of Long Term Research Conducted by the Northeastern Research Station
Title Large Area Comparisons
of Forest Management Practices in Appalachian Forest Types
||To determine the effects of different forest management systems
for different site-quality classes on: a) yield and growth of
the stands in terms of board feet, cubic feet, and basal area,
b) species composition, and c) timber quality.
||expected to continue
||Fernow Experimental Forest. Originally, areas were well-stocked
and presently have no history of cuts or burns for at least
25 years. Most of the growing stock originated from second growth
central Appalachian hardwoods that were 45-50 years old. Some
residuals were present from the 1905-1910 logging activities.
Study areas were laid out in mountainous terrain on the basis
of site quality. The 3 site qualities included 1 from each of
the following oak site indices: 80, 70, 60. Camera point surveys
were used to identify the study areas.
||Each of 3 silvicultural programs was replicated twice by 3
site qualities for a total of 18 sites plus 3 control areas
(1 for each site index). Overall total of 21 sites.
|Likelihood of Locating Study Areas:
||Prior to the first cut, 100% inventory was made of all trees
>5.0" d.b.h. (by 2" classes).
3 silvicultural programs: 1) Diameter-limit cut, 2) uneven-age
management, 3) patch cutting.
Diameter-limit cut: cut and removed all trees and felled all
culls >17.0" d.b.h.
3 site qualities: 80 (75-89), 70 (65-74), 60 (55-64).
Uneven-age Management: Single-tree selection harvests were made
according to residual stand goals to produce sawtimber (no trees
<11.0" d.b.h. are felled).
27 acres on 15-yr. cutting cycle; initially cut 1957
81 acres on 15-yr. Cutting cycle; initially cut 1953
34 acres on 15-yr. Cutting cycle; initially cut 1950
53 acres on 15-yr. Cutting cycle; initially cut 1953
12 acres on 20-yr. Cutting cycle; initially cut 1957
28 acres on 20-yr. Cutting cycle; initially cut 1952
Patch Cutting: Openings ~ 150' in diameter (0.4 acre) were created
under tree selection cutting (trees >5.0" d.b.h. were cut) to
maintain a minimum of 80 square feet of basal area in trees
>5.0" d.b.h. for indices of 80 and 70 while 65 square feet was
maintained for site index 60.
78 acres on 10-yr. Cutting cycle; initially cut 1957
25 acres on 10-yr. Cutting cycle; initially cut 1951
34 acres on 10-yr. Cutting cycle; initially cut 1951
20 acres on 10-yr. Cutting cycle; initially cut 1954
12 acres on 15-yr. Cutting cycle; initially cut 1957
11 acres on 15-yr. Cutting cycle; initially cut 1956
29 acres (4.5 acres of harvest at ea. cut) on 10-yr. Cutting
cycle; initially cut 1952; rotation age 65.
31 acres (4.8 acres of harvest at ea. cut) on 10-yr. Cutting
cycle; initially cut 1956; rotation age 65.
23 acres (3.1 acres of harvest at ea. cut) on 10-yr. Cutting
cycle; initially cut 1964; rotation age 75.
42 acres (5.6 acres of harvest at ea. cut) on 10-yr. Cutting
cycle; initially cut 1952; rotation age 75.
45 acres (7.9 acres of harvest at ea. cut) on 15-yr. Cutting
cycle; initially cut 1952; rotation age 85.
11 acres (1.9 acres of harvest at ea. cut) on 15-yr. Cutting
cycle; initially cut 1956; rotation age 85.
||3 types of field inventory: tree, sapling, and reproduction.
Tree-grade inventories are arranged by d.b.h. class. Volume
tables are constructed by species.
|Variables and Sampling Frequency:
||Independent: site quality, silvicultural programs/management
systems including stand structure, cutting cycle, residual stand,
size of trees cut, cultural treatment, road system standards,
Dependent: growth rates, timber quality, species composition,
reproduction characteristics, costs and returns.
||Data are visually compared to previously collected data. Accuracy
assessments are completed after each data-collection period.
Permanent employee continually supervises temporary employees.
Tree marking guide used to maintain consistency is attached
to Working Plan.
||Raw: stand structure (as defined by Meyer's quotient or Q:
the ratio of trees by successive diameter class) and grade,
species, d.b.h., and number of stems available on DG. Species,
d.b.h., And number of stems are in hardcopy. Data are downloaded
to PCs for analyses.
|Global Change Research Applications:
||Studies of Ecosystem Processes
|Publications and Reports:
||Work plan: 1950
Revision of Working plan: November 1966
Revision of Working plan: February 1969
Amendments to Working plan:
1 July 1970
The above are office reports of U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Parsons,
2 September 1970
3 July 1971
4 August 1972
5 November 1972
6 September 1973
Miller, G.W. And Smith, H.C. 1991. Comparing partial cutting
practices in central Appalachian hardwoods. In: McCorwick,
L.H.and Gottschalk, K.W., eds. Proceedings, 8th central hardwood
conference; 1991 March 4-6; University Park, PA. Gen. Tech.
rep. NE-148. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest
Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 105-119.
As of 1969: ~40 manuscripts were prepared after 20 years
of this large area research.
||Thomas Schuler, USDA Forest
Service, P.O. Box 404, Parsons WV 26287. (304) 478-2000