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Catalog of Long Term Research Conducted by the Northeastern Research Station

Catalog #61

Upland Oak Stand Density
To study the effect of thinning and stand density upon:
1) total wood production per unit area, 
2) growth of residual trees and stands, 
3) quality of trees in the residual stands, and 
4) the range of basal areas over which total production is substantially the same.
1959 to 1963, varies per stand.
expected to continue
Vinton Furnace Experimental Forest south of McArthur, OH., approximately 39 deg. 12 min N lat., 82 deg. 23 min. W. long. Plots are about 800' to 940' in elevation. Soils are Germano-Gilpin Complex, sandy to silty loam, depth of 'A' horizon from 2" to 9" deep with slopes ranging from 6% to 40%.

Mead Paper Corp. land near Lucasville, OH, approximately 38 deg. 55 min N lat., 83 deg. 4 min. W. long. Plots are about 700' to 800' in elevation. Middle to low slopes are generally southeast aspects.

Mead Paper Corp. land adjacent to Vinton Furnace Experiment Forest, OH. Approximately 39 deg. 11 min N lat., 82 deg. 23 min. W. long. Plots are about 700' to 900' in elevation. Middle to low slopes are generally southeast aspects.

Daniel Boone National Forest, approximately 37 deg 27 min. N lat., 84 deg. 00 min W. Long. Plots are about 1200' in elevation on middle slopes with a variety of aspects.

Baldrock Experimental Forest in Laurel County, KY.

7 substudies were established each with 16 or 15 1- or 0.5-acre measurements bordered by isolation strips.

The following is a sample statistical design. Completely randomized experiment using 16 one acre plots bound by isolation strips. 6 levels of initial stand density and 4 levels of intensity/frequency of subsequent thinning were applied to the plots.

100%
Each block was thinned to an initial stocking density.

The following is a sample substudy treatment plan. Plot was thinned to one of six initial stocking levels:
 

Stocking Level 
Number of Plots
40
50
60
70
80
100 
4
4
4
2
1
1

One plot in each of the first three stocking classes was allowed to increase 10%, 20%, 30% to 40% or 100% stocking before thinnings were reapplied.

Data collected are divided into two principal areas: 1) Tree Growth/Volume (represented by species, d.b.h., crown class, merchantable height, and total height) and 2) Tree Grade/Quality (represented by species, d.b.h., merchantable height, height to first fork, actual and potential tree grade, surface defects by grading section, number of 16' logs). 
Understory reproduction was evaluated from species, size class, age class, and basal area. 
Soil/Site Index is measured using % slope percent/aspect/ shape/position/distance to ridge, plot profile leveling, plot contour maps, and soil series maps.
Insect survey included borer species, attack site, attack age, and attack size.
Stem analysis/local volume table included slope position, stand size, form class, age, diameters, heights, and sawlogs.
All trees >1.6" d.b.h. on all plots were inventoried initially and subsequently by species and d.b.h. 25 permanent sample trees per plot were selected for long-term comparisons. Each permanent sample tree was measured for d.b.h., Crown class, crown vigor, crown length, crown growing space, and total height. 8 to 14 trees per plot were selected from the permanent sample trees and were photographed. 
Differing combinations of the following variables were measured by tree species from the plots - the frequency of collection varies per plot. tree diameters, tree heights, site index, crown vigor, crown length, crown class, crown growing space, actual tree grade (USFS standard), potential tree grade (USFS standard), cull, sweep and % rot, number of logs in grading section, height to 1st fork, surface defect by grading section, number of 8' bolts, number of 16' logs, bark thickness, and volume.
Practices Field data are verified when entered into computer. Field crews were trained by experienced field personnel.
Available data are maintained in an ORACLE database (SASQUATCH) according to the following categories: study description, stand density plot data, plot history, plot summaries, ingrowth summaries, plot treatments, species descriptions, ecological data, size of opening data. Hardcopy of some tally sheets are maintained in file cabinets.
Studies of Ecosystem Processes 
Landscape Scale Studies
1994
Work plans: dates vary per stand.
Establishment reports. dates vary per stand.
Progress reports. Dates vary per stand.

The above are office reports of U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Delaware, OH.

Brisbin, R.L.; Dale, M.E. 1987. Estimating tree-quality potential in a managed White oak stand by Markov Chain Analysis. Can. J. For. Res. 17: 9-16.

Carmean, W.H. 1968. Site quality for eastern hardwoods. In: the silviculture of oaks and associated species. Res. Paper NE-144. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 36-56.

* Dale, M. E. 1968. An easy way to calculate crown surface area. J. For. Note. 60(11).

Dale, ME 1968. Growth response from thinning young even-age White oak stands. Res. Paper NE-112. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 19 p.

Dale, ME 1972. Growth and yield predictions for upland oak stands 10 years after initial thinning. Res. Paper NE-241. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 21 p. 

* Dale, ME 1973. Individual tree growth and simulation of stand development of an 80-year-old White oak stand. In: Proceedings, midwest mensurationists meeting; 1973 September 4; 

Dale, ME 1975. Effect of removing understory on growth of upland oak. Res. Paper NE-321. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 10 p. 

Dale, ME 1975. Individual tree growth and simulation of stand development of an 80-year-old White oak stand. In: A.R. Ek, J.W. Balsinger and L.C. Prommitz, eds. Forest modeling and inventory. Madison, WI.: 46-63. 

* Dale, ME 1980. The Effect of thinning on growth and value development of young hardwood stands in the eastern United States. In: Proceedings, IUFRO conference: biological technical and economic aspects of intensive thinning of young stands; 1980 October; Gottingen, W. Germany. 310-327.

* Dale, ME 1981. Hardwood growth and yield projections: state of the art. In: Proceedings, National silviculture workshop; 1981 June 1-5; Roanoke, VA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.

* Dale, ME; Hilt, D.E. 1986. Thinning pole and small sawtimber mixed oak stands. In: Proceedings, Guidelines for managing immature Appalachian hardwood stands; 1986 May 28-30; Morgantown, WV.

Dale, ME; Lutz, D.E. 1986. A field guide to quantity and value growth of upland oak. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-114. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 32 p.

Gingrich, S. F. 1967. Measuring and evaluating stocking and stand density in upland hardwood forests in the central states. For. Sci. 13: 38-53.

Gingrich, S. F. 1968. Effects of density, thinning and species composition on the growth and yield of eastern hardwoods. In: The silviculture of oaks and associated Species, Res. Paper NE-144. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 26-35.

* Gingrich, S. F. 1969. The effects of density, thinning, and species composition on the growth and yield of the oak and Yellow-Poplar Types. In: Soc. Am. For. Annual. Mtg.; 1968; 23-24.

* Gingrich, S.F. 1971. Stocking, growth and yield of oak stands. In: Oak symposium proceedings. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest 

Gingrich, S. F. 1971. Management of young and intermediate stands of upland hardwoods. Res. Paper NE-195. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 25 p.

Heiligmann, R.B.; Golitz, M.; Dale, ME 1984. Predicting board-foot tree volume from stump diameter for eight hardwood species in Ohio. Ohio J. Sci. 84(5): 529-263.

Hilt, D.E.; Dale, ME 1979. Stem form changes in upland oaks after thinning. Res. Paper NE-433. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station.

Hilt, D.E. 1979. diameter growth of upland oaks after thinning. Res. Paper NE-437. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station.

Hilt, D.E. 1980. Taper-based system for estimating stem volumes of upland oaks. Res. Paper NE-458. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 7 p.

Hilt, D.E.; Dale, M.E. 1982. Effects of repeated precommercial thinnings in central hardwood sapling stands. S. Jour. Appl. For. 6(1): 53-58.

Hilt, D.E.; Dale, M.E. 1982. height Prediction equations for even-age upland oak stands. Res. Paper NE-493. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 9 p.

Hilt, D.E.; Rast, E.D.; Bailey; H.J. 1983. Predicting diameters Inside bark for 10 important hardwood species. Res. Paper NE-531. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 7 p.

Hilt, D.E. 1983. Individual tree diameter growth model for managed, even-age upland oak stands. Res. Paper NE-533. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 

Hilt, D.E. 1985. OAKSIM: an individual-tree growth and yield simulator for managed, even-age, upland oak stands. Res. Paper NE-562. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 

Hilt, D.E. 1985. Where has all my yellow-poplar gone? N. Journal. Appl. For. 2(3): 67-69.

* Hilt, D.E. 1987. OAKSIM: an individual-tree growth and yield simulator for managed, even-age, upland oak stands. In: Proceedings, 15th annual hardwood symposium of the hardwood research council; 1987 May 10-12; Memphis, TN.

Hilt, D.E.; Dale, M.E. 1987. Effects of pre-commercial thinning on diameter growth in young central hardwood stands. In: Proceedings, 6th central hardwood forest conference; 1987 February 24-26; Knoxville, TN. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee, Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries. 179-185.

* Hilt, D.E.; Dale, M.E. 1987. Developing management guidelines with OAKSIM: an individual tree growth and yield simulator for managed, even-age, upland oak stands. In: Finley, J.; Favan, M.A., eds. Economics of eastern hardwood management conference; 1987 March 9-11; University Park, PA. 188-209.

Hilt, D.E.; Dale, M.E. 1987. Effects of precommercial thinning on diameter growth in young central hardwood stands. IIn: Proceedings, 6th central hardwood forest conference; 1987 February 24-26; Knoxville, TN. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee, Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries. 179-185.

* Hilt, D.E.; Dale, M.E.1988. Uses and applications of OAKSIM: an individual tree growth and yield simulator for managed, even-age, upland stands. Compiler. March/April 1988. 31-41.

Sonderman, D.L. 1980. Using terrestrial stereo photography to iInterpret changes in tree quality characteristics. Research Note NE-298. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 8 p.

Sonderman, D.L. 1984. Quality response of even-age 80-year-old White oak trees after thinning. Res. Paper NE-543. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 6 p.

Sonderman, D.L. 1985. Stand density - a factor affecting stem quality of young hardwoods. Res. Paper NE-561. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 8 p.

Sonderman, D.L.; Rast, E.D. 1987. Quality of thinned trees in even-age upland oak stands. N. Jou. Appl. For. 4: 4-5.

Sonderman, D.L.; Rast, E.D. 1987. Changes in hardwood growing-stock tree grades. Res. Paper NE-608. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 8 p.

Sonderman, D.L.; Rast, E.D. 1988. Effect of thinning on mixed-oak stem quality. Res. Paper NE-618. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 6 p.

Worley, D.P.; Dale, M.E. 1960. Recording tree defects in stereo. Tech. Paper 173. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station.

Dan Yaussy, USDA Forest Service, 359 Main Road, Delaware, OH 43015. (740) 368-0093
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