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Catalog of Long Term Research Conducted by the Northeastern Research Station

Catalog #29

Compartment Management Studies
To determine the effects of silvicultural systems and or management programs on: 
1) growth and yield in cubic feet and basal area, 
2) species composition in percent, 
3) quality of growing stock as related to volume in cull trees,
4) stand structure as expressed by diameter-class distribution, and 
5) regeneration by stocking percent and numbers per acre.
1952
expected to continue
Penobscot Experimental Forest, Bradley, ME. USGS 15-min series topo Orono ME Quadrangle. UL: 4969400mN 528800mE or 44deg, 48min,30 sec by 68deg,34min,00sec. LR: 4961300mN 534900mE or 44deg, 52min, 45sec by 68deg, 37min, 30sec. Soils are derived from glacial till composed of slate and shale geologic material. Poorly- and very poorly-drained stony silt loams cover an average of 55% of the area and well-drained stony loams cover the remaining 45% on the average.
Completely randomized design with each treatment replicated twice.
100%
The following are the 8 different silvicultural programs.
Program Number of Total Acres Compartment Number and Year Applied
Fixed-Diameter Limit Harvest Method at ~20-year operating interval for pulpwood production with a limited amount of sawlogs 
50.5
4 (1952,1973,1994), 
15 (1956,1977)
Shelterwood System, 2-Stage Method at a 60- to 70-year rotation for pulpwood production 
45.5 
21 (1957,1967), 
30 (1957,1967)
Shelterwood System, 3-Stage Method at a 40- to 75-year rotation for integrated product production 
41.1
23 (1955, 1966, 1972, 1981),
29 (1957, 1968, 1974, 1983)
Selection System, Intensive Mgmt. at a 5-year operating interval for integrated product production
43.5
9 (1954,1961,1966, 1970,1974,1978,1983,1989,1993)
16(1957,1963,1972,1977,1982,1987,1991)
Selection System, Intensive Mgmt. At a 10-year operating interval for integrated product production
52.3
12 (1954,1965,1975,1984,1994)
20(1957,1967,1976,1986)
Selection system, Extensive Mgmt. At a 20-year operating interval for integrated product production
46.6
17(1955,1975,1994)
27(1957,1977)
Diameter Limit Harvest Method at a 20-year operating interval for pulpwood production with a limited amount of small sawlogs
43.4
24(1955,1975)
28(1957,1976)
Unregulated Commercial Clear-cut at a 30- to 80-year rotation primarily for pulpwood production
77.0
8(1953,1983)
22(1957,1988)
Trees > or = 4.5" d.b.h. are sampled on 0.2-acre plots. Trees 0.5" d.b.h to <4.5" d.b.h. are sampled on 0.05-acre plots. Circular 0.001-acre plots are used to sample smaller trees. Trees > or = 0.5" d.b.h. are individually numbered for at least 20 years. Total of 400 acres in the study area. Woodland Preserve Natural Area (18.2 acres) received no treatment so acted as the control.
The following measurements were made before and after each entry into a stand or every 5 years.

Growth = basal area and cubic feet; condition of stand; average d.b.h.; tree sizes: sapling = 0.5" d.b.h to <4.5" d.b.h., merchantable = 4.5" d.b.h.+ , unmerchantable = 4.5" d.b.h.+; Mortality and its cause (spruce budworm, uproot, breakage, suppression, other): 1952 and continuing.

Visual check of raw data and the use of error-checking computer programs. Field check plots were maintained.
~5 mbytes on PC, paper, and diskettes.
Studies of Ecosystem Processes
each request is reviewed
Study plan. January 1953. T.F. McLintock. 
Revised Study plan. April 1959, December 1960, June 1962. A.C. Hart. 
Revised Study plan. November 1974. R.M. Frank.

Penobscot Experimental Forest Fact Sheets: 
First 15 years of results (compartments 4 and 15). 
First 20 years of results (compartments 21 and 30). May 1978. 
First 28 years of results (compartments 23 and 29). February 1991. 
First 30 years of results (compartments 17 and 27). February 1991. 

The above are office reports of U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Orono, ME. 

Davis, G.; Hart, A.C. 1961. Effect of seedbed preparation on natural reproduction of spruce and Hemlock under dense shade. Station Paper 160. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 23 p. 

Blum, B.M. 1973. Some Observations on age relationships in Spruce-Fir regeneration. Res. Note NE-169. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 4 p. 

Blum, B.M. 1976. Animal damage to young Spruce and Fir in Maine. Res. Note NE-231. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station.

* Frank, R.M. 1977. Silvicultural options for obtaining high yields in Spruce-Fir. In: Proceedings, 74th Meeting of the Society for the Protection of New Hampshire Forests. 

Frank, R.M. 1977. Indications of silvicultural potential from long-term experiments in Spruce-Fir types. In: Proceedings, The Intensive Culture of Northern Forest Types. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-29. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 159-177.

Frank, R.M.; Blum, B.M. 1978. The selection system of silviculture in Spruce-Fir stands: procedures, early results, and comparisons with unmanaged stands. Res. Paper NE-425. Broomall, PA. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station.

* Frank, R.M. 1979. Methods for Modifying stand composition to minimize the impact of spruce budworm infestations. In: Spruce Budworm: silviculture and utilization options and current research programs in progress. Mich. Coop. For. Pest Mgmt. Program Workshop Vol. 79-1.

Blum, BM; Solomon, D.S. 1980. Growth trends in pruned Red Spruce trees. Res. Note NE-294. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station.

Frank, R.M. 1983. A focus on natural regeneration methods for developing a Spruce-Fir forest less vulnerable to Spruce Budworm. In: Proceedings, 1983 eastern Spruce Budworm research work conference. Orono, ME: Univ. Maine. .Abstract.

Frank, R.M. 1983. Have 25 years of selection management reduced initial Spruce Budworm losses? CANUSA Newsletter Number 27, March. Abstract.

Solomon, D.S.,; Frank, R.M. 1983. Growth response of managed-unevenaged northern conifer stands. Res. Paper NE-517. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 17 p.

Frank, R.M. 1984. The shelterwood simulator. In: Sanders, C.J.; Stark, R.W.; Cooperation none

Frank, R.M. 1985. Building new Spruce-Fir stands - a long-term localized strategy for reducing Spruce Budworm impact. In: Sanders, CJ; Stark, R.W.; Mullins, E.J. ; Murphy, J. eds. Proceedings, CANUSA Spruce Budworms research symposium; 1985 September 16-20; Bangor, ME: Canadian Forestry Service. 365-366.

Frank, R.M. 1985. The shelterwood simulator. In: Sanders, CJ; Stark, R.W.; Mullins, E.J. ; Murphy, J. eds. Proceedings, CANUSA Spruce Budworms research symposium; 1985 September 16-20; Bangor, ME: Canadian Forestry Service. 503.

* Frank, R.M. 1986. A Tale of two stands during a spruce budworm epidemic - and more. In: Proceedings, eastern spruce budworm research Work conference; 1986 January 7-8; Orono, ME: .Abstract.

Frank, R.M. 1986. Shelterwood - an ideal silvicultural strategy for regenerating Spruce-Fir stands. In: North Central Forest Experiment Station Staff. eds. Proceedings, Integrated pest management symposium for northern forests; 1986 March 24-27; Madison, WI; Madison, WI: Univ of Wisconsin Extension. 139-150.

Frank, R.M. 1989. Shelterwood - a technique to increase spruce production and reduce budworm problems. In: Briggs, R.D. et al. eds. Forest and Wildlife management in New England - What Can We Afford? Proceedings, a joint meeting of the Maine Div. of N.E. Soc. of Am. Foresters, Maine. Chpt of The Wildlife Soc., and the Atlantic International Chpt. of the Am. Fish Soc.; 1989 March 15-17; Portland ME; Station Report 336. Orono, ME: Maine Agriculture Experiment Station. 240 p. Abstract.

Frank, R.M. 1992. Tree and wildlife diversity responses to silvicultural practices in northern conifers. In: Proceedings, Seminar of integrated resource management; 1992 April 7-8; Fredericton, N.B; Maritimes Region Information Report M-X-183E. Forestry Canada. 59-76.

John Brissette / Laura Kenefic, USDA Forest Service, P.O. Box 640, Durham, NH 03824. (603) 868-7632
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