USDA Forest ServiceSkip navigational links  
 Northern Global Change Research Program
Go to:
Go to: Introduction
Go to: Index of Databases
Go to: Lookup by Contact
Go to: Lookup by Theme
Go to: NGCRP Home Page
Go to: NE Station

Go to:55. Evaluation of Allegheny Hardwood Site Quality

Go to:57. Regeneration and Growth After Thinning in Hemlock-Hardwood Stands

 Norhtern Global Change Research Program Logo
 United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service. USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.

Catalog of Long Term Research Conducted by the Northeastern Research Station

Catalog #56

Effect of Lime, Fencing, and Herbicides on Establishment and Growth of Regeneration on Problem Sites
To determine:
1) if soil aluminum, deer, and/or shade/allelopathy are affecting development of forest regeneration;
2) the effect of lime on growth rates of seedlings and residual trees; and 
3) the effect of lime on soil aluminum and the availability of soil nitrogen and phosphorous.
Susquehannock State Forest, Potter County, PA. The four stands (blocks) have reasonably uniform topographic configuration, similar soils throughout, and relatively homogeneous with regard to species composition, structure, and stocking. Black Diamond Area: lat: ~N41deg 42min 30sec, long: ~ W78deg 01min 30sec. Cherry Springs Area: lat: ~N41deg 39min 15sec, long: ~W77deg 49min 15sec.
Split Plot with randomized complete blocks. 8 treatments will be replicated 4 times in problem stands that lack adequate advance regeneration. Main plot size is 0.9 acres for fencing and herbicide, and 0.5 acres for lime. The 9 subplots were systematically located on a 37' grid to evaluate for regeneration. The subplots are circular and 0.001-acre in size (3.72' radius).
All stands were cut to 40-50% relative density, depending upon existing conditions, leaving uniform stands of similar species and size classes. Herbicide application is made with mist blowers during the last two weeks of August to insure adequate kill. Treatments were applied during 1985. The 8 treatments are: 1) fenced, no lime, no herbicide; 2) fenced, lime, no herbicide; 3) fenced, no lime, herbicide, 4) fenced, lime, herbicide; 5) unfenced, no lime no herbicide; 6) unfenced, lime, no herbicide; 7) unfenced, no lime herbicide; 8) unfenced, lime, herbicide.
Soils: Prior to treatments, 64 baseline samples (2 depths X 32 plots) were analyzed for pH, buffer capacity, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, nitrate, aluminum, total soluble salts, organic matter, and texture. Subsequent samples are a composite of 6 subsamples taken in 2.5 cm increments to a depth of 15 cm from each 0.5-acre plot. Soil samples are collected annually during September for 1986-1989 and again in 1993.
Black & White Photographs and colored slides will be taken from 2 permanent picture points in each plot prior to treatment (August 1985) and annually thereafter for the duration of the study. The picture points were marked with a brass mine check attached to the steel stakes identifying the easel point location. Lime application is at a rate of 10 tons per acre (5 tons of lime per 0.5-acre plot). Regeneration measurements are recorded annually during late August/early September. After initial cutting, all residual trees were marked and measured for d.b.h. All residual trees were measured for d.b.h. and vigor. Flower counts and seed crops determine the effect of lime on flowering and seed production. Annually, flower and seed crop estimates are made for only sugar maple and black cherry trees that were codominant or dominant before cutting.
Independent: lime (10 tons per acre), herbicide (Roundup at 2 lbs per acre ai), fencing (5-strand, high-voltage electric fence), reduction in stocking to 40 to 50% relative density.

Dependent: Number seedlings, species of seedling, seedling height growth and dominance class (1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1993); residual tree diameter growth, residual tree vigor, soil P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Al, Na, pH (1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1993); flower and seed crop estimates (1989, 1990, 1992, 1993); foliar nutrient contents (1994).

Safety regulations were followed with all herbicide use. Herbicide applications will not be attempted when there is a rain probability exceeding 30%. In event that rain occurs within 6 hours after a plot has been treated, it will be retreated.
Raw data by plot reside on DG and tally sheets are kept with written instructions and detailed maps to each stand. Annually, the raw data are transformed using the REGEN1 program in DG Info. System. Summarized data by plot and by stand reside in a DG-based program that can output to ASCII text files.
Studies of Ecosystem Processes
Study plan. 1985. Lew Auchmoody. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station.

Auchmoody, L.R.; Walters, R.S. 1988. Impact of deer browsing, understory competition, and soil Aluminum on forest regeneration in Pennsylvania. Journal of Pennsylvania Academy of Science 62(1): 39. Abstract.

Auchmoody, L.R.; Walters, RS 1988. Impact of deer browsing, understory competition, and soil Aluminum on forest regeneration in Pennsylvania. Agronomy Abstracts. p. 290. Abstract.

Auchmoody, L.R.; Lilja, P. 1989. Impact of forest liming on growth rates, vigor, and flowering and seed production of Allegheny hardwoods. Agronomy Abstracts p. 298. Abstract.

Auchmoody, L.R.; Lilja, P. 1990. Impact of forest liming on vigor and diameter growth rates of Allegheny hardwoods. Journal of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science 63: 207. Abstract.

Stanosz, G.; Auchmoody, L.R. 1989. Relationship of seedling height and Dolomitic lime application to Black Cherry Leafspot severity in northern Pennsylvania. Phytopathology 79(10): 1143-1144. Abstract.

Long, R.P., Horsley, S.B.; Lilja, P. 1994. Impact of forest liming on growth and vigor of Allegheny hardwoods. In: Abstracts: air pollution & multiple stresses: 16th international meeting for specialists in air pollution effects on forest ecosystems; 1994 September 7-9; Fredericton, NB. Fredericton, NB: Canadian Forest Service: 38. Abstract.

Stephen Horsley, USDA, Forest Service, P.O. Box 267, Irvine, PA. 16329. (814) 563-1040
Pennsylvania Bureau of Forestry



Disclaimers | Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) | Privacy Notice