Large Area Comparisons of Different Intensities
of Even-age Management in Appalachian Hardwood Forests
||To determine the effects of 3 levels of even-age silvicultural
treatment on reproduction, development, growth, and quality
of northern Appalachian hardwood stands for 3 site classes.
||expected to continue
||Fernow Experimental Forest. Originally, areas were well stocked
and presently have no history of cuts or severe burns for at
least 35 years. The areas 55-60 years old contained considerable
sawtimber from second growth, a few old growth trees and several
trees 90 to 100 years old. The species composition of 1/3 of
the original stands had high-value cove hardwoods on the better
sites and oaks predominated on the fair sites.
||3 compartments (8-20 acres each) per each of 3 site quality
class for a total of 9 sites with no replication of treatments.
|Likelihood of Locating Study Areas:
||Initial cut of commercial, extensive, and intensive thinning
applied to 1 area (no replication of treatments). Different
silivicultural systems of intermediate cuts were installed and
detailed reproduction study was initiated 3 years following
the first cut.
3 to 7 years
S.I. 80 Seed Tree cut: 20 yrs unitl commercial cut, extensive
cut and intensive cut.
* other thinnings made when stand of trees >5.0"d.b.h. reaches
70%, 80%, and 90% of yield table basal area for the site.
S.I. 70 Species Selective cut: 25 yrs unitl commercial cut,
extensive cut, and intensive cut.
S.I. 60 Shelterwood cut: 30 yrs unitl commercial cut, extensive
cut, and intensive cut.
||Small reproduction (1.0' high 10 1.0" d.b.h.) was sampled
on 0.001-acre plots and large reproduction (1.0" to 5.0" d.b.h.)
was sampled on 0.01-acre plots.
Original Stands: reproduction tally was made by sampling
1% of the small stems (1.0' tall to 1.0" d.b.h) and sampling
10% of the stems 1" to 5" d.b.h. All reproduction tallied
after the 1st reproduction cut were made at 45 permanent sampling
points located in a 5-acre area in the center of each compartment.
If a stand d.b.h. average was >5.0" then the original stand
was inventoried 100% by species and 2" d.b.h. class (including
a seperate tally of designated seed trees). The seed trees
were inventoried before cutting 3 years later.
A tally was taken by species, size class, and stem origin
before and after harvest cut and before and after each seed
|Variables and Sampling Frequency:
||Independent: treatments, site classes.
Dependent: growth rates, timber quality, species composition,
reproduction characteristics, costs and returns.
Before 1st cut: 1% and 10% grid sample over the compartment.
After 1st cut - at 45 permanent sample points.
After 3 growing seasons - before seed tree removal - at 45
permanent sample points.
After 3 growing seasons - after seed tree removal - at 45
permanent sample points.
||Data are visually compared to previously collected data. Accuracy
assessments are completed after each data-collection period.
Permanent employee continually supervises temporary employees.
||Raw: stand structure and grade, species, d.b.h., and number
of stems available on DG. Species, d.b.h., and number of stems
are in hardcopy. Data are downloaded to PCs for analyses.
|Global Change Research Applications:
||Studies of Ecosystem Processes
|Publications and Reports:
||Working plan: May 1961.
Establishment report: 1961.
Amendments to Work plan: Nov 1961, July 1962, October 1962,
Revised Work plan: October 1966.
Progress report:. September 1966.
The above are office reports of U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Parsons,
Trimble, G.R., Jr. and Hart, G. 1961. An appraisal of early
reproduction after cutting in northern Appalachian hardwood
stands. Station Paper 162. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department
of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment
Station, 22 p.
||Thomas Schuler, USDA Forest
Service, P.O. Box 404, Parsons WV 26287. (304) 478-2000