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Catalog of Long Term Research Conducted by the Northeastern Research Station

Catalog #71

Breeding Birds
To examine the effects of timber size class, forest type, succession on breeding birds, especially neotropical migrants, in the White Mountains.
expected to continue
Plots in White Mountains National Forest New Hampshire (NH) and Maine (ME). Surveys were taken in NH and ME. Elevation Range = 330 to 1240 meters. 
Forest Type: Aspen, Birch, Hardwood-Hemlock, Swamp Hardwood, Northern Red Oak, Oak-Pine, Balsam Fir, Pine, Spruce-Fir, Spruce, Hemlock. 
Age: Regenerating, Young/Poles, Mature, Old-Growth, All AgeStand.
5 meter radius plots in 11 timber types and 4 age classes for a total of 225 census plots. Plots are 100 meters apart. Two 0.1-hectare habitat measurement plots are randomly chosen from the 5 bird plots per forest type and age for a total of 90 habitat plots. Possibly more than 40% of sites can be relocated.
Normal timber management practices
Relate breeding bird survey data to habitat variables by multiple regression, group habitats into species associations by cluster analyses. All eleven of the major forest types in New England occur in White Mountain National Forest and successional stages of each in the age structure produced through silvicultural management. Data on bird distribution is collected during the peak of the breeding season for most of the forest birds and a minimum of 2 year's survey is needed.
Dependent: The mean number of singing males (of a species) seen or heard per plot per day. Bird survey taken annually since 1979. Bird counts were taken in plots only in the mornings during breeding season. Number of singing males of each species was recorded at each plot for a 4- minute period.

Independent: Vegetation was measured at 10 year intervals (1979,1991) and included deciduous tree d.b.h. (to the nearest cm), coniferous tree d.b.h., ratio of deciduous:coniferous trees, deciduous tree basal area (m2/ha), coniferous tree basal area (m2/ha), tree species richness, canopy height (m), height to bottom of canopy (m), canopy width (m), crown closure (%), stocking.

Surveyors are only hired if they have experience in bird ID by sight and sound. Potential problems include counting outside plot radius and incorrectly identifying birds.
A PC-hard drive in Durham, NH holds all the raw data in DBASE files. Hardcopies of raw data are stored in Amherst, MA.
Studies of Ecosystem Processes
Landscape Scale Studies
R.M. DeGraaf. 1987. Managing northern hardwoods for breeding birds. In: R.D. Nyland, RD, ed. Managing northern hardwoods; Faculty of Forestry Misc. Pub. 13; Syracuse, NY: State Univ. of New York. 348-362.

R.M. DeGraaf. 1992. Effects of even-age management on forest birds at Northern hardwood stand Interfaces. Forest Ecology and Manage. 46: 95-110.

R.M. DeGraaf; Leak, W.B.; Yamasaki, M.; Lanier, J.W. 1992. New England wildlife: management of forested habitats. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-144. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 271 p.

R.M. DeGraaf; Rudis, D.D. 1986. New England wildlife: habitat, natural history and distribution. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-108. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 491 p.

R.M. DeGraaf; Rudis, DD 1990. Herpetofaunal species composition and relative abundance among three New England forest types. Forestry Ecology and Manage. 32: 155-165.

R.M. DeGraaf; Angelstam, P. 1993. Effects of timber size-class on predation of artificial nests in extensive forest. Forest Ecology and Manage. 61: 127-136.

R.M. DeGraaf; Snyder, F.P.; Hill, B.J. 1991. Small mammal habitat association in poletimber and sawtimber stands of four forest cover types. Forest Ecology and Manage. 46: 227-242.

Richard DeGraaf, USDA Forest Service, Holdsworth Hall, University of Massachusetts, P.O. Box 34230, Amherst MA 01003. (413) 545-0357
White Mountain National Forest, Laconia, New Hampshire.



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