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Catalog of Long Term Research Conducted by the Northeastern Research Station

Catalog #68

Undergrowth Project (Wildlife)
1) To manage forest undergrowth for diversity and abundance of wildlife. 
2) To describe undergrowth and small mammal response to overstory thinning and deer browsing.
1983
expected to continue thru 1996
All plots are located in Franklin and Hampshire Counties MA where a Forest Service research permit is renewed annually on Quabbin Reservation. Land is part of Boston's municipal water supply managed by Metropolitan District Commission. Of the 20 stands, 12 stands are located on Prescott Peninsula inside a wildlife sanctuary and 8 stands are located in hunted area of Quabbin Reservation in New Salem, Shutesbury, Pelham and Belchertown compartments. Deer are 3 to 4 times more abundant in the sanctuary than outside of it. Land use history, forest management, and soils are similar inside and outside the sanctuary. 
Elevation range 150 to 300 meters. 
Location of the stands ranges between 43deg 30min 00 sec by 72deg 19min 45sec (UR), 42deg 22min 30sec. by 72deg 24 min 30 sec(LL) OR 4783500mN by 713500mN(UR), 4694700mN by 719800mE(LL).
Live traps: 10 plots per stand in 20 stands. 
Per stand, wildlife transects run North to South for 3 km and have 100 m interval flags placed and observations were made.
Breeding bird transects in 12 stands; 5 listening points 100 m apart. 
Cavity nesters transect surveys in 8 stands (4 thinned and 4 unthinned).
100%
Forest is uncut, light thin, heavy thin (50% of commercial volume) on Prescott wildlife protection area and uncut, heavy thin off-Prescott. Breeding bird surveys were distributed among the following treated areas: uncut-high deer pop'n, thinned-high deer pop'n, uncut-low deer pop'n, and thinned-low deer pop'n.
All mark and release trapping was conducted over a two-week period for each stand during the summer. Methods followed: White, G. C., D.R. Anderson, K.P. Burnham, and D.L. Otis. 1982. Capture-Recapture and Removal Methods for Sampling Closed Populations. Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. LA-8787-NERP, UC-11. Transects included the use of a 180-m range finder for deer and a 30-m range finder for squirrels.
Mark and release trapping for small mammals; species, age, sex, reproduction condition: 
summers 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987.
Wildlife observation transects and pellet counts of white-tailed deer, gray squirrels, and other wildlife, distance and direction from transect:
autumn 1983-1994.
Breeding bird transects: June 1984-1986. 
Cavity nesting bird transects: April-May 1987, 1988.
Ranges of each variable are visually checked line-by-line on hardcopies of every data set entered as a computer file. Temporary employees are always trained in the field by professionals.
Raw data are in ASCII (sys.dat) files in dBASE III. All cleaned raw data are on floppies and some on hard drive as permanent data files (pdf). Hardcopies of all raw data are kept in file cabinets. Analyses are generated in dBASE and sometimes SAS.
Studies of Ecosystem Processes
each request is reviewed
Brooks, R.T.; Healy, W.M. 1988. Response of small mammal communities to silvicultural treatments in eastern hardwood forests of WV. and MA. In: Szaro, R.C., et al., technical Coordinators. Management of amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals in North America. Gen. Tech. Rpt. RM-166. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 313-318.

DeGraaf, R.M.; Healy, W.M.; Brooks, R.T. 1991. Effects of thinning and deer browsing on breeding birds in New England oak woodlands. For. Ecol. management 41: 179-191.

* Healy, W.M.; Brooks, R.T.; Lyons, P.J. 1987. Deer and forests on Boston's municipal watershed after 50 years as a wildlife sanctuary. In: Proceedings, Deer, forestry, and agriculture: interactions and strategies for management; 1987; Warren PA: Allegheny Soc. Am. For. 3-21. 183p.

Healy, W.M.; Welsh, C.J.E. 1992. Evaluating line transects to monitor gray squirrel populations. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 20: 83-90.

William Healy, USDA Forest Service, Holdsworth Hall, University of Massachusetts, P.O. Box 34230, Amherst MA 01003. (413) 545-0357
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