of Long Term Research Conducted by the Northeastern Research Station
Application of the Shelterwood
System in Central Appalachian Hardwood Stands
||To determine how, when, and where the shelterwood system can
be used to regenerate central Appalachian hardwood stands.
||expected to continue
||Fernow Experimental Forest
Major forest types are oak-hickory, northern hardwoods, cove
hardwoods, and cherry maple commonly referred to as Allegheny
||Completely randomized design;
3 treatments with 3 replications of each level of overstory
density and control.
|Likelihood of Locating Study Areas:
||Planted 50 red oak and 50 white ash seedlings within each
0.5 acre at a spacing of 10' (1984). 3 levels of overstory density
(100, 75, 60) and 2 levels of understory density (100, 0) were
||Pre and post logging measurements were taken on 4 0.5-acre
growth plots located in the center of 3 acres. A 100' wide buffer
strip surrounds each growth plot.
Initial measurements were taken on all plots before treatment
was applied. Trees larger than 5.0" d.b.h. sampled on permanent
0.5-acre plots. Measurements were taken from 20 sampling points
systematically distributed in the 0.5-acre growth plot. Plot
centers were 25' apart in rows 30' apart.
Subsample 0.5-acre plots 1.0" to 4.9" d.b.h. on 0.01-acre and
smaller than 1.0" d.b.h. On 1/1000-acre plots. Monitor overstory
growth and reproduction development periodically. Monitor growth
of planted seedlings also under different overstory density
and times of removal.
|Variables and Sampling Frequency:
||Independent: Level of seed cutting, percent of original stocking
retained (residual basal area - 45, 60, and 75 % of A-level
stocking), time of removal cutting, seed crop during regeneration
period, species - artificial regeneration.
Dependent: Tree abundance, tree origin, quality, diameter
growth, height growth, stocking, survival, species composition
of natural regeneration, survival, height, and diameter growth
of planting seedlings.
Specific measurements include: Tree species, total height
(nearest 0.5 cm), stem diameter at ground level (nearest 0.1cm),
crown area (determined by crown width by length measured to
the nearest 0.5cm), number of leaves on seedling, largest
leaf area (leaf length by leaf width), old or new seedling
(subjective), tree location within 0.001-acre plot (nearest
0.1'), seedling damage such as browsing, dead top, or insect
||Data are visually compared to previously collected data. Accuracy
assessments are completed after each data-collection period.
Permanent employee continually supervises temporary employees.
||Raw: stand structure and grade, species, d.b.h., and number
of stems available on DG.
Species, d.b.h., And number of stems are in hardcopy. Data are
downloaded to PCs for analyses.
|Global Change Research Applications:
||Studies of Ecosystem Processes
|Publications and Reports:
||Study plan for Area I: 1982. G.W. Wendel.
Establishment report for Area I: G.W. Wendel and Clay Smith.
The above are office reports of U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Parsons,
Schuler, T.M.; Miller, G.W. 1995. Shelterwood treatment fail
to establish oak reproduction on mesic forest sites in West
Virginia - 10-yr results. In: Gottschalk, K.W.; Fosbroke,
S.L.C., eds. Proceedings, 10th central hardwood conference;
1995 March 5-8; Morgantown, WV. Gen Tech. Rep. NE-197. Radnor,
PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern
Forest Experiment Station. 577p.
||Tom Schuler, USDA Forest Service, P.O.
Box 404, Parsons WV 26287. (304) 478-2000.