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Go to:Definitions (A-H)

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Viewing:Definitions (Q-Z)

 

Forest Inventory & Analysis Program
11 Campus Blvd.
Suite 200
Newtown Square, PA 19073-3294

(610)557-4075
(610)557-4250 FAX
(610)557-4132 TTY/TDD

 United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service. USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.
 

Methodology

Common Definitions Used by the FIA (Q-Z)

Removals: The net growing-stock volume harvested or killed in logging, cultural operations (such as timber stand improvement) or land clearing, and the net growing-stock volume neither harvested nor killed but growing on land that was reclassified from timberland to noncommercial forest land or nonforest land during the period between surveys. This volume is divided by the number of growing seasons to produce average annual removals.

Reserved productive forest land: Forest land sufficiently productive to qualify as timberland but withdrawn from timber utilization through statute or administrative designation; land exclusively used for Christmas tree production.

Rights-of-way: Highways, pipelines, powerlines, canals.

Rotten tree: A live tree of commercial species that does not contain at least one 12-foot sawlog or two noncontiguous sawlogs, each 8 feet or longer, now or prospectively, and does not meet regional specifications for freedom from defect primarily because of rot; that is, more than 50 percent of the cull volume in the tree is rotten.

Rough tree:

  • The same as a rotten tree except that a rough tree does not meet regional specifications for freedom from defect primarily because of roughness or poor form.
  • a live tree of noncommercial species.

Salvable dead tree: A tree at least 5.0 inches d.b.h. that has died recently and still has intact bark; may be standing, fallen, windthrown, knocked down, or broken off.

Sampling error (SE): A measure of the reliability of an estimate, expressed as a percentage of the estimate. The sampling errors given in this report correspond to one standard deviation and are calculated as the square root of the variance, divided by the estimate, and multiplied by 100. Indicated in statistical tables as "SE".

Sapling: All live trees 1.0 inches through 4.9 inches d.b.h. (see d.b.h.)

Sapling/seedling stand: A stand-size class of forest land that is stocked with at least 10 percent of minimum full stocking with live trees with half or more of such stocking in saplings or seedlings or both.

Sawlog: A log meeting regional standards of diameter, length, and freedom from defect, including a minimum 8-foot length and a minimum top diameter inside bark of 6 inches for softwoods and 8 inches for hardwoods.

Sawlog portion: That part of the bole of a sawtimber tree between the stump and the sawlog top.

Sawlog top: The point on the bole of a sawtimber tree above which a sawlog cannot be produced. The minimum sawlog top is 7.0 inches diameter outside bark (d.o.b.) for softwoods and 9.0 inches d.o.b. for hardwoods.

Sawtimber stand: A stand-size class of forest land that is stocked with at least 10 percent of minimum full stocking with all live trees with half or more of such stocking in poletimber or sawtimber trees or both, and in which the stocking of sawtimber is at least equal to that of poletimber.

Sawtimber tree: A live tree of commercial species at least 9.0 inches d.b.h. for softwoods or 11.0 inches for hardwoods, containing at least one 12-foot sawlog or two noncontiguous 8-foot sawlogs, and meeting regional specifications for freedom from defect.

Sawtimber volume: Net volume in board feet, by the International 1/4-inch rule, of sawlogs in sawtimber trees. Net volume equals gross volume less deductions for rot, sweep, and other defects that affect use for lumber.

SE: See Sampling error.

Seedling: A live tree less than 1.0 inch d.b.h. and at least 1 foot tall.

Single-family house: House sheltering one family and immediately adjacent managed land.

Snag: Standing dead tree with most or all of its bark missing that is at least 5.0 inches d.b.h. and at least 4.5 feet tall (does not include salvable dead).

Soft hardwoods: Hardwood species with an average specific gravity of 0.50 or less.

Softwoods: Coniferous trees, usually evergreen and having needles or scalelike leaves.

Stand: A group of forest trees growing on forest land.

Stand-size class: A classification of forest land based on the size class (that is, seedlings, saplings, poletimber, or sawtimber) of all live trees in the area.

Standard cord: A unit of measure for stacked bolts of wood, encompassing 128 cubic feet of wood, bark, and air space. Fuelwood cord estimates can be derived from cubic-foot estimates of growing stock by applying an average factor of 80 cubic feet of solid wood per cord. For pulpwood, a conversion of 85 cubic feet of solid wood per cord is used because pulpwood is more uniform.

State lands: Lands owned by the state or leased to the state for 50 years or more.

Stocking:

  • (for Maine) A relative measure of stand density based on the "A line" of stocking guides for appropriate species and forest types . The relationships between the classes and the percentage of the stocking standard are: nonstocked (0 to 9); poorly stocked (10 to 34); moderately stocked (35 to 59); fully stocked (60 to 100); and overstocked (101 and over).
  • (States other than Maine) The degree of occupancy of land by trees, measured by basal area and/or number of trees in a stand compared with the basal area and/or number of trees required to fully use the growth potential of the land (or the stocking standard). In the Eastern United States this standard is 75 square feet of basal area per acre for trees 5.0 inches d.b.h. and larger, or its equivalent in numbers of trees per acre for seedlings and saplings. Two categories of stocking are used in this report: all live trees and growing-stock trees. The relationships between the classes and the percentage of the stocking standard are: nonstocked (0 to 9); poorly stocked (10 to 59); moderately stocked (60 to 99); fully stocked (100 to 129); and overstocked (130 to 160).

Strip mine: Area devoid of vegetation due to current or recent general excavation.

Stump: The main stem of a tree from ground level to 1 foot above ground level, including the wood and bark.

Timberland: Forest land producing or capable of producing crops of industrial wood (more than 20 cubic feet per acre per year) and not withdrawn from timber utilization (formerly known as commercial forest land).

Timber products: Roundwood (round timber) products and manufacturing plant by-products harvested from growing-stock trees on timberland; from other sources, such as cull trees, salvable dead trees, limbs, tops, and saplings; and from trees on noncommercial forest and nonforest lands.

Timber removals: The growing-stock or sawtimber volume of trees removed from the inventory for roundwood products, plus logging residues, volume destroyed during land clearing, and volume of standing trees on land that was reclassified from timberland to noncommercial forest land.

Tract/multiple family housing: Multiple individual residential units or attached units (e.g., apartment buildings and condominiums) and immediately adjacent managed land.

Transportation right-of-way: Land associated with highways and railroads.

Tree class: A classification of the quality or condition of trees for sawlog production. Tree class for sawtimber trees is based on their current condition. Tree class for poletimber trees is a prospective determination--a forecast of their potential quality when they reach sawtimber size (11.0 inches d.b.h. for hardwoods, 9.0 inches d.b.h. for softwoods).

Tree grade: A classification of sawtimber quality based on guidelines for tree grades for hardwoods, white pine, and southern pine.

Trees: Woody plants that have well-developed stems and that usually are more than 12 feet tall at maturity.

Unproductive forest land: See Other forest land.

Upper-stem portion: That part of the main stem or fork of a sawtimber tree above the sawlog top to a diameter of 4.0 inches outside bark, or to the point where the main stem or fork breaks into limbs.

Urban forest land: Forest land sufficiently productive to qualify as timberland that is completely surrounded by or nearly surrounded by urban development (not parks), whether commercial, industrial, or residential.

Utility right-of-way: Land associated with pipeline or electric transmission lines; identified only if vegetative cover differs from adjacent land use.

Veneer log or bolt: A roundwood product from which veneer is sliced or sawn that usually meets certain minimum standards of diameter, length, and defect.

Volume suitable for pulpwood: The sound volume (only rotten cull excluded) of growing-stock and rough trees.