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Catalog of Long Term Research Conducted by the Northeastern Research Station

Catalog #73

Long -Term Monitoring of Stream Chemistry
Substudy 1: To evaluate the effects of converting a hardwood stand to Norway spruce on quality, quantity, and timing of streamflow.

Substudy 2: To determine the effect of each cutting-practice level on water quality and quantity

Substudy 3: A) To provide biomass information and to study plant succession and hydrologic performance under natural revegetation of an area recovering from intensive use of herbicides. B) To measure the effects of managing portions of a watershed with a selective herbicide on the quality, quantity, and timing of streamflow.

Substudy 4: A) To determine the effects of a dense road network on stream chemistry from a 150-acre watershed. B) To determine the effects of a dense road network plus an intensive harvest operation on stream chemistry. C) To determine changes in watershed hydrology including annual water yield, peakflow rates, and stormflow volumes.

Substudy 5: To determine changes in soil chemistry, soil leachate chemistry, and streamflow chemistry resulting from increased application of nitrogen and sulfer.

Substudy 6: A) To determine the effects of intensive mechanical site preparation on the quality, quantity, and timing of streamflow. B) To evaluate the effectiveness of mechanical site preparation on the growth and survival of planted Japanese Larch. C) To obtain information on the effects of mechanical site preparation in modifying acid deposition effects.

Substudy 7: To measure the effects of fertilization on the quantity, timing and quality of streamflow from a forest watershed.

Substudy 8: To investigate changes in selected chemical properties of water as it passes through the land phase of the hydrologic cycle and to determine the dynamic changes in stream water quality during storm events.

Substudy 9: A) To evaluate the effects of applying agriculture ground limestone to the riparian zone of a forested watershed on streamwater and soil chemistry. B) To obtain invertebrate populations data to evaluate biological change that may occur as a result of the liming treatment.

Substudy 10: To determine the effect of forest fertilization on the water quality and the hydrologic balance of a forested basin.

Substudy 11: To determine what influences non-research timber harvesting methods (particularly clearcutting) have on water quality and to compare these influences to experimental results from the Fernow Experimental Forest and elsewhere.

Substudy 12: To provide quantitative information on natural water quality characteristics from an undisturbed forested watershed in order to provide benchmark data against which water quality data from treated areas can be compared.

1970
expected to continue
Fernow Experimental Forest, WV.; Monongahela National Forest, WV.: Clover Run and South Haddix.
Paired watershed approach with several watersheds held as controls and other watersheds treated. NOTE: substudies may include more or fewer stream recording stations.
100%
Substudies include varying degrees of treatment to the forests located on the monitored watersheds.
varies
Site, date, temperature (deg F), stage (feet), pH, turbidity (NTUs), conductivity (uS/cm), alkalinity (mg/L CaCO3), calcium (mg/L), magnesium (mg/L), potassium (mg/L), sodium (mg/L), sulfate (mg/L), nitrate-N (mg/L), chloride (mg/L), ammonia-N (mg/L), copper (mg/L), zinc (mg/L), iron (mg/L), manganese (mg/L), streamflow (cfs), hydrogen (ueq/L). 
The above data was collected weekly or biweekly when volumes were sufficient on the following sites: 

Fernow watersheds 

    1: 1951 to present
    2: 1951 to 1964, 1970 to present
    3: 1951 to present 3-1, 3-2: 1988 to 1993
    4: 1951 to present 4-1, 4-2: 1988 to 1993
    5: 1951 to 1964, 1983 to present
    6, 7: 1959 to present
    10: 1983 to present
    13: 1984 to present
Clover Run watersheds
    8: 1959 to 1966, 1983 to present
    9: 1959 to 1966, 1979 to present
South Haddix watersheds
    1: 1982 to 1987
    2: 1989 to 1993
    3: 1982 to 1993
    4: 1986 to 1993
US EPA quality assurance/quality control program was implemented in 1988.
Current raw and summarized data are stored on 9-track tape. The DG which can output to ASCII is used as backup.
Studies of Ecosystem Processes
Model Development and Application
1994
Adams, M.B.; P.J. Edwards; J.N. Kochenderfer.1991. Watershed acidification on the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia. In: Agronomy Abstracts; 1991 Annual meetings of the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America and Soil Science Society of America; 1991 October 27-November 1; Denver, CO: 345. Abstract.

Dubey, Tara; Steven L. Stephenson; Pamela J. Edwards. 1992. The effect of stream pH on the distribution patterns of aquatic fungi. In: Proceedings of the West Virginia Academy of Science 1992. 1992 April 4; West Liberty State College, West Liberty, WV. Parsons, WV: McClain Printing Company, 64 (1): 14. Abstract.

Edwards, P.J.; Wood, F. 1992. The effects of watershed acidification on soil water and stream water chemistry. In: Proceedings of the 1992 Spring Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, Canadian Geophysical Union, and Mineralogical Society of America; 1992 May 12-16; Montreal, Canada: 121. Abstract.

Griffith, Michael B.; Perry, Sue A.; Perry, William B. 1992. Growth and secondary production of Paracapnia angulata Hanson (Plecoptera; Capniidae) in Appalachian streams affected by acid precipitation. Can. J. Zool. 71(1993): 735-743.

Stephenson, Steven L.; McQuattie, Carolyn J.; Edwards, Pamela J.; Studlar, Susan M. 1992. The effect of acidification on the bryophytes associated with mountain streams. In: Smith, Elizabeth R., ed. Proceedings of the third annual Southern Appalachian man and the biosphere conference; 1992 November 9-10; Norris, TN: Tennessee Valley Authority. Abstract.

Adams, M.B.; Edwards, P.J.; Wood, F.; Kochenderfer, J.N. 1993. Artificial watershed acidification on the Fernow Experimental Forest, USA. Journal of Hydrology. 150: 505-519.

Dubey, Tara; Stephenson, Steven L.; Edwards, Pamela J. 1993. The effects of acidification on the aquatic fungi associated with West Virginia mountain streams. In: Keller, E.C., Jr., ed. Proceedings of the West Virginia Academy of Science. Vol. 65(1); 1993 April 3; Davis and Elkins College, Elkins, WV. Huntington, WV: Marshall University Printing Services:14. Abstract.

Dubey, Tara; Stephenson, Steven L.; Edwards, Pamela J. 1993. Aquatic fungi associated with West Virginia mountain streams. Newsletter of Mycological Society of America. Inoculum. 44: 34. Abstract.

Edwards, Pamela J; James N. Kochenderfer. 1993. Artificial watershed acidification on the Fernow Experimental Forest. In: Keller, E.C., Jr., ed. Proceedings of the West Virginia Academy of Science 1991. 63(2,3, and 4); 1991 April 6; West Virginia Institute of Technology, Montgomery, WV:72-81.

Edwards, Pamela J; Frederica Wood. 1993. Field and laboratory quality assurance/quality control protocols and accomplishments for the Fernow Experimental Forest watershed acidification study. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-177. Radnor, PA: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 15 p.

Edwards, P.J.; Kochenderfer, J.N.; Adams, M. 1993. Effects of repeated ammonium sulfate applications on soil leachate chemistry on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia, USA. In: Rasmussen, L.; Brydges, T.; Mathy, P., eds. Ecosystems Research Report No. 4, Experimental Manipulations of Biota and Biogeochemical Cycling in Ecosystems; 1992 May 18-20; Copenhagen, Denmark:122-124.

Griffith, Michael B.; Sue A. Perry. 1993. Colonizations and processing of leaf litter by macroinvertebrate shredders in streams of contrasting pH. Freshwater Biology. 30: 93-103.

McQuattie, Carolyn J.; Steven L. Stephenson; Pamela J. Edwards. 1993. Effect of stream acidity on decomposition of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and red oak (Quercus rubra) leaves. The Ohio Journal of Science. 93(2); 1993 April 30-May 1-2; The Ohio Academy of Science: 48.

Pauley, Thomas K.; James Kochenderfer. 1993. Potential impacts of an artificially acidified watershed on forest salamanders. In: Keller, E.C., Jr., ed. Proceedings of the West Virginia Academy of Science. 65(1); 1993 April 3; Davis and Elkins College, Elkins, WV. Huntington, WV: Marshall University Printing Services: 2. Abstract.

Stephenson, Steven L.; Studlar, Susan M.; McQuattie, Carolyn J.; Edwards, Pamela J. 1993. The effects of acidification on the bryophytes associated with West Virginia mountain streams. In: Keller, E.C., Jr., ed. Proceedings of the West Virginia Academy of Science. Vol. 65(1); 1993 April 3; Davis and Elkins College, Elkins, WV. Huntington, WV: Marshall University Printing Services: 15. Abstract.

Adams, Mary Beth; Kochenderfer, James N.; Wood, Frederica; Angradi, Ted R.; Edwards, Pamela. 1994. Forty years of hydrometeorological data from the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-184. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 24 p.

Dubey, Tara; Stephenson, Steven L.; Edwards, Pamela J. 1994. Effect of pH on the distribution and occurrence of aquatic fungi in six West Virginia mountain streams. Journal of Environmental Quality. 23: 1271-1279.

Griffith, M.B.; Perry, S.A. 1994. Secondary production of macroinvertebrate shredders in headwater streams with different baseflow alkalinity. Journal of North American Benthological Society. 13(3): 345-356.

Adams, M.B.; Kochenderfer, J.N.; Angradi, T.R.; Edwards, P.J. 1995. Nutrient budgets of two watersheds on the Fernow Experimental Forest. In: Gottschalk, Kurt W.; Fosbroke, Sandra L.C., eds. Proceedings, 10th Central Hardwood Forest Conference; 1995 March 5-8; Morgantown, WV. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-197. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 119-130.

DeWalle, D.R.; Edwards, P.J; Swistock, B.R.; Drimmie, R.J.; Aravena, R. 1995. Seasonal isotope hydrology of Appalachian forest catchments. In: Gottschalk, Kurt W.; Fosbroke, Sandra L.C., eds. Proceedings, 10th Central Hardwood Forest Conference; 1995 March 5-8; Morgantown, WV. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-197. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 296. Abstract.

Griffith, Michael B.; Perry, Sue A.; Perry, William B. 1995. Macroinvertebrate communities in headwater streams affected by acidic precipitation in the central Appalachians. Journal of Environmental Quality. 24: 233-238

Pickens, Callie J.; Sharpe, William E.; Edwards, Pamela J. 1995. The effects of doubling annual N and S deposition on foliage and soil chemistry and growth of Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis Sieb. and Zucc.) in north central West Virginia. In: Gottschalk, Kurt W.; Fosbroke, Sandra L.C., eds. Proceedings, 10th Central Hardwood Forest Conference; 1995 March 5-8; Morgantown, WV. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-197. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 131-140.

Stephenson, Steven L.; Studlar, Susan M.; McQuattie, Carolyn J.; Edwards, Pamela. 1995. Effects of acidification on bryophyte communities in West Virginia mountain streams. Journal of Environmental Quality. 24: 116-125.

Meegan, Sean K.; Perry, Sue A. 1996. Periphyton communities in headwater streams of different water chemistry in the central Appalachian mountains. Journal of Freshwater Ecology. 11(3): 247-256.

Peterjohn, William T.; Adams, Mary Beth; Gilliam, Frank S. 1996. Symptoms of nitrogen saturation in two central Appalachian hardwood forest ecosystems. Biogeochemistry. 35: 507-522.

Aubertin, G.M. 1973. Problems and techniques in sampling water for analysis. In: Proceeding, Use of small watersheds in determining effects of forest land use on water quality symposium. 1973; Lexington, KY; Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky. 1-9. 

Aubertin, G.M.; Patric, J.H. 1972. Quality water from clearcut forest land? Northern Logger and Timber Processor. 20(8): 14, 15, 22-23. 

Aubertin, G.M.; Patric, J.H. 1974. Water quality after clearcutting a small watershed in West Virginia. Journal of Environmental Quality. 3: 243-249. 

Trimble, G.R. 1959. Logging roads in northeastern municipal watersheds. Journal of American Water Works Association. 51: 407-410.

Aubertin, G.M.; Smith, D.W. 1972. Streamflow quality after urea fertilization of a forested watershed. American Society of Agronomy. Abstracts. 175.

Aubertin, G.M.; Smith, D.W.; Patric, J.H. 1973. Quantity and quality of streamflow after urea fertilization on a forested watershed: 1st-year results. In: Proceedings, Forest fertilization symposium. Gen. Tech. Rpt. NE-3. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 88-100.

Aubertin, G.M.; Patric, J.H. 1975. Comments on water quality after clearcutting a small watershed in West Virginia. Journal of Environmental Quality. 4(2): 282-283.

Currier, J.B.; Aubertin, G.M.; Maxwell, J.; Manley, T.R. 1974. A look at cooperative water quality investigations. In: Proceedings, Eastern region 9 watershed management workshop conference; Muddy, IL. 2 p.

DeWalle, D.R.; Sharpe, W.E; Edwards, P.J. 1988. Biogeochemistry of two Appalachian deciduous forest sites in relation to episodic stream acidification. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 40: 143-156.

Dubey, T.; Stephenson, S.L.; Edwards, P.J. 1991. A preliminary study of the possible effects of acidification on the mycoflora of West Virginia mountain streams. In: Keller Jr., E.C., ed. Proceedings, West Virginia Academy of Science conference; 1991 April 6; Montgomery, WV: West Virginia Institute of Technology. Abstract. 63(1): 21.

Edwards, P.J.; Helvey, J.D. 1988. Long-term changes in stream water chemistry on Virginia Department of Natural Resources. Abstract. unpaginated.

Edwards, P.J.; Helvey, J.D. 1988. Long-term ionic increases from a central Appalachian Forested watershed. Journal of Environmental Quality. 20: 250-255.

Edwards, P.J.; Helvey, J.D.; Kochenderfer, J.N. 1988. Artificial acidification of a 34.4 ha catchment in the central Appalachians. In: AGU/ASLO annual meeting; 1988 December 5-9; San Francisco, CA. American Geophysical Union Transactions. Abstract. 69(44): 1220.

Edwards, P.J.; Kochenderfer, J.N. 1991. Artifical watershed acidification on the Fernow Experimental Forest. (Abstract). In: Keller Jr., E.C., ed. Proceedings, West Virginia Academy of Science conference; 1991 April 6; Montgomery, WV: West Virginia Institute of Technology. Abstract. 63(1): 19-20.

Edwards, P.J. Kochenderfer, J.N.; Seegrist, D.W. 1991. Effects of forest fertilization on stream water chemistry in the Appalachians. Water Resources Bulletin 27(2): 265-274.

Eschner, A.; Larmoyeux, J. 1963. Logging and trout: four experimental forest practices and their effect on water quality. Progressive Fish Culturist 25(2): 59-67.

Galeone, D.G. 1989. Temporal trends in water quality, determined by time series and regression analysis for streams on undisturbed, cut, and herbicide-treated watersheds in the Appalachian mountains. M.S. Thesis; 1969; University Park, PA.: The Pennsylvania State University. 265 p.

Helvey, J.D.; Edwards, P.J. 1987. Time trends of precipitation and streamflow chemistry at the Fernow Experimental Forest. In: Task group VI Peer Review Summaries, NAPAP aquatic effects; 1987 May 17-23; New Orleans, LA. New Orleans, LA: NAPAP task group project FS6C-01.8. Volume II. 413-420.

Helvey, J.D.; Hubbard, J.; DeWalle, D.R. 1982. Time trends in pH and specific conductance of streamflow from an undisturbed watershed in the central Appalachians. In: Proceedings, Canadian hydrology symposium: associate committee on hydrology; 1982 June 14-15; Fredericton, NB. Fredericton, NB: National research Council of Canada. 637-651.

Helvey, J.D.; Kochenderfer, , J.N.; Edwards, P.J. 1989. Effects of forest fertilization on selected Ion concentrations in central Appalachian streams. In: Proceedings, 7th central hardwood conference; 1989 March 5-8; Carbondale, IL. Gen. Tech. Rpt. 132. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 278-282.

Helvey, J.D.; Kochenderfer, , J.N. 1987. Effects of limestone gravel on selected chemical properties of road runoff and streamflow. Northern Journal of applied Forestry. 4(1): 23-25.

Helvey, J.D.; S.H. Kunkle, S.H. 1986. Input-output budgets of selected nutrients on an experimental watershed near Parsons, West Virginia. Res. Paper NE-584. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 7 p.

Helvey, J.D.; Kochenderfer, , J.N. 1991. Time trends in selected chemical characteristics of streamflow from an undisturbed watershed in West Virginia. In: Rennie, P.J.; Robitaille, G., eds. Proceeding, Effects of acid rain on eastern forests; 1983 June 14-17; Sainte-Foy, Quebec. Forestry Canada. 429-437.

Hornbeck, J.W. 1968. Protecting water quality during and after clearcutting. Journal of soil and Water Conservation 23(1): 19-20.

Hornbeck, J.; Reinhart, K.G. 1964. Water quality and soil erosion as affected by logging in steep terrain. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 19(1): 23-27.

Huff, D.D.; Swank, W.T; Troendle, C.A.; Henderson, G.S.; Waide, J.B.; Haynes, T. 1979. Element cycles and water budget analyses applied to forest management in the eastern United States. In: Proceeding, Annual meeting of Society of American Foresters; 1978: 77-89.

Kochenderfer, J.N.; Helvey, J.D. 1984. Some effects of forest harvesting on water quality: Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia. In: 1984 Penn State forestry Issues conference, forest management and water quality; 1984 March 13-14; University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University, School of Forest Resources and Cooperative Extension Service. 44-52.

Kochenderfer, J.N.; Helvey, J.D. 1989. Hydrologic impacts of mechanized site preparation in the central Appalachians. In: Proceedings, 7th central hardwood conference; 1989 March 5-8; Carbondale, IL. Gen. Tech. Rpt. NC-132. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 283-289.

Kochenderfer, J.N.; Wendel, G.W. 1983. Plant succession and hydrologic recovery on a deforested and herbicided watershed. Forest Science 29(3): 545-558.

Kochenderfer, J.N. 1971. Some hydrologic effects of clearcutting forested watersheds. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia Geobotany conference. 3. Abstract.

Kochenderfer, J.N.; Aubertin, G.M. 1975. Effects of management practices on water quality and quantity: Fernow Experimental Forest. In: Proceeding, West Virginia municipal watershed management Symposium. Gen. Tech. Rpt. NE-13. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station.

Kochenderfer, J.N.; Edwards, P.J. 1991. Effectiveness of three streamside management practices in the central Appalachians. In: Coleman, S.S.; Neary, D.G., eds. Proceeding, 6th biennial southern silvicultural research conference; 1990 October 30 - November 1; Memphis. TN. Gen. Tech. Rpt. SE-70. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 688-700.

Lynch, J.A.; Patric, J.H.; Aubertin, G.M. 1976. Forests and water quantity. In: A water problem analysis related to the forest-urban interface. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 45 p. 15-29.

Patric, J.H. 1970. Logging roads and water quality. In: Proceedings, Forest engineering workshop on forest roads; Morgantown, WV; West Virginia University. Vol. 71. 11-16.

Patric, J.H. 1978. Harvesting effects on soil and water in the eastern hardwood forest. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 2(3): 66-73. 

Patric, J.H.; Aubertin, G.M. 1977. Long-term effects of repeated logging on an Appalachian stream. Journal of Forestry. 75(8): 492-494.

Patric, J.H.; Smith, D.W. 1978. Some effects of urea fertilization on a forested watershed in West Virginia. In: Proceedings, 2nd central hardwood forest conference; 1978 November 14-16; West Lafayette, IN. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University. 1-20.

Patric, J.H. 1969. Changes in streamflow, duration of flow and water quality on two partially clearcut watersheds in West Virginia. American Geophysical Union Transactions. Abstract. 50(4): 144.

Patric, J.H.; Reinhart, K.G. 1971. Hydrologic effects of deforesting two muntain watersheds in West Virginia. Water Resources Research 7: 1182-1188.

Ponce, S.L.; Sundeen, K.G.; Striffler, W.D. 1979. Effect of selected geology-soil complexes on water quality of the Little Black Fork Creek. report funded by FS-NE-1602. 96 p.

Reinhart, K.G. 1960. A simple filter dam for small streams. Res. Note 107. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 4 p.

Reinhart, K.G. 1963. Efficient logging protects water quality. Southern Lumberman 206(2567): 39, 42.

Reinhart, K.G.; Phillips, J.J. 1959. Poor logging makes muddy streams. West Virginia Conservation. 22(11): 20-23.

Stephenson, S.L.; Studlar, S.M.; Edwards, P.J.; Ruggles, K.K. 1991. The possible effects of acidification on stream bryophyte communities. In: Keller Jr., E.C., ed. Proceedings, West Virginia Academy of Science; 1991 April 6; Montgomery, WV. West Virginia Institute of Technology. Abstract. 63(1): 21.

Sundeen, K.D.; Ponce, S.L.; Striffler, W.D.; Aubertin, G.M. 1978. A method to predict baseline water quality on wildland watersheds. American Geophysical Union Transactions. Abstract. 59(12): 1072.

Trimble, G.R.;Reinhart, K.G.; Webster, H.H. 1963. Cutting the forest to increase water yields. Journal of Forestry 61: 635-640.

Troendle, C.A. 1976. Comments at forest practices and water quality workshop for summary report for West Virginia. Washington D.C.: Region III American Forestry Association Workshop Proceeding: 4-5.

Weitzman, S.; Trimble, Jr., G.R. 1955. Integrating timber and watershed management in mountain areas. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 10: 70-75.

Mary Beth Adams, USDA Forest Service, P.O. Box 404, Parsons, WV. 26287. (304) 478-2000.
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