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Go to:Definitions (A-H)

Viewing:Definitions (I-P)

Go to:Definitions (Q-Z)

 

Forest Inventory & Analysis Program
11 Campus Blvd.
Suite 200
Newtown Square, PA 19073-3294

(610)557-4075
(610)557-4250 FAX
(610)557-4132 TTY/TDD

 United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service. USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.
 

Methodology

Common Definitions Used by the FIA (I-P)

Idle farmland: Former cropland or pasture that has not been tended for within the last 2 years and has less than 10 percent stocking with live trees (established seedlings or larger trees), regardless of species.

Improved/maintained pasture: Land that is currently used and maintained for grazing (not including grazed cropland).

Indian lands:

  • Lands held in trust by the United States or States, for Indian tribes or individual Indians.
  • Lands owned in fee by Indian tribes whether subject to Federal or State restrictions against alienation or not.

Industrial and commercial land: Supply yards, parking lots, factories, etc.

Ingrowth: The estimated net volume of growing-stock trees that became 5.0 inches d.b.h. or larger during the period between inventories . Also, the estimated net volume of growing-stock trees 5.0 inches d.b.h. and larger that are growing on land that was reclassified from noncommercial forest land or nonforest land to timberland.

International 1/4-inch rule: A log rule or formula for estimating the board-foot volume of logs. The mathematical formula is: (0.22D2 - 0.71D)(0.904762) for 4-foot sections, where D=diameter inside bark at the small end of the log section. This rule is used as the USDA Forest Service standard log rule in the Eastern United States.

Land area:

  • Bureau of Census: The area of dry land and land temporarily or partly covered by water, such as marshes, swamps, and river flood plains; streams, sloughs, estuaries, and canals less than 200 feet wide; and lakes, reservoirs, and ponds less than 4.5 acres in area.
  • Forest Inventory and Analysis: same as Bureau of Census except that the minimum width of streams, etc. is 120 feet, and the minimum size of lakes, etc. is 1 acre.

Merchantable stem: The main stem of the tree between a 1-foot stump height and a 4-inch top diameter (outside the bark), including the wood and bark.

Mining and waste land: Surface mining, gravel pits, dumps.

Miscellaneous private lands: Privately owned lands other than forest industry and farmer-owned lands.

Mortality: The estimated net volume of growing-stock trees at the previous inventory that died from natural causes before the current inventory (divided by the number of growing seasons between surveys to produce average annual mortality) .

National Forest lands: Federal lands legally designated as National Forests or purchase units and other lands administered as part of the National Forest System by the USDA Forest Service.

Net change: The difference between the current and previous inventory estimates of growing-stock volume (divided by the number of growing seasons between surveys to produce average annual net change). Components of net change are ingrowth plus accretion, minus mortality, minus cull increment, plus cull decrement, minus removals.

Net growth: The change, resulting from natural causes, in growing-stock volume during the period between surveys (divided by the number of growing seasons to produce average annual net growth). Components of net growth are ingrowth plus accretion, minus mortality, minus cull increment, plus cull decrement.

Noncensus water: Streams/rivers between 120 feet and 200 feet in width, and bodies of water between 1 and 4.5 acres in size. The Bureau of the Census classifies such water as land.

Noncommercial forest land: Reserved productive forest land, Christmas tree plantations, other forest land, and other reserved forest land (see definitions).

Noncommercial species: Tree species of typically small size, poor form, or inferior quality that normally do not develop into trees suitable for industrial wood products.

Nonforest land: Land that has never supported forests, or land formerly forested but now in nonforest use such as cropland, pasture, residential areas, or highways.

Nonsalvable dead tree: A dead tree with most or all of its bark missing that is at least 5.0 inches d.b.h. and is at least 4.5 feet tall.

Nonstocked area: A stand-size class of forest land that is stocked with less than 10 percent of minimum full stocking with live trees.

Other cropland: Includes cropland used for cover crops and soil improvement (legumes).

Other farmland: All nonforest land on a farm excluding cropland, pasture, and idle farmland; includes farm lanes, stock pens, and farmsteads.

Other forest land: Forest land that is incapable of producing 20 cubic feet per acre per year of industrial wood under natural conditions, because of adverse site conditions (formerly known as unproductive forest land).

Other reserved forest land: Forest land that is incapable of producing 20 cubic feet per acre per year of industrial wood under natural conditions, because of adverse site conditions, and is protected through statute or administrative designation.

Ownership class: A classification of forest land based on ownership and nature of business or control of decision making for the land. It encompasses all types of legal entities having ownership interest in the land, whether public or private.

Pasture land: Includes any pasture land other than cropland and woodland pasture. It can include lands that have had lime fertilizer or seed applied, or that had been improved by irrigation, drainage, or control of weeds and brush.

Pastured cropland: Includes rotation pasture and grazing land that would have been used for crops without additional improvement.

Pastured timberland: Land that is partially developed, maintained, or managed for pasture and grazing, but which continues to meet the definition of timberland.

Poletimber stand: A stand-size class of forest land that is stocked with at least 10 percent of minimum full stocking with live trees with half or more of such stocking in poletimber or sawtimber trees or both, and in which the stocking of poletimber exceeds that of sawtimber.

Poletimber tree: A live tree of commercial species meeting regional specifications of soundness and form and at least 5.0 inches in d.b.h., but smaller than a sawtimber tree.

Preferred tree: A high-quality tree, from a lumber viewpoint, that would be favored in cultural operations. General characteristics include grade 1 butt log (if sawtimber size), good form, good vigor, and freedom from serious damage.