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Catalog of Long Term Research Conducted by the Northeastern Research Station

Catalog #43

Thinning in Allegheny Hardwood Stands
To determine diameter growth and mortality rates by species and diameter class for major Allegheny hardwood species as influenced by density of residual stocking, stand structure, and other factors.
1972 to 1984
Kane Experimental Forest, Allegheny National Forest and private lands. Block, stand age, stand density and structure were chosen to satisfy the following table: 
Age Density Structure
50-60 yrs. 26 plots
combined precommercial-
commercial at various
11 plots
precommercial vs. 
or combined
60+ yrs. 27 plots
commercial thinning at
various densities
Randomized blocks with 2-acre plots in uniform stands. Within each 2-acre plot, an interior 0.6-acre plot serves as the measurement plot. The measurement plots are surrounded by a 1.4-acre isolation strip. Within each 0.6-acre plot, 8 0.0026-acre subplots were established for collecting regeneration data.
Between years 1973 and 1985, trees were removed from each 0.6-acre plot so that 8 different levels of stocking remain: 0%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 100%. Thinning Guidelines (Marquis, D.A. [ed] 1994. Quantitative Silviculture for Hardwood forests of the Alleghenies. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-183.) were followed during each cut.
Growth responses are examined on an individual tree basis and on a stand basis. Individual tree growth rates are used to develop yield tables that can guide foresters in managing the Allegheny hardwoods. Stand growth rates are useful in the planning phase of forest management.
Independent: tree and stand parameters which account for the size of tree, stand density, composition, structure, site, and age. 
Dependent: growth, mortality: d.b.h. (to the nearest 0.01"), mortality, ingrowth, species composition. reproduction (seedling counts by species and height classes) and herbaceous cover: 
block 1: 1972, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1982, 1987, 1988, 1992. 
block 2: 1974 to 1977 annually, 1979, 1982, 1984, 1989, 1991. 
Block 3: 1975, 1976, 1977, 1979, 1980, 1982, 1985, 1989, 1990. 
Block 4: 1978, 1979, 1984 (destroyed by tornado). 
block 5: 1978, 1979, 1984, 1989, 1994. 
Block 6, 7, 8, 9: 1984, 1989, 1994. 
Block 12, 13: 1984, 1985, 1990 (block 13 destroyed by gypsy moth defoliation).
Data were field checked and data-entry into computer was 100% cross checked with field sheets.
Raw data by plot reside on DG and tally sheets are kept with written instructions and detailed maps to each stand. Annually, the raw data are transformed using the REGEN1 program in DG Info. System. Summarized data by plot and by stand reside in a DG-based program that can output to ASCII text files.
Studies of Ecosystem Processes
Study plan. 1979. Richard Ernst. 
Marquis, DA 1979. Working Guidelines for thinning in Cherry-Maple Type. Unpubl. 
The above are office reports of U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Warren, PA.

Roach, B. 1977. A stocking guide for Allegheny hardwoods and its use in controlling intermediate cuttings. Res. Paper NE-373. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 30 p.

Marquis, DA 1986. Thinning Allegheny hardwood pole and small sawtimber stands. In: Smith, H.C.; Eye, M.E., eds. Proceedings, workshop on guidelines for managing immature Appalachian hardwood stands; 1986 May 28-30; Morgantown, WV. Publication No. 86-02. Morgantown, WV: Society of American Foresters. 68-84.

Ernst R.L. 1987. Growth and yield following thinning in mixed species Allegheny hardwood stands. In: Nyland, R.D., ed. Proceedings, managing northern hardwoods symposium; 1996 June 23-25; Misc. Publ. No. 13 (ESF 87-002). Syracuse, NY: S.U.N.Y. Coll. Env. Sci. and Forestry. 211-222.

Marquis, DA; Ernst, R.L. 1991. The effects of stand structure after thinning on the growth of an Allegheny hardwood stand. For. SCI 37: 1182-1200.

Marquis, DA; Ernst, R.L.; Stout, S.L. 1992. Prescribing silvicultural treatments in hardwood stands of the Alleghenies. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-96 (Revised). Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station.

Nowak, C.A. in Press. Wood volume Increment in thinned, 50- to 55-year old, mixed species Allegheny hardwoods. Can. J. For. Res.

Susan Stout, USDA, Forest Service, P.O. Box 267, Irvine PA 16329. (814) 563-1040
Allegheny National Forest, PA.; private industries



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