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Go to:40. Fertilization Tests with Allegheny Hardwoods

Go to:42. Understory Vegetation and Changes in a Virgin Forest

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Catalog of Long Term Research Conducted by the Northeastern Research Station

Catalog #41

The Effects of Cutting Methods on the Regeneration of Allegheny Hardwoods
1) To determine the effect of cutting method on the survival and growth of advance regeneration. 
2) To determine the effect of cutting method on the establishment, survival, and growth of new regeneration. 
3) To compare the total regeneration obtained from each cutting method.
Kane Experimental Forest, PA.
40 sample plots (1/2 fenced and 1/2 unfenced) are divided among 4 treated plot types and 1 control plot: 
1) 2 strips clear-cut and 2) 2 strips uncut: each contiguous strip is about 8.0 chains long and 1 chain wide. The strips are divided into 2 blocks. Each block has 5 sampling points for a total of 10 sampling points per strip. 
3) 25.6 acre of clear-cut 
4) 6-acre shelterwood cut. 
5) 6-acre control plot.

20 sampling points are randomly located within each treatment. At each sampling point, 2 sample plots (each with a radius of 6') were selected to be as similar as possible in total number of seedlings (advance growth), species distribution, and microenvironment. 1 plot of each pair is fenced, the other is unfenced.

4 areas were treated and 1 plot was not treated (control plot). Treatment boundaries follow natural lines of topography and forest stands. 
1) Strip (2) clear-cut: 1973 
2) Strip (2) uncut: 1976 
3) Clear-cut: 1973 
4) Shelterwood:1973 (to remove 35% of basal area), 1976 (to release all reproduction). 
5) Control
Before logging, an inventory was made of all trees in the 1" and larger diameter classes. A post-logging inventory was made in the shelterwood treatment right after the initial cut. At the time of the 2nd cutting operation, the uncut strips and the residual trees in the shelterwood treatment were reinventoried. On the strips (cut and uncut), sampling was confined to the central portion of the strip to avoid edge effect. 

Seedfall was estimated from seeds collected and counted from seed traps. Within each treatment area, 4 3'square traps were placed from early spring until autumn to sample autumn-seeding species.

Light measurements were made initially using the chemical light meter at ground level at the sample plot centers. Subsequent light measurements were made above ground at a point not affected by reproduction each year until the removal cutting was complete.

Soil moisture was measured using a neutron probe throughout the growing season for the 1st 5 growing seasons. The probe determined the moisture patterns in the upper 3" to 4" of the forest floor.

Dependent: survival of advance seedlings, growth of advance seedlings, number of new seedlings and sprouts, % survival and growth of new seedlings and sprouts, amount of available light, soil moisture, browsing, seedfall, logging damage, weather.

Plot inventory for all dependent variables on all plots: 1972 to 1976 annually, 1978. 
Additional plot inventory for strip cut areas 2 & 4, and shelterwood cut area: 1979, 1981, 1983, 1984. Additional plot inventory for control area: 1982, 1984. 
Additional plot inventory for clear-cut area and strip cut areas 1 & 3: 1982. 
Light measurement: 1973. 
Soil moisture measurement: 1973.

Sample plots were permanently marked. Data were field checked and data-entry into computer was 100% cross checked with field sheets.
Raw data by plot reside on DG and tally sheets are kept with written instructions and detailed maps to each stand. Annually, the raw data are transformed using the REGEN1 program in DG Info. System. Summarized data by plot and by stand reside in a DG-based program that can output to ASCII text files.
Studies of Ecosystem Processes
Study plan. 1972. John Bjorkbom. 
Establishment report. 1974. John Bjorkbom. 
Environmental Assessment report. 1978. Sam Gehr. 
Office report. 1979. David Marquis. 
Progress report. 1974, 1976, 1981. John Bjorkbom. 

The above are office reports of U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Warren, PA.

Susan Stout, USDA, Forest Service, P.O. Box 267, Irvine PA 16329. (814) 563-1040



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