in the United States. Foliage suitability to gypsy moth is a trait that is correlated among closely related species. As a result, it is possible to extrapolate foliage suitability of North American tree species for which no screenings have been performed. A list of suitability is summarized as susceptible, resistant, or immune.




Keywords: Lymantria dispar, Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae, foliage, susceptibility