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Go to:12. Application of the Shelterwood System in Central Appalachian Hardwood Stands

Go to:14. Crop Tree Demonstration Areas

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Catalog of Long Term Research Conducted by the Northeastern Research Station

Catalog #13

Planting Hardwood Seedlings on Forested Sites
To develop a practical method to establish hardwood seedlings in clearcuts.
On the Fernow Experimental Forest along McGowan Mountain road. 
Area 1 is 2 acres - clearcut in 1986. 
Area 2 is adjacent to area 1, is 1-acre in size - clear cut in 1988. 
Area 3 is adjacent to area 2, is ~1.5-acres in size - clearcut in 1988.
Sites have red oak, white ash and black walnut naturally growing in mixtures with other species on high quality sites. Additional sites have been added annually to date (1995) on both the Fernow Experimental Forest and the Monongahelia National Forest.
Number of Planting spots by species and treatment:

RO = red oak; BW = black walnut

Species Velpar R Roundup Control
Area I:
35 spots;105 seeds
26 spots; 78 seeds
Area II:
18 spots;54 seeds
21 spots;63 seeds
Area III:
18 spots;54 seeds
16 sport;48 seeds

Study was designed to establish ~50 codominant stems per acre of the target species at age 20 by planting in clearcuts. Planting spots were layed out at about 25' by 25' spacing and at each spot 3 seedlings were planted on the points of a triangle. Species were planted in alternate rows.

Area 1 clearcut in 1986
Area 2 clearcut in 1988 
Area 3 clearcut in 1988 and seedlings were planted.

Velpar L was applied to 0.33% of the seedlings. 1% Roundup applied in area I during 1988 to eliminate competing vegetation and was used in areas II and III when necessary. Treated areas were from 2' to 6' around seedlings.

Treatments involved the use of preemergent herbicide, foliar spray herbicide, and no herbicide application.

Seedlings were planted in clearcuts in areas free of rocks, tops, and other obstacles. Vegetation is controlled in a 10' radius around each seedling by applying various foliar and basal spray herbicides according to Label instructions. Preemergent herbicides were applied immediately after clearcutting but before seedlings were planted. The original objective was to produce about 50 codominant seedings of the target species per acre at age 20. Economic analysis are conducted on the basis of individual seedlings.
Independent: preemergent herbicide, foliar spray herbicide, no herbicide application, tree shelter color, brand of tree shelter, age of planting stock.

Dependent: species, seedling height to nearest 0.1' and seedling root collar diameter to the nearest 0.1".

Annual height measurements were made until 5th-year period. Two-year remeasurements until additional treatment or study closed.

Data are visually compared to previously collected data. Accuracy assessments are completed after each data-collection period. Permanent employee continually supervises temporary employees. Safety regulations were followed when using herbicides.
Raw: stand structure and grade, species, d.b.h., and number of stems available on DG. 
Species, d.b.h., And number of stems are in hardcopy. Data are downloaded to PCs for analyses.
Studies of Ecosystem Processes
Study plan for Area I, II, and III: 1988. Clay Smith and Neil Lamson. 
Establishment report for Area I,II, and III: 1988. 
Progress report: 1988. Clay Smith and Neil Lamson. 

The above are office reports of U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Parsons, WV.

Smith, H.C. 1993. Development of Red Oak seedlings using plastic shelters on good-to-excellent growing sites in West Virginia. Res. Paper NE-672. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 7 p.

Tom Schuler, USDA Forest Service, P.O. Box 404, Parsons WV  26287. (304) 478-2000.



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