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Catalog of Long Term Research Conducted by the Northeastern Research Station

Catalog #77

A Study of Forest Influence on Streamflow in the Pequannock Watershed of Northern New Jersey
To determine the effects of forest management practices on water quality and quantity.
The 3 watersheds are located near Newfoundland, NJ. (41 deg 01 min 30 sec N.Lat. and 74 deg 26 min 30 sec W.Long) within the 36,000-acre Pequannock drainage, owned by the City of Newark. The drainage supplies about 1/2 of the water supply of Newark and adjacent cities. The watersheds have a southeast aspect and lie between 900 and 1,200 feet in elevation. Slopes are gentle near the stream-gaging stations, but steeper near the ridge of Copperas Mountain. Watershed 1 is 68 acres, watershed 2 is 42 acres, and watershed 3 is 23 acres in area. All watersheds had intermittent summer flow during the drought period years 1962-65. 
Forest type is oak-hickory and soils range from very poorly drained and swampy to well drained and very stony to bouldery. Soils are usually less than 24" deep and much of the surface is covered with stones or boulders, especially on the upper portions of the watersheds. Rock outcrops are common. Mid-slope soils are deeper and are moderately well to poorly drained. Site quality is generally low. Repeated cuttings for charcoal and a series of wildfires have reduced the forest quality to a level probably lower than the site would normally support.
Paired watershed analysis; single watershed calibration
Watershed 1: all trees 1" diameter at ground surface and larger within a zone 20' on each side of the storm channel were injected with ANSAR 160 herbicide in May 1965. Remaining vegetation was sprayed with Weedone herbicide using a portable mistblower. Vegetation was cut and removed, or deadened by herbicide within a strip 20' wide on each side of the feeder stems to remove vegetation that dropped its leaves into the stream. All trees were felled by 1967 spring and a vigorous ground cover had developed.
1967: trees 5' above the stream channel were injected with herbicide. This widened the treatment area to approximately 40' on each side of the channel. After 1968 growing season, all trees in the expanded treatment zone were felled and the slash was burned.

Watershed 2: Control - no herbicide, no cuttings. July 1971 75% overstory defoliated by gypsy moth.

Watershed 3: all trees >1" diameter ground surface were injected with herbicide Fall 1965 and Weedone was applied using a mistblower on several areas of dense undergrowth. By summer 1966 live overstory vegetation had been reduced to 31% of the watershed area. Aerial application of herbicide was made using a helicopter June 1967. By summer 1967 live overstory had been reduced to 3% of 1965 stocking. Ground cover continued to increase and covered 41% of the watershed. 
Injection of herbicide: Fall 1965 
Aerial application of herbicides: June 1967.

2 methods to estimate gypsy moth effects. 1) equation was developed to predict s streamflow from a measured watershed. 2) regression equations were developed to predict streamflow from precipitation parameters.
streamflow (CFS,CSM, inches) 
air temperatures ( degrees F) 
relative humidity (%) 
precipitation amount (inches) & intensity 
streamwater temperature (degrees F): 1959-1972, instrument charts changed weekly.
Observer and instruments checked periodically. Compilation of climatic data were spot checked. Control water samples were taken before, during, and after herbicide spraying.
Summarized by Fortran program and analyzed by hand. Streamflow readings on computer tape, data charts, are stored in 3 file cabinet drawers. Other data hardcopy only.
Studies of Ecosystem Processes
Corbett, E.S.; Heilman, J.M. 1975. Effects of management practices on water quality and quantity: The Newark, New Jersey, municipal watershed. In: Proceedings, Municipal watersheds management symposium; 1973 September 11-12; University Park, PA. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-13. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 47-57.

E.S. Corbett; Sopper, W.E.; Lynch, J.A. 1975. Municipal watershed management: what are the opportunities? In: Proceedings, Forestry issues in urban America. 1974 September 22-26; New York, NY; New York, NY: Soc. Am. For. Nat. Conv. 50-57.

Richard Birdsey, USDA Forest Service, 11 Campus Boulevard, Suite 200, Newtown Square, PA 19073. (610) 557-4091.
Division of Water Supply, Department of Public Works, City of Newark Division of Parks and Forestry, Department of Conservation and Economic Development, State of New Jersey.



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