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Research Projects

INSECT POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AND CLIMATE CHANGE

Latitudinal Shifts in Spruce Budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Outbreaks and Spruce-Fir Forest Distributions with Climate Change

Williams, D.W. and Liebhold, A.M. (1997): Latitudinal Shifts in Spruce Budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Outbreaks and Spruce-Fir Forest Distributions with Climate Change. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 32, 203-215.

Figure 4:

Predicted areas of spruce budworm defoliation under ambient conditions and three climate change scenarios:

(a) Ambient temperaturePredicted areas of defoliation under ambient temperature.

(b) 2º C increasePredicted areas of defoliation under a 2 degreee celcius  increase in temperature.

(c) 4º C increasePredicted areas of defoliation under a 4 degreee celcius  increase in temperature.

(d) 6º C increasePredicted areas of defoliation under a 6 degreee celcius  increase in temperature.