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1. Large Area Comparisons of Forest Management Practices in Appalachian Forest Types

Go to:3. Southern Appalachian White Pine Seed Source Study

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Catalog of Long Term Research Conducted by the Northeastern Research Station

Catalog #2

Large Area Comparisons of Different Intensities of Even-age Management in Appalachian Hardwood Forests
To determine the effects of 3 levels of even-age silvicultural treatment on reproduction, development, growth, and quality of northern Appalachian hardwood stands for 3 site classes.
expected to continue
Fernow Experimental Forest. Originally, areas were well stocked and presently have no history of cuts or severe burns for at least 35 years. The areas 55-60 years old contained considerable sawtimber from second growth, a few old growth trees and several trees 90 to 100 years old. The species composition of 1/3 of the original stands had high-value cove hardwoods on the better sites and oaks predominated on the fair sites.
3 compartments (8-20 acres each) per each of 3 site quality class for a total of 9 sites with no replication of treatments.
Initial cut of commercial, extensive, and intensive thinning applied to 1 area (no replication of treatments). Different silivicultural systems of intermediate cuts were installed and detailed reproduction study was initiated 3 years following the first cut. 
Initial Cut:
3 years
3 years 
3 to 7 years 
Reproduction Cut:
commercial cut 
extensive cut
intensive cut
    S.I. 80 Seed Tree cut: 20 yrs unitl commercial cut, extensive cut and intensive cut. 
    S.I. 70 Species Selective cut: 25 yrs unitl commercial cut, extensive cut, and intensive cut. 
    S.I. 60 Shelterwood cut: 30 yrs unitl commercial cut, extensive cut, and intensive cut. 
* other thinnings made when stand of trees >5.0"d.b.h. reaches 70%, 80%, and 90% of yield table basal area for the site.
Small reproduction (1.0' high 10 1.0" d.b.h.) was sampled on 0.001-acre plots and large reproduction (1.0" to 5.0" d.b.h.) was sampled on 0.01-acre plots.

Original Stands: reproduction tally was made by sampling 1% of the small stems (1.0' tall to 1.0" d.b.h) and sampling 10% of the stems 1" to 5" d.b.h. All reproduction tallied after the 1st reproduction cut were made at 45 permanent sampling points located in a 5-acre area in the center of each compartment. 
If a stand d.b.h. average was >5.0" then the original stand was inventoried 100% by species and 2" d.b.h. class (including a seperate tally of designated seed trees). The seed trees were inventoried before cutting 3 years later.

A tally was taken by species, size class, and stem origin before and after harvest cut and before and after each seed tree removal.

Independent: treatments, site classes. 

Dependent: growth rates, timber quality, species composition, reproduction characteristics, costs and returns. 
Before 1st cut: 1% and 10% grid sample over the compartment. 
After 1st cut - at 45 permanent sample points. 
After 3 growing seasons - before seed tree removal - at 45 permanent sample points. 
After 3 growing seasons - after seed tree removal - at 45 permanent sample points.

Data are visually compared to previously collected data. Accuracy assessments are completed after each data-collection period. Permanent employee continually supervises temporary employees.
Raw: stand structure and grade, species, d.b.h., and number of stems available on DG. Species, d.b.h., and number of stems are in hardcopy. Data are downloaded to PCs for analyses.
Studies of Ecosystem Processes
partially 1994
Working plan: May 1961. 
Establishment report: 1961. 
Amendments to Work plan: Nov 1961, July 1962, October 1962, February 1966.
Revised Work plan: October 1966. 
Progress report:. September 1966. 

The above are office reports of U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Parsons, WV.

Trimble, G.R., Jr. and Hart, G. 1961. An appraisal of early reproduction after cutting in northern Appalachian hardwood stands. Station Paper 162. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, 22 p.

Thomas Schuler,  USDA Forest Service,  P.O. Box 404, Parsons WV 26287. (304) 478-2000 ext. 110.



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