HELP ON LIFE HISTORY ATTRIBUTES We present here the life history information about each species. Sources are many, and are listed at the end of this section. The intention is to provide concise, synthesized information about many, but not all, ecological aspects of the species. We cannot, and do not, intend to present exhaustive information for each species, but rather a 'broad brush' approach so that comparative and categorical analyses can be performed. The "disturbance response" text focuses primarily on nonbiological disturbance agents (fire, weather, and to the extent available, air pollution), but also considers some particularly devastating (mostly exotic) pests and disease. Special attention has been given to response to fire, as this type of synopsis has not previously been published for Eastern species. We refer you to the Silvics of North America manuals (Burns and Honkala 1990a,b) for more detailed information on damaging agents as well as extensive text and citations on many of the variables listed below. We also refer you to the USDA Forest Service Fire Effects Information System data base, available on the internet (http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis) which contains a large array of basic as well as fire-related information about nearly all tree species in the United States, and to the many data bases being brought online through the National Biological Information Infrastructure (http://www.nbs.gov/nbii). Data presented in this tabulation were compiled by Betsy Hale and Elaine Kennedy Sutherland: Family: botanical family of the species. Guild: grouping of species according to tree regeneration capabilities. Functional Lifeform: relates to structural size, form, and seasonal nature of tree species. Ecological Role: short explanation of habitat for the species. Disturbance Response: effects of fire, air pollution, drought, insects and disease on the species. Lifespan, yrs (typical/max): longevity under typical or ideal conditions. Shade Tolerance: capacity to survive and grow in the understory [very tolerant, tolerant, intermediate, intolerant, or very intolerant]. Height, m: typical heights achieved under forested conditions. Canopy tree: species usually occupies a position in the main crown canopy [yes, no(understory tree)]. Pollination Agent: major vector of pollination [wind, insects]. Seeding, yrs (begins/optimal/declines): age when the species, under good conditions, starts to produce viable seeds, reaches its optimum, and begins to decline in seed production. Mast Frequency, yrs: frequency of good seed years (large seed crops). New Cohorts Source: possible sources of new plants [seeds, sprouts (seedling sprouts or stump sprouts), root suckers]. Flowering Dates: season of flowering [early spring (~March 1-April 15), late spring (April 15-May 31), or summer (June-August)]. Flowers/Cones Damaged by Frost: flowers or cones can be damaged by frost [yes, no]. Seedfall Begins: time when ripe seed starts to be dispersed [spring-summer, early fall (September-October), or late fall-winter (November-February)]. Seed Banking: time that seed can survive in the seed bank [seasonal, < 1 month; seasonal, up to 1 year; short-term persistent, 1-10 years; persistent, 10+ years]. Seed Type/Dispersal Distance/Agent: type of seed (or fruit), its typical dispersal distance and common dispersal agent(s) [nuts and pods, to 50 m, gravity and animals; small nonwinged, to 50 m, wind and gravity; berries and drupes, to 100 m, birds and gravity; winged seeds, to 100 m, wind; winged seeds, 100-200 m, wind; plumed seeds, > 200 m, wind]. Cold Stratification Required: does the seed need cold stratification before it can germinate [yes, no]. Season of Germination: season when seeds typically germinate [spring, summer, fall]. Establishment Seedbed Preferences: Soil: substrate needed to germinate [bare mineral soil; litter/humus/moss; or variable]. Light: seedbed light environment suitable for germination [open conditions only -- high light levels; overstory shade -- variable light levels]. For some species, the seeds can germinate, even germinate better, under shade, but are intolerant of shade to survive and grow. As such, the species may be listed as intolerant to shade, yet prefer shade for germination (e.g., Betula papyrifera, Fraxinus nigra, Quercus nigra, Pinus taeda). Moisture: moisture level that supports germination and establishment [wet required, moist required, moisture neutral]. Temperature: soil temperature required for germination [cool/cold soil required, warm soil required, temperature neutral]. Seedling Rooting System: form of seedling/juvenile root system [taproot; variable (depends on soil type and moisture levels); shallow-spreading]. Sprouting: possible modes of vegetative reproduction [seedling sprouts, stump sprouts, root suckers, stem/rhizome sprouts, layerings]. Literature Used for Life History Section Altman, P. L. and D. S. Dittmer. 1962. Growth including reproduction and morphological development. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, Washington, D.C. Adams, M. B., D. S. Nichols, C. A. Federer, K. F. Jensen, and H. Parrott. 1991. Screening procedure to evaluate effects of air pollution on eastern region wildernesses cited as Class I air quality areas. General Technical Report NE-151. USDA Forest Service Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. Radnor, PA. Barnes, B. V., and W. H. Wagner, Jr. 1981. Michigan trees. A guide to the trees of Michigan and the Great Lakes region. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. Burns, R. M., compiler. 1983. Silvicultural systems for the major forest types of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook 445, Washington, D.C., USA. Burns, R. M., and B. H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990a. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook 654, Washington, D.C., USA. ------. 1990b. Silvics of North America: 2. Hardwoods. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook 654, Washington, D.C., USA. Curtis, J. T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin: Madison, Wisconsin, USA. Devall, M. S. 1998. An interim old-growth definition for cypress-tupelo communities in the Southeast. General Technical Report SRS-19. USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station. Asheville, North Carolina. Fischer, William C., compiler. Ongoing. The Fire Effects Information System [Data base]. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Intermountain Fire Sciences Laboratory. Missoula, MT. http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis From this database, the following citations were queried for fire effects by species: Carey, Jennifer H. 1994. Maclura pomifera. Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus echinata. Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus palustris. Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Pinus resinosa. Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Pinus strobus. Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. Carey, Jennifer H. 1994. Populus grandidentata. Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus falcata. Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus laurifolia. Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus marilandica. Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus nigra. Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus palustris. Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus phellos. Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus prinus. Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus stellata. Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus velutina. Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Tsuga canadensis. Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Acer pensylvanicum. Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Carya cordiformis. Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Carya tomentosa. Coladonato, Milo 1992. Diospyros virginiana. Coladonato, Milo. 1991. Fagus grandifolia. Coladonato, Milo 1994. Fraxinus nigra. Coladoanto, Milo. 1991. Ilex opaca. Coladonato, Milo. 1991. Juglans nigra. Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Liquidambar styraciflua. Coladonato, Milo. 1991. Magnolia virginiana. Coladonato, Milo 1992. Nyssa sylvatica. Coladonato, Milo 1992. Ostrya virginiana. Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Oxydendrum arboreum. Coladonato, Milo 1992. Taxodium distichum. Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Ulmus rubra. Griffith, Randy Scott. 1991. Fraxinus americana. Griffith, Randy Scott. 1991. Liriodendron tulipifera. Holifield, J. L. 1989. Populus deltoides. Howard, Janet L. 1996; Tirmenstein, D. 1988. Populus tremuloides. Rosario, Lynn C. 1988. Acer negundo. Rosario, Lynne C. 1988. Celtis occidentalis. Rosario, Lynne C. 1988. Fraxinus pennsylvanica Sullivan, Janet. 1994. Acer saccharinum. Sullivan, Janet. 1994. Betula alleghaniensis. Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Betula nigra. Sullivan, Janet. 1994. Carpinus caroliniana. Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Celtis laevigata. Sullivan, Janet. 1994. Cercis canadensis. Sullivan, Janet. 1994. Gleditsia triacanthos. Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Morus rubra. Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Pinus virginiana. Sullivan, Janet. 1994. Platanus occidentalis. Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Robinia pseudoacacia. Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Sassafras albidum. Sullivan, Janet. 1994. Tilia americana. Tesky, Julie L. 1992. Salix nigra. Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Acer rubrum. Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Acer saccharum. Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Carya glabra. Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Carya ovata. Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Cornus florida. Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Juniperus virginiana. Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Quercus alba. Tirmenstein, D. 1988. Quercus macrocarpa. Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Quercus muehlenbergii. Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Quercus rubra. Uchytil, Ronald J. 1991. Abies balsamea. Uchytil, Ronald J. 1991. Betula papyrifera. Uchytil, Ronald J. 1991. Prunus serotina. Fowells, H. A., compiler. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271, Washington, D.C., USA. Houston, D. R. 1994. Major new tree disease epidemics: Beech bark disease. Annual Review of Phytopathology 32:75-87. Jensen, K.F., Dochinger, L.S., Roberts, B.R., Townsend, A.M. 1976. Pollution Responses. Pages 189-216 in Miksche, J.P., Editor. Modern methods in forest genetics. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Kress, L. W. and J. M. Skelly. 1982. Response of several eastern forest tree species to chronic doses of ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Plant Disease 66(12):1149-1152. Liebhold, A. M., W. L. Macdonald, D. Bergdahl, and V. C. Mastro. 1995. Invasion by exotic forest pests: a threat to forest ecosystems. Forest Science Monograph 30:1-49. Neufeld, H.S., Renfro, J.R., Hacker, W.D., Silsbee, D. 1992. Ozone in Great Smoky Mountains National Park: Dynamics and effects on plants. Pages 594-617 in Berglund, R.L., Editor. Tropospheric ozone and the environment II: Effects, modeling, and control. Air and Waste Management Association Trasnsactions, Pittsburgh, PA. Pye, J. M. 1988. Impact of ozone on the growth and yield of trees: A review. Journal of Environmental Quality 17:347-360. Rhoads, A. and E. Brennan. 1980. Trees and shrubs relatively insensitive to oxidant pollution in New Jersey and southeastern Pennsylvania. Plant Disease 64(12):1106-1108. Schopmeyer, C. S., tech. coord. 1974. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook No. 450, Washington, D.C., USA. Stava, P. S. 1978. Handbook of trees for the Midwest. Kendall Hunt Publishing Co., Dubuque, Iowa, USA. Smith, W. H. 1981. Air pollution and forests: Interactions between air contaminants and forest ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, New York. 379 pp. Stolte, K. W. 1997. 1996 National technical report on forest health. Administrative Report FS-605. U.S. D.A. Forest Service, Southern Research Station. Asheville, NC. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1948. Woody-plant seed manual. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Miscellaneous Publication 654, Washington, D.C., USA.