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Catalog of Long Term Research Conducted by the Northeastern Research Station

Catalog #12

Application of the Shelterwood System in Central Appalachian Hardwood Stands
To determine how, when, and where the shelterwood system can be used to regenerate central Appalachian hardwood stands.
1985
expected to continue
Fernow Experimental Forest 
Major forest types are oak-hickory, northern hardwoods, cove hardwoods, and cherry maple commonly referred to as Allegheny hardwoods.
Completely randomized design; 
3 treatments with 3 replications of each level of overstory density and control.
100%
Planted 50 red oak and 50 white ash seedlings within each 0.5 acre at a spacing of 10' (1984). 3 levels of overstory density (100, 75, 60) and 2 levels of understory density (100, 0) were used.
Pre and post logging measurements were taken on 4 0.5-acre growth plots located in the center of 3 acres. A 100' wide buffer strip surrounds each growth plot.
Initial measurements were taken on all plots before treatment was applied. Trees larger than 5.0" d.b.h. sampled on permanent 0.5-acre plots. Measurements were taken from 20 sampling points systematically distributed in the 0.5-acre growth plot. Plot centers were 25' apart in rows 30' apart.
Subsample 0.5-acre plots 1.0" to 4.9" d.b.h. on 0.01-acre and smaller than 1.0" d.b.h. On 1/1000-acre plots. Monitor overstory growth and reproduction development periodically. Monitor growth of planted seedlings also under different overstory density and times of removal.
Independent: Level of seed cutting, percent of original stocking retained (residual basal area - 45, 60, and 75 % of A-level stocking), time of removal cutting, seed crop during regeneration period, species - artificial regeneration.

Dependent: Tree abundance, tree origin, quality, diameter growth, height growth, stocking, survival, species composition of natural regeneration, survival, height, and diameter growth of planting seedlings.

Specific measurements include: Tree species, total height (nearest 0.5 cm), stem diameter at ground level (nearest 0.1cm), crown area (determined by crown width by length measured to the nearest 0.5cm), number of leaves on seedling, largest leaf area (leaf length by leaf width), old or new seedling (subjective), tree location within 0.001-acre plot (nearest 0.1'), seedling damage such as browsing, dead top, or insect attack.

Data are visually compared to previously collected data. Accuracy assessments are completed after each data-collection period. Permanent employee continually supervises temporary employees. 
Raw: stand structure and grade, species, d.b.h., and number of stems available on DG. 
Species, d.b.h., And number of stems are in hardcopy. Data are downloaded to PCs for analyses.
Studies of Ecosystem Processes
2000
Study plan for Area I: 1982. G.W. Wendel.
Establishment report for Area I: G.W. Wendel and Clay Smith. 
The above are office reports of U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Parsons, WV.

Schuler, T.M.; Miller, G.W. 1995. Shelterwood treatment fail to establish oak reproduction on mesic forest sites in West Virginia - 10-yr results. In: Gottschalk, K.W.; Fosbroke, S.L.C., eds. Proceedings, 10th central hardwood conference; 1995 March 5-8; Morgantown, WV. Gen Tech. Rep. NE-197. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 577p.

Tom Schuler, USDA Forest Service, P.O. Box 404, Parsons WV  26287. (304) 478-2000.
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