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Research Projects

INSECT POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AND CLIMATE CHANGE

Forest Defoliators and Climatic Change: Potential Changes in Spatial Distribution of Outbreaks of Western Spruce Budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymontriidae)

Williams, D.W. and Liebhold, A.M. (1995): Forest Defoliators and Climatic Change: Potential Changes in Spatial Distribution of Outbreaks of Western Spruce Budworm and Gypsy Moth. Environmental Entomology 24, 1-9.

Figure 3:

Areas of Pennsylvania defoliated by gypsy moth.

(a) Actually defoliated.
Areas defoliated in Pennsylvania


(b) Classified as defoliated by the linear discriminant function under ambient conditionsAreas derived to be defoliated in Pennsylvania.