of Long Term Research Conducted by the Northeastern Research Station
Individual Tree Deferment
Cutting Practice - Monongahela National Forest and Fernow
||To demonstrate and evaluate individual tree response for different
species and sites, and stand response including regeneration
establishment and stand development.
||Monongahala National Forest: Riffle Creek near Huttonsville
WV, Shaver's Fork in Tucker County, Olsen Tower near Parsons
WV, US219 near Red House (the latter three on Cheat Ranger District).
Fernow Experimental Forest: 2 subcompartments: 1) along fish
Trough Road and 2) Stonelick Canoe Run area.
||Demonstration Area - no standard statistical design for this
study. 10- to 15-acre cuts made on 4 areas on Monongahelia National
Forest and on 2 areas on the Fernow Experimental Forest.
6 areas of deferment cutting each to be evaluated as a case
history. Also, initially 4 0.5-acre growth plots were established
within each study area. Individual tree measurements will be
recorded for each deferment tree at 5-year intervals until the
final stand is harvested. Between 12 to 15 high quality, well-spaced
deferment trees (about 20 feet squared per acre of residual
basal area) will be left after cut.
|Likelihood of Locating Study Areas:
||Initially 100% stand inventory (all trees 5.0" d.b.h. and
larger), 20 years after cut and 10 years thereafter.
Deferment cut 6 areas - each is evaluated as a case history.
||Stand inventory: of all trees >5.0" d.b.h. following Standard
Operating Procedures at 20 years and 10 years thereafter.
During each inventory, a grade sample is taken (species,
d.b.h. butt-log grade and merchantable-log height is recorded
for each graded species).
Tree species are listed according to Fernow species coding
Measuring d.b.h. includes the use of diameter tape graduated
to 0.01". Trees are measured to 0.01" at 4' above the wire
using Fernow measuring stick and the measurement is rounded
to nearest 0.1" for computer entry.
Total Height: distance from ground level to top of crown.
Potential Merchantable Height: estimated direct or at 99'
(1.5 times measurement) determined based upon forking, crown
break up to a potential and 8.0"d.b.h. estimate to nearest
Clear Bole Length: to nearest foot using a telescopic measuring
pole or relaskop at a distance of 66' from ground to first
live branch that is at least 1.0' long.
Crown Width: measured in cardinal direction N-S and E-W using
a hand compass and the width is measured to the nearest 0.5'
Tree Density: each tree has a density point where a 10- and
40- factor prism.
Epicormic Branches: the number of branches is recorded for
each of 4 8' log sections or 33' (allowing 1' for stump height).
Epicormics are counted if the branch is living at minimum
1' in length.
|Variables and Sampling Frequency:
||Independent: tree species
Dependent: reproduction, growth, stand density
Reproduction Surveys: for a 0.001-acre and 1/100-acre plot.
plots marked with a numbered mine check attached to an iron
Deferment tree: permanently marked, species, d.b.h., crown
class, butt-log grade, total height, tree density, epicormic
Growth Plots: 4 circular permanently-marked plots on each
0.5 acre (83.26' radius). 20 years after initial deferment
cut, trees 3.0" d.b.h. will be permanently wired and measured
on each growth plot for species, d.b.h., crown class, butt-log
grade. Measurements will be made every 5 years thereafter
until 50 years have passed. At that time, measurements will
be made on a 10-year schedule.
Photos will be taken before and after logging, and at each
5-year entry period.
Growth Plot Variables recorded once (initially): species,
total height, merchantable height, density, logging damage.
5-yrs: d.b.h. (at 2years), clear bole length, epicormic branches.
10-yrs: butt-log grade, crown width, crown class.
||Data are visually compared to previously collected data. Accuracy
assessments are completed after each data-collection period.
Permanent employee continually supervises temporary employees.
||Raw: stand structure and grade, species, d.b.h., And number
of stems available on DG.
Species, d.b.h., And number of stems are in hardcopy. Data are
downloaded to PCs for analyses.
|Global Change Research Applications:
||Studies of Ecosystem Processes
|Publications and Reports:
||Study plan. Clay Smith (Study # 4110-FS-NE-1103-99). U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest
Experiment Station, Parsons, WV.
Smith, H.C.; Lamson, N.I.; Miller, G.W. 1989. An aesthetic
alternative to clearcutting. Journal of Forestry. 87(3):14-18.
||Thomas Schuler, USDA Forest
Service, P.O. Box 404, Parsons WV 26287. (304) 478-2000
||USDA Forest Service: Monongahela National Forest