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Catalog of Long Term Research Conducted by the Northeastern Research Station

Catalog #72

Long -Term Monitoring of Stream Discharge
Substudy 1: To evaluate the effects of converting a hardwood stand to Norway spruce on quality, quantity, and timing of streamflow.

Substudy 2: A) To provide basic biomass information and to study plant succession and hydrologic performance under natural revegetation of an area recovering from intensive use of herbicides. B) To measure the effects of managing portions of a watershed with a selective herbicide on the quality, quantity, and timing of streamflow.

Substudy 3: A) To determine the effects of intensive mechanical site preparation on the quality, quantity, and timing of streamflow. B) To evaluate the effectiveness of mechanical site preparation on the growth and survival of planted Japanese Larch. C) To obtain information on the effects of mechanical site preparation in modifying acid deposition effects.

Substudy 4: To measure the effects of fertilization on the quantity, timing and quality of streamflow from a forest watershed.

Substudy 5: To evaluate if there is a difference in soil moisture content of north- and south-facing basins.

Substudy 6: To harvest the present timber stand by practical, even-age methods and to observe the effects of this harvest on quantity, timing, and quality of streamflow.

Substudy 7: A) To predict the dependable yield, both annual and seasonal, of the Princeton watershed. B) To improve the basic understanding, methods, and procedures for problems of this kind. C) To estimate the effect of different forest practices on the water yield of the Princeton watershed.

Substudy 8: To determine the effects of clearcutting and silviciding watersheds 6 and 7 upon water quality, including turbidity, water temperature, pH, methyl orange alkalinity, specific conductance, and taste and odor (silvicides).

Substudy 9: A) To determine the effect of complete vegetation removal upon the quantity of streamflow annually, by seasons, during high and low flows of two forested watersheds. B) To determine for the two watersheds the effect of vegetation removal on the upper slope as compared to the lower slope. C) To obtain as full an understanding as possible of the hydrology of the two watersheds.

Substudy 10: To measure effects of careful road building and of diameter-limit cutting on quantity and quality of forest streamflow.

1951
expected to continue
Fernow Experimental Forest, WV.; Monongahela National Forest, WV.: Clover Run and South Haddix. 
Paired watershed approach with the following general design: Fernow - 9 gaged watersheds, Clover Run - 2 gaged watersheds, South Haddix - 4 gaged watersheds (all inactive as of 1993). NOTE: substudies may include more or fewer weather recording stations.
100%
Substudies include varying degrees of treatment to the forests located on the monitored watersheds.
FW1 water level recorders were installed at weirs and flumes at the 3 sites. Recorder charts are changed weekly.
Continuous monitoring of streamflow data are in csm units and are summarized (mean daily) by May-April water year. 

Fernow watersheds

    1, 3, 4: 1951 to present
    2, 5: 1951 to present (with gaps)
    6, 7: 1956 to present
    10: 1984 to present
    13: 1988 to present
Clover Run watersheds
    8, 9: 1956 to present with gaps
South Haddix watersheds
    1: 1977 to 1987
    2: 1977 to 1978, 1984 to 1993
    3: 1982 to 1993
    4: 1986 to 1993
Recorder charts are marked and corrected according to USDA and USGS protocols. Chart accuracy checked weekly by hook gage. Corrections for true vs. chart are made in the field. Numonics digitizer is also used to make corrections.
Current raw and summarized data are stored on 9-track tape (1 per watershed). The DG which can output to ASCII is used as backup.
Studies of Ecosystem Processes
Model Development and Application
1994
Adams, M.B.; Kochenderfer, J.N., Angradi, T.R.; Edwards, P.J. 1995. Nutrient budgets of two watersheds on the Fernow Experimental Forest. In: Gottschalk, Kurt W.; Fosbroke, Sandra L.C., eds. Proceedings, 10th Central Hardwoods Forest Conference; 1995 March 5-8; Morgantown, WV. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-197. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 119-130.

DeWalle, D.R.; Edwards, P.J.; Swistock, B.R.; Drimmie, R.J.; Aravena, R. 1995. Seasonal isotope hydrology of Appalachian forest catchments. In: Gottschalk, Kurt W.; Fosbroke, Sandra L.C., eds. Proceedings, 10th Central Hardwoods Forest Conference; 1995 March 5-8; Morgantown, WV. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-197. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 296. Abstract.

Hornbeck, J.W.; Adams, MB; Corbett, E.S.; Verry, E.S.; Lynch, J.A. 1995. A summary of water yield experiments on hardwood forested watersheds in Northeastern U.S. In: Gottschalk, Kurt W.; Fosbroke, Sandra L.C., eds. Proceedings, 10th Central Hardwood Forest Conference; 1995 March 5-8; Morgantown, WV. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-197. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 282-295.

Tajchman, S.J.; Kochenderfer, James N.; Fu, H. 1995. Water and energy balance of a forested Appalachian watershed. In: IUFRO XX World Congress; 1995 August 6-12; Tampere, Finland: 33. Abstract. 

Adams, Mary Beth; Kochenderfer, James N.; Wood, Frederica; Angradi, Ted R.; Edwards, Pamela. 1994. Forty years of hydrometeorological data from the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-184. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 24 p.

Edwards, Pamela J.; Wood, Frederica. 1994. Centroid lag time changes resulting from harvesting, herbiciding, and stand conversion. In: Marston, Richard A.; Hasfurther, Victor R., eds. Effects of human-induced changes on hydrological systems; 

Hornbeck, J.W.; Adams, MB; Corbett, E.S.; Verry, E.S.; Lynch, JA 1993. Long-term impacts of forest treatments on water yield; a summary for Northeastern USA. Journal of Hydrology. 150: 323-344.1994 June 26-29; Jackson Hole, WY. TPS-94-3. Bethseda, MD: American Water Resources Association: 727-734.

Adams, MB; Edwards, P.J ; Kochenderfer, J.N. 1991. Watershed acidification on the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia. American Society of Agronomy. Abstracts: 345.

Aubertin, G.M.; Smith, D.W.; Patric, J.H. 1973. Quantity and quality of streamflow after urea fertilization on a forested watershed: 1st year results. In: Proceedings, forest fertilization symposium . Gen. Tech. Rpt. NE-3. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 88-100.

Brewer, M.S.; Richard, L.; David, J. 1982. Predicting peak streamflow from an undisturbed watershed in the central Appalachians. Water Resources Bulletin. 18(5): 755-759.

Fowler, W.B.; Helvey, J.D; Felix, E.N. 1987. Hydrologic and climatic changes in three small watersheds after timber harvest. Res. Paper PNW-379. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 13 p.

Fridley, B.D. 1962. Streamgaging instruments in use on the Fernow experimental watersheds. In: Proceeding, Watershed management research conference on collection and compilation of streamflow records; 1962 June 12-14; Laconia, NH. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 6-7. 

Helvey, J.D. 1980. Opportunities for increasing water yield through vegetation management. In: Assessment of forest and range land situation in the United States. FS345. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 492-500. 

Helvey, J.D. 1981. Flood frequency and culvert sizes needed for small watersheds in the central Appalachians. Gen. Tech. Rpt. NE-62. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 8 p. 

Helvey, J.D.; Kochenderfer, J.N. 1988. Culvert sizes needed for small drainage Areas in the central Appalachians. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 5: 123-127.

Hewlett, J.D.; Cunningham, G.B.; Troendle, C.A. 1977. Predicting stormflow and peakflow from small basins in humid areas by the R-Index method. Water Resources Bulletin 14(2): 231-254.

Hewlett, J.D.; Troendle, C.A. 1975. Non-point and diffused water sources: a variable source area problem. In: Proceeding, Irrigation and drainage division symposium; 1975 August 11-13; Logan, UT. American Society of Civil Engineers. 21-46.

Hornbeck, J.W.; Troendle, C.A. 1969. Effects of abandoned farmland on streamflow. West Virginia Agriculture and Forestry 2(1): 9-10.

Hornbeck, J. 1965. Accuracy in streamflow measurements on the Fernow Experimental Forest. Res. Note NE-29. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 8 p.

Hornbeck, J.W. 1962. Compilation of stream discharge from chart data. In: Proceedings, Watershed management research conference on collection and compilation of streamflow records; 1962 June 12-14; Laconia, NH. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 8-10.

Kochenderfer, J.N.; Edwards, P.J.; Helvey, J.D. 1990. Land management and water yield in the Appalachians. In: Riggins, R.E.; Jones, E.B.; Singh, R.; Rechard, P.A., eds. Proceedings, IR conference, watershed management/IR DIV/ASCE, watershed planning and analysis in action symposium; 1990 July 9-11; Durango, CO. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York. 523-532.

Kochenderfer, J.N.; Helvey, J.D. 1989. Hydrologic impacts of mechanized site preparation in the central Appalachians. In: Proceedings, 7th central hardwood conference; 1989 March 5-8; Carbondale, IL. Gen. Tech. Rpt. NC-132. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North central Forest Experiment Station. 283-289. 

Kochenderfer, J.N.; Wendel, G.W. 1983. Plant Succession and hydrologic recovery on a deforested and herbicided watershed. Forest Science 29(3): 545-558.

Kochenderfer, J.N. 1971. Some hydrologic effects of clearcutting forested watersheds. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia Geobotany conference. 3. Abstract.

Kochenderfer, J.N.; Aubertin, G.M. 1975. Effects of management practices on water quality and quantity: Fernow Experimental Forest. In: Proceeding, West Virginia municipal watershed management Symposium. Gen. Tech. Rpt. NE-13. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 14-24.

Kochenderfer, J.N.; Patric, J.H. 1970. Effects of clearcutting -- past and present -- on water resources of the Monongahela National Forest. West Virginia Agriculture and Forestry. 3(3): 4-11.

Lima, W.P.; Patric, J.H.; Holowaychuk, N. 1978. Natural reforestation reclaims a watershed: a case history from West Virginia. Res. Paper NE-392. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 7 p.

* Lull, H.W.; Reinhart, K.G. 1966. Implications of even-age management on water. In: Proceedings, Meeting of the Society of American Foresters, Allegheny Section. 54-61.

Lull, H.W.; Reinhart, K.G. 1967. Increasing water yields in the northeast by management of Forested watersheds. Res. Paper NE-66. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 45 p.

* Lynch, JA; Patric, J.H.; Aubertin, G.M. 1977. Forests and water quantity. In: Sopper, W.E., et al., eds. Water resources at the forest-urban interface. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pinchot Institute Environmental Forest Study. Pages 8-11. 

Nik, A.R.H.; Lee,R.; Helvey, J.D. 1983. Climatological watershed calibration. Water Resources Bulletin. 19(1): 47-50 Patric, J.H. 1970. Some principles of forest hydrology pertinent to even-age management of eastern hardwoods. Northern lLogger and Timber Processor. 19(1): 14-15, 26-27, 29.

* Patric, J.H.; Smith, D.W. 1978. Some effects of urea fertilization on a forested watershed in West Virginia. In: Proceeding, 2nd central hardwood Forest conference; 1978 November 14-16; West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University. 1-20

Patrice, J.H. 1969. Changes in streamflow, duration of flow and water quality on two partially vlearcut watersheds in West Virginia. American Geophysical Union Transactions. Abstract. 50(4): 144.

Patric, J.H. 1973. Deforestation effects on soil moisture, streamflow, and water balance in the central Appalachians. Res. Paper NE-259. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 12 p.

Patric, J.H. 1976. Effects of wood products harvest on forest soil and water resources with emphasis on clearcutting in moist climates. In: The scientific base for silviculture and management decisions in the National Forest system. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 39-51.

Patric, J.H. 1980. Effects of wood harvest on forest soil and water relations. Journal of Environmental Quality. 9(1): 73-80.

Patric, J.H. 1980. Physical effects of timber harvesting on forest soil and water. In: Proceeding, Logging residue conference; 1980; Morgantown, WV. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University. 1-3.

Patric, J.H.; Reinhart, K.G. 1971. Hydrologic effects of deforesting two mountain watersheds in West Virginia. Water Resources Research 7: 1182-1188.

Reinhart, K.G. 1958. Calibration of five small forested watersheds. American Geophysical Union Transactions. 38: 933-936.

* Reinhart, K.G. 1962. Maximum permissible rise in stage before breaking curve in point-picking method. In: Proceeding, Watershed management research conference on collection and compilation of streamflow records; 1962 June 12-14; Laconia, NH. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 49-55

Reinhart, K.G. 1964. Approximating soil-moisture storage on the experimental watershed using stream-gaging records. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings. 28: 575-578.

Reinhart, K.G. 1964. Effect of a commercial clearcutting in West Virginia on overland flow and storm runoff. Journal of Forestry 62: 167-171.

Reinhart, K.G. 1964. Frequency of measurements required to determine forest treatment effects. Res. Note NE-23. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 6 p.

* Reinhart, K.G. 1964. Streamflow records on experimental watersheds of the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. In: Proceeding, Conference on analytical hydrological data; Fort Collins, CO: 11 p.

Reinhart, K.G. 1965. Herbicidal treatment of watersheds to increase water yield. In: Proceeding, Northeast weed control conference; 19: 546-551.

* Reinhart, K.G. 1965. Increasing water production through manipulation of vegetation. In: Proceeding, Municipal watershed management symposium. Publication 446. 17-21.

Reinhart, K.G.; Eschner, A.R.; Trimble, Jr., G.R. 1967. Effect on streamflow of four forest practices in the mountains of West Virginia. (in Japanese). Translation; Res. Paper NE-1. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 52 p. 

Reinhart, K.G.; Eschner, A. 1962. Effect on streamflow of four different forest practices in the Allegheny mountains. Journal of Geophysical research. 67: 2433-2445. 

Reinhart, K.G., Eschner, A.; Trimble, Jr., G.R. 1963. Effect on streamflow of four forest practices in the mountains of West Virginia. Res. Paper NE-1. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 79 p.

Reinhart, K.G; Lull, H.W. 1965 Manipulating forests for water. American Forests. 71:35-37, 44.

Reinhart, K.G.; Pierce, R. 1964. Stream-gaging stations for research on small watersheds. U.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook 268. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 37 p.

Reinhart, K.G.; Trimble, Jr., G.R. 1962. Forest cutting and increased water yield. Journal of American Water Works Association. 54: 1464-1472.

Reinhart, K.G. 1966. Watershed calibration methods. In: Proceeding, National Science Foundation, Science Seminar; Oxford, England. Oxford, England: Pergamon Press. 715-723.

*Reinhart, K.G. 1962. What we want from streamflow records. In: Proceedings watershed management research conference on collection and compilation on streamflow records; 1962 June 12-14; Laconia, NH. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 2-5.

Troendle, C.A.; Homeyer, J.W. 1971. Stormflow related to measured physical parameters on small forested watersheds in West Virginia. American Geophysical Union Transactions. Abstract. 52(4): 204.

Troendle, C.A. 1970. The flow interval method for analyzing timber harvesting effects on streamflow regimen. Water Resources Research 6(1): 328-332.

Troendle, C.A. 1970. Water storage, movement, and outflow from a forested slope under natural rainfall in West Virginia. Amercian Geophysical Union Transactions. Abstract. 51(4): 279.

Troendle, C.A. 1979. Hydrologic impacts of silvicultural activities. In: Proceeding, Journal of the Irrigation and Drainage Division. 1979 March; No. 105(R1); American Society of Civil Engineers.

Weitzman, S.; Reinhart, K.G. 1957. Water yields from small forested watersheds. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 12(2): 56-59.

Worley, D.P.; Patric, J.H. 1970. Economic evaluation of some watershed management alternatives on forest land in West Virginia. American Geophysical Union Transactions. Abstract. 51(4): 280.

Worley, D.P.; Patric. J.H. 1971. Economic evaluation of some watershed management alternatives on forest land in West Virginia. Water Resources Research 7: 812-818.

Mary Beth Adams, USDA Forest Service, P.O. Box 404, Parsons, WV. 26287. (304) 478-2000.
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