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INSECT POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AND CLIMATE CHANGE

Latitudinal Shifts in Spruce Budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Outbreaks and Spruce-Fir Forest Distributions with Climate Change

Williams, D.W. and Liebhold, A.M. (1997): Latitudinal Shifts in Spruce Budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Outbreaks and Spruce-Fir Forest Distributions with Climate Change. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 32, 203-215.

Figure 3:

Distributions of the spruce-fir forest type group predicted by the discriminant function under ambient conditions and three climate change scenarios:

(a) Ambient temperatureAmbient temperature effect on spruce-fir distribution.

(b) 2º C increase
A 2 degree celcius increase effect on spruce-fir distribution.

(c) 4º C increaseA 4 degree celcius increase effect on spruce-fir distribution

(d) 6º C increaseA 6 degree celcius increase effect on spruce-fir distribution