Chapter 16
Ecological Subregions of the United States

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Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic)

Nine Sections have been delineated in this Province:

These Sections are located in the eastern conterminous States, including parts of Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine. The area of these Sections is about 104,500 mi2 (270,650 km2).

Section 221A--Lower New England

Geomorphology. The Section comprises parts of the New England, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain geomorphic provinces. Cape Cod and Long Island are large terminal moraine complexes modified by coastal processes. Glacial features such as small to large delata plains, lacustrine basins, eskers, and extensive drumlin fields are widespread. The Section gradually descends in a series of broad, hilly plateaus to the coastal zone. Central Connecticut and western Massachusetts are characterized by a north to south trending basin, a lowland plain, punctuated with a central linear ridge. Primary geomorphic processes are coastal and fluvial erosion, transport and deposition, and mass wasting. Elevation ranges from sea level to 1,500 ft (450 m). Some high hills (monadnocks) are 2,000 ft (600 m). Local relief ranges from 100 to 1,000 ft (30 to 300 m). Gentle slopes cover less than 20 to 80 percent of the area; 50 to 75 percent are in lowlands. Subenvelop elevation ranges from 0 to 650 ft (0 to 200 m).

Lithology and Stratigraphy. Surficial geology is Pleistocene age. In the northeastern part, coastal lowlands are covered by glacial marine sediment (mostly clay). Thin, stony till and glacial fluvial and glacial lacustrine sediment overlie bedrock inland. Cape Cod, Long Island, and Block Island are composed of thick, morainal and outwash sediment. The bedrock geology is varied and complex. Intense, northeast to southwest trending, faulting, and folding, and plutonic and volcanic episodes have resulted in variegated sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks. Triassic-Jurassic red conglomerate, sandstone and shale (the north to south trending lowland), with a prominent diabase sill (the linear ridge); Carboniferous sandstone, conglomerate, shale and dolostone; Paleozoic granites and volcanics; lower Paleozoic and Proterozoic quartzite, marble, schist, gneiss, and greenstone; and massive Proterozoic granite, granodiorite, diabase, and gabbro. Minimum elevations range from about 200 ft (61 m) in the north to near sea level south of Long Island Sound. Maximum local elevations are generally under 500 ft (152 m) but range to 1,000 ft (305 m). Gentle slopes cover 50 to 80 percent of the area; 50 to 75 percent occurs in uplands.

Soil Taxa. Interior Section taxa include Dystrochrepts and Haplaquepts with udic and aquic moisture and mesic temperature regimes. Coastal regions, (e.g., Cape Cod and Long Island) are characterized by Udorthents and Udipsamments with mesic temperature and udic moisture regime. Sulfhemists, Sulfaquents, and Medisaprists are also common near coastal areas.

Potential Natural Vegetation. K\"uchler vegetation types include northern hardwood, Appalachian oak, and northeastern oak-pine forest. Regionally-defined important vegetation types include northern hardwood-hemlock-white pine, central hardwoods, coastal pitch pine, maritime oak, and maritime red cedar.

Fauna. Drastic disturbance of the original ecosystems and their faunal component resulted from European settlement. Major predators (e.g., timber wolf) were intentionally exterminated. Other large vertebrates were exterminated (e.g. moose), reduced, or restricted (e.g., white-tailed deer, wild turkey) by hunting and habitat loss. Original distributions were re-established or exceeded for some species with the re-establishment of forests on abandoned agricultural lands, in some cases, with higher population densities. The large predators have not returned; their niche has been partially filled by mid-size predators (e.g., bobcat, coyote). This ecological shift, combined with hunting access restrictions, has resulted in imbalances between herbivores and plant resources. Extensive areas of regenerating forest and associated early successional habitat are lacking. Hard tree mast (i.e., acorns, beechnuts) drives many faunal processes. Common wildlife species include the white-tailed deer, gray squirel, white-footed mouse, red-eyed vireo, and red-spotted newt. Restoration of historical Atlantic salmon in the Connecticut and Merrimack Rivers is ongoing. No Federally listed threatened and endangered species are unique to this area.

Climate. Precipitation, which ranges from 35 to 50 in (820 to 1,270 mm), is evenly distributed throughout the year. Snow increases with elevation; amounts vary from 36 to 100 in (915 to 2,540 mm) of snow increasing with elevation. Mean annual temperature ranges from 45 to 50 oF (7 to 10 oC). The growing season lasts for 120 to 180 days.

Surface Water Characteristics. Abundant water resources include perennial streams, natural and artificial lakes and ponds, fresh and saltwater wetlands, and estuaries. Streams exhibit deranged, dendritic, and trellis patterns due to a complex geomorphic history of stream imposition, differential weathering, glaciation, continental rebound, and stream capture. Stream gradients are generally low but steepen locally near the Connecticut River and in areas approaching the uplands and mountains. Average annual runoff ranges from 18 to 24 in (460 to 610 mm). Maximum monthly streamflows occur in March and April. Extreme peak flow may occur any time of year and usually are associated with hurricanes or rain-on-snow events. Minimum monthly flows occur in August, September, and October. Most lakes and impoundments are small. The exceptions are Lake Winnipesaukee (72 mi2, 186 km2) and Squam Lake (11 mi2, 29 km2) in New Hampshire, Sebago Lake (45 mi2, 116 km2) in Maine, and the Quabbin Reservoir (37 mi2, 96 km2) in Massachusetts.

Disturbance Regimes. Central and coastal New England have intermediate to high occurences of fire and hurricane winds (thirty to fifty years) relative to inland New England sites. Tidal flooding associated with storms occurs along the coast. Regionally, the distribution of modern and pre-settlement forest types match well. At a landscape scale, modern forest characteristics are strongly controlled by land use, particularly agriculture dating from colonial time and subsequent farm abandonment from about 1850. Insect and disease disturbances result from gypsy moth, beech bark disease, chestnut blight, Dutch elm disease, hemlock woolly adelgid, periodic pitch pine and hemlock looper, oak leaf tier damage, and red pine scale and adelgid.

Land Use. Forest land dominates 70 percent of the area, mostly in small holdings; residential uses increase concern over parcelization and fragmentation. About 15 percent of the area is in agricultural use and about 10 percent is urbanized.

Cultural Ecology. Many Native American tribes settled and hunted, fished, and farmed the land before European settlement in the early 1600's. Transportation and commerce are significant cultural influences. The Atlantic Ocean, rivers, and railroads provided early transportation routes. Fishing, whaling, shipbuilding industries, ironworks, tanneries, and textile mills decreased in importance following the 1800's. Metal-working and machining are important today. Sand, gravel, clay, granite, limestone,and marble are mined. Agriculture decreased as manufacturing increased. Historic and resource based tourism are important economic sectors.

Compiled by Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry, and the Eastern Region.

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Section 221B--Hudson Valley

Geomorpholgy. The Section is the northernmost extension of the Ridge and Valley geomorphic province. It is characterized by a linear lowland, a glacial lake plain in part, bounded on either side by high escarpments. The lowland was created by graben-faulting, easily eroded bedrock, and glacial scour. Fluvial erosion, transport and deposition, and mass wasting are the primary geomorphic processes operating. Minimum elevations range from about 200 ft (61 m) in the north to near sea level south of Long Island Sound. Maximum local elevations are generally under 500 ft (152 m) but range to 1,000 ft (305 m). Gentle slopes cover 50 to 80 percent of the area, 50 to 75 percent occurs in uplands.

Lithology and Stratigraphy. The northern half of the central lowland is covered by Pleistocene lacustrine sediments; the remainder is covered by Quaternary alluvium. The uplands have thin, stony till over bedrock. Ordovician carbonate, shale, siltstone, and sandstone form bedrock in the lowlands. Uplands to the east are Ordovician-Cambrian metasediments and metavolcanics; to the west are Silurian conglomerates and Devonian limestones.

Soil Taxa. Dystrochrepts and Fragiochrepts with udic moisture regime and mesic temperature regime are most common in the lower Hudson River valley and along the margin of the Catskill and Taconic Mountains. Hapludalfs with mesic temperature regime and udic moisture regime are more commmon in the upper valley.

Potential Natural Vegetation. K\"uchler vegetation types include northern hardwood and Appalachian oak forest. Regionally-defined important vegetation types include central hardwoods, transition hardwoods, and northern hardwoods grading from south to north. Albany sand plains support pitch pine-scrub oak communities.

Fauna. With European settlement, the original forest ecosystems and their forest-dependent fauna were reduced to marginal areas. With the re-establishment of forest on abandoned agricultural lands, many forest wildlife species have returned to their pre-settlement distributions and numbers. Large predators have not re-established themselves, either naturally or by re-introductions; and the reduced predation on major herbivores, especially white-tailed deer, has resulted in an increasingly widespread problem. Acorns are an important resource of forest habitats, providing an energy source that drives many wildlife processes. Fragmentation of forest cover by residential development is an important concern. Excessive deer populations are a major wildlife problem. Deer damage domestic plants and agricultural crops, destroy natural forest regeneration, and cause motor-vehicle accidents. Common wildlife species include white-tailed deer, gray squirrel, white-footed mouse, red-eyed virio, and red-spotted newt. No Federally listed threatened and endangered species are unique to this area.

Climate. Average annual precipitation is 40 in (1,020 mm). Average annual snowfall is from 40 to 60 in (1,020 to 1,520 mm). Average annual temperature ranges from 45 to 50 oF (7 to 10 oC). The growing season lasts for 160 to 180 days.

Surface Water Characteristics. The Hudson River and its tributaries dominate the unit. Perennial streams, small lakes, and fresh water and saltwater wetlands occur. The Hudson River is a low gradient incised stream. Major tributaries from the Taconics and Allegheny plateau have moderate and steep gradients. Under natural conditions, daily saltwater tides in the Hudson River would reach as far upstream as Albany, New York. Average annual runoff ranges from 10 to 22 in (250 to 560 mm). March and April are the months of highest streamflow. Lowest streamflow occurs in August.

Disturbance Regimes. This region generally lacks large-scale natural disturbance regimes; however, fire is an important small-scale disturbance in the maintanance of pitch pine-scrub oak communities on sand plains and ridges along the middle to lower Hudson River Valley. In general, forest land occurs on edaphic extremes, i.e., steep, shallow, or otherwise unsuitable land for farming or settlement. All forest land is in second or third growth. Insect and disease disturbances have resulted from chestnut blight, dutch elm disease, beech bark disease, butternut canker, and ongoing wooly adelgid infestation.

Land Use. Roughly 60 percent of this area is in forest, but with minimal forest land adjacent to the river and its urbanized corridor. The remaining land area is in urban, residential, and agricultural use.

Cultural Ecology. Native American occupation and ecological exploitation began as early as 10,000 years ago. These early inhabitants evolved from mobile, nomadic hunting groups to more sedentary groups, adapting to subsistence-based farming and hunting. European exploration began in the 1600's. The fur trade was a prominent activity in the area during the latter 17th and early 18th centuries. Settlement of towns and cities increased in the 19th century in response to the growing shipping industries along the Hudson River and banks of Lake Champlain. Today, a vast number of industries provide employment for the area's dense population.

Compiled by Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry, and the Eastern Region.

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Section 221C--Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain

Geomorphology. The Section is part of the Coastal Plain geomorphic province. It is characterized by a series of moderately dissected, northeast to southwest trending terraces that get progressivly lower toward the coastline. It has a prominent lowland that forms its northwest border. The coastline is characterized by dune fields, beaches, lagoons, embayments, and barrier islands. Drainage is dendritic; coastal and fluvial erosion, transport and deposition are the primary geomorphic processes operating. Elevation ranges from 0 to 300 ft (0 to 100 m). Most of the area is less than 150 ft (50 m).

Lithology and Stratigraphy. The series of terraces is composed of progressively younger sediment layers that range from poorly-defined to unconsolidated: interbedded mud, silt, sand and gravel. The oldest units, Cretaceous in age, are exposed farthest landward in the Section; progressively younger terraces of Tertiary and Quaternary age occur toward the Atlantic and Delaware Bay. The border lowland is covered by Quaternary sediments as well, deposited since the end of Pleistocene glaciation.

Soil Taxa. Mostly Udults and Aquults with udic and aquic moisture regimes. Quartzipsamments with xeric to aquic moisture regimes are locally important, especially in the pine barrens. Essentially all soils have a mesic temperature regime.

Potential Natural Vegetation. K\"uchler's map shows mostly northeastern oak-pine forest, with some oak-hickory-pine forest adjacent to Delaware Bay, and some fringes of northern cordgrass prairie along the Atlantic coast. Braun's discussions tell of cedar bogs with transition pine forests and deciduous swamps. There are also pine plains and grassy savannas, especially in the pine barrens area.

Fauna. Historical records indicate that the black bear, wolf, and couger once inhabited the area. Evidence also indicates that the American bison roamed the region. Today only black bear are present south of the New Jersey Turnpike. Present examples of open-land wildlife include quail, meadowlark, field sparrow, doves, cottontail rabbit, red fox, and woodchuck. These species occur in areas of open lands, such as crop land, pastures, meadows, lawns, and in areas overgrown with grasses, herbs, and shrubs. Among the birds and mammals that prefer wood lands are ruffed grouse, woodcock, various thrushes and vireos, gray and red squirrels, gray fox, white-tailed deer, and raccoon. They obtain food and cover in stands of hardwoods, coniferous trees, shrubs, or a mixture of these vegetative types. Ducks, geese, rails, herons, shore birds, beaver, mink, and muskrats are found in ponds, marshes, and swamps.

Climate. Precipitation ranges from 42 to 45 in (1,060 to 1,140 mm). Most precipitation falls near the coast in summer. Snowfall ranges to 30 in (750 mm). Temperature ranges from 50 to 55 oF (10 to 13 oC). The growing season lasts for 240 to 250 days.

Surface Water Characteristics. Streams flow relatively slowly to the Atlantic Ocean or the Delaware Bay. Natural lakes are rare to non-existent. Small water impoundments are common along the upper reaches of streams. Bogs, swamps, and salt marshes exist along the Atlantic Coast. Bogs tend to be very acidic, mainly in the soils of the pine barrens. Bogs also occur as narrow belts along streams in the Pine barrens and Cape May areas. Rates of streamflow near Delaware Bay and the coast fluctuate daily in response to tides. Tests show that salt content is sufficiently low that tidewater from streams may be used for irrigation without adverse effects on soils and vegetation. Currently, there is ample water for farm, urban, and industrial uses. However, urban development is having increasingly affecting the hydrology of the area, including infiltration, underground water storage, and runoff.

Disturbance Regimes. Historically, fire was a significant natural disturbance. Most of the vegetative types owe their existance to repeated fires. Other disturbances include bog-iron mining; construction of ore furnaces; utilization of clay deposits and glass sands; and logging. Early sawmills were driven by water power. Cedar bogs were exclusively logged which resulted in an increase in deciduous swamps. The cranberry industry caused the construction of small dams, sluice gates, and ditches to facilitate drainage. Although peat was low grade, some harvesting did take place.

Land Use. The primary land uses currently are forests, agriculture, pasture, and urban development. Cultivated plants include fruit trees; bush fruits and vines; leaf crops; fodder and cereal; flowers; and root and garden crops.

Cultural Ecology. Humans have utilized the natural resources of this area for the past 10,000 years. This Section comprises part of the historic home of the Delaware Tribe. Marine resources have been of particular interest to occupants in this area throughout time. Euro-American settlement occurred as early as the 18th century. By the latter 19th century, industrialization, increased population, marine-related industries and the development of coastal resorts, such as Atlantic City, had made their mark on the natural ecology of the area and were the major sectors of the area's economy.

Compiled by Northeastern Area, State and Private Forestry and the Eastern Region.

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Section 221D--Northern Appalachian Piedmont

Geomorphology. The Section comprises part of the Piedmont geomorphic province. Most of the Section is a maturely dissected peneplain, sloping gently toward the coast. It is hilly to rolling terrain with a few high ridges, where local relief can be up to 1,200 ft (365 m). The Section is crossed southwest to northeast by a broad, structural basin forming a lowland plain, an extension of the one noted in Section 221A. Drainage is dendritic; fluvial erosion, transport and deposition, and mass wasting are the primary geomorphic processes operating. Elevation ranges from 80 to 1,650 ft (25 to 500 m). The predominant elevation ranges from 300 to 1,000 ft (100 to 300 m).

Lithology and Stratigraphy. Bedrock is overlain by residuum on the ridges and hill tops, colluvium on the slopes, and alluvial materials in the valleys. The youngest bedrock in the Section occupies the structural basin: Triassic and Jurassic redbeds (conglomerate-sandstone-shale), basalt flows and diabase sills; the basalt and diabase hold up the few high ridges. Bedrock in the remainder is composed of mixed metamorphics (marble, quartzite, slate, schist, gneiss) of Proterozoic to lower Paleozoic age. Saprolite (deeply weathered bedrock) commonly covers these latter units. Other rocks intrusive in the pre-Cambrian metamorphic basement rocks were pegmatite dikes, serpentine, metadiorite, and gabbro.

Soil Taxa. Soils include Udults, Udalfs, and Ochrepts. The dominant moisture regime is udic. The temperature regime is mesic. Soils are dominantly well drained, and range from moderately deep to deep. Dominant soils on stream floodplains are Dystrochrepts and Fluvaquents.

Potential Natural Vegetation. Prior to Euro-American settlement in the early 17th century, the native vegetation consisted mainly of oak and hickory. Chestnut, yellow-poplar, ash, walnut, and elm were associated species. Maple was dominant on the wet bottomlands of the Piedmont area. Currently Appalachain oak forest (K\"uchler) and sugar maple-mixed hardwoods, hemlock-mixed hardwoods, oak-chestnut (Braun) dominate.

Fauna. Historical records indicate that the black bear, wolf, and couger once inhabited the area. Evidence also indicates that the American bison roamed the region. Relatively fertile soils result in very diverse habitats. Examples of open land wildlife are meadowlark, field sparrow, dove, cottontail rabbit, red fox, and woodchuck, which are found in areas of crop land, pastures, meadows, and lawns in areas overgrown with grasses, herbs, and shrubs. Among the birds and mammals that prefer wood lands are the ruffed grouse, woodcock, various thrushes and vireos, scarlet tanager, various woodpeckers, gray and red squirrels, gray fox, white-tailed deer, and raccoon. They obtain food and shelter in stands of hardwoods, coniferous trees, shrubs, or in mixtures of these types. Ducks, geese, herons, shore birds, mink, and muskrats are found in ponds, marshes and swamps.

Climate. Precipitation averages between 39 to 47 in (1,000 to 1,200 mm). Most falls in spring and early summer. Snowfall ranges from 27 to 40 in. (680 to 1,000 mm). Temperature ranges from 40 to 55 oF (5 to 13 oC). The growing season lasts for 160 to 250 days.

Surface Water Characteristics. This Section is generally characterized by a mature, dendritic drainage network. Natural lakes are rare to non-existent, except in the northeastern extremity of the Section, which was covered by Pleistocene glaciation. Small impoundments are common along upper reaches of streams. A few bogs, swamps, and salt marshes occur in areas adjacent to the Atlantic coast and Chesapeake Bay. The lower extremities of some of the major streams are affected by tides. There is ample water for farm, urban, and industrial uses. Urban development is affecting water yields. Good ground water recharge areas are being impacted by encroaching development.

Disturbance Regimes. Historically, fire was a significant natural disturbance. Gypsy moth and chestnut blight have had effects on the vegetation.

Land Use. Farms, wood lands, and industrial and urban development are the major current land uses.

Cultural Ecology. As early as 10,000 years ago, Native Americans hunted a variety of animals and gathered many plant varieties. This is part of the historic home of the Delaware Tribe. Euro-American settlement occurred as early as the 18th century, beginning with Britain immigrants. By the latter 19th century, industrialization, increased population, and the development of large metropolitan cities, such as Philadelphia, had made a mark on the natural ecology of the area.

Compiled by Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry and Eastern Region.

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Section 221E--Southern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau

Geomorphology. This Section comprises part of the Appalachian Plateaus geomorphic province. It is a maturely dissected plateau characterized by high hills, sharp ridges, and narrow valleys. An exception is the broad Teays Valley, created by a major, preglacial river. The valley was dammed by an ice sheet during the Pleistocene and abandoned by the river after the melt. Local relief in the Section exceeds 2000 ft (610 m) along the New River Gorge, but is generally much less. Drainage is dendritic; mass wasting, karst solution, and fluvial erosion, and transport and deposition are the primary geomorphic processes operating. A notable but very minor landform is anthropogenic. lands that have been strip-mined exhibit hummocky or gouged topography. Elevation ranges from 650 to 1,300 ft (200 to 400 m). Local relief is generally about 160 to 325 ft (50 to 100 m).

Lithology and Stratigraphy. Bedrock is overlain by Quaternary residuum on the ridges and hilltops, colluvium on the slopes, andeither or both alluvium and Pleistocene lacustrine materials in the valleys. The youngest bedrock units lie at the center of the Section, in a large southwest to northeast trending oval, and consist of Permian sandstone, siltstone, and shale with minor limestone and coal. Exposed around the Permian oval are units of the Pennsylvanian System, similar in lithology to the Permian rocks but containing major coal beds. The Mississippian sandstone, shale, and limestone are exposed around the margins of the Pennsylvanian outcrop. Devonian black shale with minor sandstone composition crops out around the southwest and northern margins of the Section. This outcrop pattern describes a structural basin, one which was subsiding through most of the Paleozoic Era.

Soil Taxa. Udalfs, Udults, and Ochrepts dominate, in combination with mesic soil temperature regime, an udic soil moisture regime, and mixed or illitic mineralogy. Soils formed in parent materials divided into five groups: residual material, which developed in place by the weathering of underlying bedrock; colluvial material which weathered from bedrock strata transported by water and gravity to the lower slopes; alluvium, lacustrine sediments, and outwash deposited by water; loess deposited by wind; and mine spoil in areas that have been strip-mined for coal.

Potential Natural Vegetation. K\"uchler types are mapped as mixed mesophytic forest and Appalachian oak forest. Other recognized communities include mixed oak forest, oak-hickory-chestnut forest, oak-pine forest, hemlock forest, beech forest, floodplain forest and swamp forest.

Fauna. Current mammal populations are typified by the white-tailed deer, gray fox, woodchuck, opossum, gray squirrel, white-footed mouse, and short-tailed shrew; more rare are the hairy-tailed mole, smoky shrew, and the rare eastern woodrat. The bison, elk, black bear, mountain lion, timber wolf, and bobcat, once common historically, were extirpated (except for small numbers of black bear and bobcat). Common birds in this Section include the wild turkey, ruffed grouse, barred owl, pileated woodpecker, eastern phoebe, blue-gray gnatcatcher, Acadian flycatcher, white-eyed vireo, ovenbird, Kentucky warbler, yellow-breasted chat, and summer tanager. Some amphibians and reptiles which typify this Section include the red-spotted newt, dusky salamander, fence lizard, American toad, wood frog, box turtle, snapping turtle, painted turtle, ringneck snake, northern water snake, black rat snake, and copperhead. Rare reptiles include the timber rattlesnake and green salamander.

Prior to 1850, the Ohio River and its tributaries in this Section contained large numbers of fishes and mussels. Historic records show large catches of muskellunge, sturgeon, catfish, buffalo, drum, spotted bass, walleye, and sauger occurred. The fish assemblage in this Section is typical of the headwater stream to large river habitats, while southern redbelly dace, creek chub, barred fantail darter, and greenside darter are common in smaller streams. Black basses, sunfish, sauger, and catfish, the hybrid saugeye, and striped bass are common in the Ohio River and lower portions of its tributaries. Largemouth bass, bluegill, channel catfish, and crappie are found in the large, man-made reservoirs in this Section. One numerous mussel populations have decreased greatly; many are on State and Federal threatened and endangered species lists.

Climate. Precipitation averages 35 to 45 in (900 to 1,150 mm); it occurs mainly during summer, winter, and spring. Rain on snow is common during winter and early spring. Summers are dry with low humidity. Temperature averages 52 oF (11 oC). The growing season 120 to 180 days

Surface Water Characteristics. Although not covered by ice, this Section was dramatically affected by glaciers. Three major preglacial streams drain the area and many of their tributaries were eventually blocked by the advancing ice sheets. Lakes were created in the valleys, into which considerable sediments were deposited, which later drained as ice sheets receded. The present drainage system is the result of complicated drainage re-arrangements over long periods of time, with the elimination of all natural lakes in the Section and the creation of of a new master drainage system of the Section to the Ohio River. This Section is characterized by a relatively high density of streams, with gradients ranging from high, steep headwaters streams to low gradient rivers that flow into the Ohio River. Some streams are underlain by relatively shallow silt, sand, or gravel alluvium, while others in the preglacial valleys are filled with deep glacial deposits. Bedrock is frequently exposed and consists of limestone, siltstone, sandstone, shale, and numerous coal seams. Small springs are numerous, but most are ephemeral. Natural streamflow and water quality characteristics have been greatly modified by oil, gas, and coal extraction activities.

Disturbance Regimes. Historically, low-intensity fires probably occurred at a given site at five to 10 year intervals. Fires of higher intensity occurred at intervals of up to 50 years. Dry ridges and slopes facing south to west burned more frequently than moist creek bottoms and slopes facing north to east. Annual spring flooding occured annually to some degree along major rivers. The forests were probably affected locally by insect and tree diseases. Climatic-influenced disturbances included winter ice storms, occasional tornadoes, and periodic flooding along major river floodplains. Natural disturbances to the streams and rivers incude floods and droughts. Man-made disturbances to streams include channelization, construction of locks and dams, and input of industrial waste, sewage, mining wastes, and soil.

Land Use. About half of this area is forested, and the sale of wood fiber is important in some parts. Urban expansion, including industrial developments, is increasing along the Ohio River and its major tributaries. Since the time of settlement, lands which are level enough for agriculture have been cleared, especially on ridgetops and creek bottoms. Sites with either or both poor soils and severe erosion were abandoned and left to natural succession or planted with trees or grasses and forbs. Most slopes have been repeatedly logged. Strip mining for coal and oil and gas exploration and production continue throughout the Section.

Cultural Ecology. Paleo-Indians, nomadic peoples who hunted Pleistocene megafauna, were the first humans to reach the Ohio Territory approximately 12,000 years ago. Continual glacial recession and a warming climate resulted in a more deciduous and diverse environment. During the Archaic Period (about 8,500 to 1,000 B.C.) floral resources and a variety of small game animals were exploited. Rudimentary horticultural activities and early ceremonialism began to emerge. The Woodland Period (about 1,000 B.C. to 1,000 A.D.) was characterized by more sedentary lifestyles which involved the development of agricultural practices. Extensive trade networks of local and exotic resources were established. Later a shift occurred toward large settlements dependent on maize agriculture. The Fort Ancient Period (about 1,000 to 1,600 A.D.) was typified by increased sedentary culture. Large floodplain villages often organized around central plazas, upland hunting camps, and an influx of southern Mississippian influences. Europeans reached the Ohio Territory around 1,650 A.D. Settlement initially consisted of farming communities; later, emphasis shifted to extractive industries such as coal, iron ore, clay, oil and gas, and, sandstone.

Compiled by Eastern Region.

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Section 221F--Western Glaciated Allegheny Plateau

Geomorphology. The Section comprises part of the Appalachian Plateaus geomorphic province. It is a maturely dissected upland modified by glaciation. It is characterized by rounded hills, ridges, and broad valleys. Glacial features include valley scour, ground moraines, kames, eskers, and kettled outwash plains. Drainage is dendritic; mass wasting and fluvial erosion, transport and deposition are the primary geomorphic processes operating. Elevation ranges from 650 to 1,000 ft (200 to 300 m). Local relief ranges from 6 to 50 ft (2 to 15 m).

Lithology and Stratigraphy. Thin Pleistocene till and stratified drift mantle many upland bedrock surfaces; lower slopes are covered by colluvium; alluvium and glacial lacustrine materials cover valley floors. Bedrock beneath the drift consists of. Devonian shale, siltstone, sandstone and minor conglomerate; Mississippian sandstone and siltstone; and Pennsylvanian sandstones, shales, and coal.

Soil Taxa. Dominant soils are Udalfs, Aqualfs, and small areas of Udults in combination with mesic temperature regimes, and udic or aquic soil moisture regimes and mixed or illitic mineralogy. Soils formed in parent materials divided into six groups: residual material, which developed in place by the weathering of underlying bedrock; colluvial material which weathered from bedrock strata transported by water and gravity to the lower slopes; alluvium, lacustrine sediments, and outwash deposited by water; loess deposited by wind; glacial till deposited by ice; and mine spoil in areas that have been strip-mined for coal.

Potential Natural Vegetation. K\"uchler types are mapped as beech-maple forest, Appalachian oak forest, northern hardwood forest, mixed mesophytic forest, and a small extent of oak-hickory forest. Other recognized types include maple-ash-oak swamp forest, wet beech forest, beech-sugar maple forest, oak-maple forest, and mixed oak forest.

Fauna. Common mammals in this Section today include the white-tailed deer, red fox, woodchuck, raccoon, opossum, striped skunk, cottontail rabbit, fox squirrel, long-tailed weasel, eastern chipmunk, short-tailed shrew, and meadow jumping mouse. The less common masked shrew and hairy-tailed mole are also characteristic of this Section. The bison, elk, black bear, mountain lion, timber wolf, bobcat, and porcupine were all common historically but have since been extirpated, except for small numbers of black bear and bobcat. Current bird populations are typified by the red-tailed hawk, great-horned owl, belted kingfisher, northern flicker, great crested flycatcher, white-breasted nuthatch, eastern bluebird, gray catbird, American redstart, scarlet tanager, chipping sparrow, and ruby-throated hummingbird. The wood duck, beaver, and white-tailed deer are three animals in this Section which have made dramatic recoveries in the 20th century after being extirpated (or nearly so) in the past. Some amphibians and reptiles which are common in this Section include the dusky salamander, American toad, spring peeper, snapping turtle, painted turtle, northern water snake, garter snake, smooth green snake, and milk snake. The common shiner, mottled sculpin, brook stickleback, horneyhead chub, and western lake chubsucker are examples of some of the stream fishes occurring in this Section. Largemouth bass, bluegill, channel catfish, and crappie are found in the large, man-made reservoirs in this Section.

Climate. Precipitation averages 35 to 40 in (900 to 1,020 mm) fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, but slightly higher in spring and early summer and lowest in winter. Average annual temperature is about 50 oF (10 oC). The growing season averages about 160 days.

Surface Water Characteristics. A major water divide occurs in this Section separating water flowing to the gulf of St. Lawrence from water flowing to the Gulf of Mexico. Stream gradients range from steep, headwater streams to low-gradient rivers that flow into the Ohio River, and a portion that flows into Lake Erie. Streams are undelain by deep coarse sand and gravel glacial outwash. Small natural lakes and wetlands (either or both bogs and marshes) are features of the glaciated landscape. Small artificial ponds occur on many farms. Several large reservoirs occur along perennial streams.

Disturbance Regimes. Forests in the more rugged ravines and on dissected slopes were locally affected by insect and tree diseases and windstorms. The terraces and flood plains were also affected to some extent by large animals, insect and tree diseases, windstorms, droughts, and fires, but these impacts were less severe. Beaver also affected the flood plains along streams by building dams that sometimes killed relatively large stands of trees and created temporary ponds. Natural disturbances to the streams and rivers are floods and droughts. Man-made disturbances to streams in this Section include channelization, construction of dams, and input of industrial waste, sewage, and soil.

Land Use. About 50 percent of the Section is used for agricultural purposes. About 25 percent is forested, half of which is small wood lots.

Cultural Ecology. Paleo-Indians, nomadic peoples who hunted Pleistocene megafauna, were the first humans to reach the Ohio Territory approximately 12,000 years ago. Continual glacial recession and a warming climate resulted in a more deciduous and diverse environment. During the Archaic Period (about 8,500 to 1,000 B.C.) floral resources and a variety of small game animals were exploited. Rudimentary horticultural activities and early ceremonialism began to emerge. The Woodland Period (about 1,000 B.C. to 1,000 A.D.) was characterized by more sedentary lifestyles which involved the development of agricultural practices. Extensive trade networks of local and exotic resources were established. Later a shift occurred toward large settlements dependent on maize agriculture. The Fort Ancient Period (about 1,000 to 1,600 A.D.) was typified by increased sedentary culture. Large floodplain villages often organized around central plazas, upland hunting camps, and an influx of southern Mississippian influences. Europeans reached the Ohio Territory around 1,650 A.D. Settlement initially consisted of farming communities; later, emphasis shifted to extractive industries such as coal, iron ore, clay, oil and gas, and, sandstone.

Compiled by Eastern Region.

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Section 221H--Northern Cumberland Plateau

Geomorphology. This Section is in the Appalachian Plateaus geomorphic province. Broad uplift of strata gently-dipping strata to a level-bedded plateau, followed by fluvial erosion and mass wasting, has resulted in a moderately dissected region of dendritic drainages. Landforms on about 80 percent of the Section consist of high hills. Other landforms in the southern part of the Section are about equal areas of tablelands and open low mountains. Elevation ranges from 1,270 to 2,000 ft (380 to 600 m). Local relief ranges from 50 to 100 ft (15 to 30 m).

Lithology and Stratigraphy. Rocks in this Section formed during the Paleozoic Era and strata consist mostly of Pennsylvanian marine sediments (sandstone, shale, coal, and limestone).

Soil Taxa. Soils are mostly Udults, with about 20 percent of the area in Ochrepts. Hapludults and Fragiudults are on side slopes and ridges. Dystrochrepts are in colluvium and Fluvaquents are on flood plains. These soils have a mesic temperature regime, an udic moisture regime, and mixed or siliceous mineralogy. Soils are medium to fine textured, shallow to deep, and generally have adequate moisture supply to support vegetation during the growing season.

Potential Natural Vegetation. K\"uchler classifies vegetation as mixed mesophytic forest and Appalachian oak forest. The predominant vegetation form is cold-deciduous broad-leaved forest with evergreen needle-leaved trees. The shortleaf pine-oak forest cover type dominates much of this Section in Kentucky. The oaks on drier sites include post, southern red, scarlet, and blackjack; on moister sites, white and black oaks predominate. In Tennessee, the same oaks are present, but pines are not a dominant overstory component. Hickories, including pignut, mockernut, shagbark, and bitternut, form a common but minor component.

Fauna. The primary game animals and furbearers of the region are the white-tailed deer, gray fox, bobcat, raccoon, mink, muskrat, and gray squirrel. Black bears, once found throughout the Section, are now beginning to return after many years of absence. Some common and characteristic small mammals of forested habitats include the smoky shrew, pygmy shrew, short-tailed shrew, white-footed mouse, pine vole, and woodland jumping mouse. The sandstone cliff lines and associated rock shelters are used by the eastern spotted skunk, Allegheny wood rat, northern long-eared bat, Rafinesque's big-eared bat, and the Virginia big-eared bat. The wild turkey and ruffed grouse are the two principal game birds of the Section; some characteristic songbirds include the solitary vireo, blue-winged warbler, black-throated green warbler, cerulean warbler, black and white warbler, American redstart, worm-eating warbler, ovenbird, and hooded warbler. The reptile fauna is quite varied; the northern copperhead, eastern garter snake, northern ringneck snake, black rat snake, five-lined skink, and eastern box turtle are frequently seen. Common amphibian species are the green salamander, Kentucky spring salamander, Black Mountain salamander, seal salamander, slimy salamander, spotted salamander, American toad, mountain chorus frog, green frog, pickerel frog, and wood frog. An endemic caddisfly lives on dripping cliffs at several locations in this Section.

The ichthyofauna in this Section is fairly common throughout the State, with the exceptions of the eastern sand darter, spotted darter, tippecanoe darter, and the redside dace. The area for the entire State within which the dace occurs abundantly lies only within a small range of this Section. Only a few small populations are found in bordering States. The paddlefish and sturgeon, which were once fairly common in these larger waters, have been impeded from most of their migration waters by impoundments and locks. These fish are by no means the only ones affected, but are good examples of the migration problems. Noticeable mussel fauna in this Section includes elktoe, snuffbox, long-solid, sheepnose, rabbitsfoot, and salamander mussel. Habitat and populations are being hindered by impoundments.

Climate. Precipitation averages 46 in (1,170 mm). About 20 in occur as snow. Temperature averages 55 oF (13 oC). The growing season lasts 175 days.

Surface Water Characteristics. There is a moderate to high density of small and medium perennial streams and associated rivers, most with moderate rates of flow and velocity. A dendritic drainage pattern has developed, with some influence from the underlying bedrock. One of the largest rivers is the Sequatchie.

Disturbance Regimes. Fire has probably been the principal historical source of disturbance, previously burning over moderately sized areas between natural barriers with moderate frequency and low intensity. Climatic influences include occasional summer droughts, winter ice storms, and tornadoes.

Land Use. Forests have been cleared for agriculture on about 20 percent of the area.

Cultural Ecology. Reserved.

Compiled by Southeastern Forest Experiment Station and Southern Region.

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Section 221I--Southern Cumberland Mountains

Geomorphology. This Section is in the Appalachian Plateaus geomorphic province and originated when the Cumberland overthrust block was pushed westward as a result of thin-skinned tectonics. Prominent strike ridges are apparent along the thrust plate. Differential rates of erosion have contributed to the strongly dissected landscape. Landforms consist of low mountains and open hills. Elevation ranges from 1,200 to 3,000 ft (360 to 900 m). Local relief ranges from 100 to 300 ft (30 to 90 m).

Lithology and Stratigraphy. Rocks formed during the early Paleozoic Era. Strata consist of Pennsylvanian shales, siltstones, sandstones, and coal, and are level-bedded in much of the Section. However, strata along Pine Mountain are inclined 10o to 35o.

Soil Taxa. Soils are mostly Udults, with a small amount of Ochrepts. Hapludults and Fragiudults are on ridges and side slopes. Dystrochrepts are found on colluvium and Fluvaquents are on flood plains. These soils have a mesic temperature regime, an udic moisture regime, and mixed or siliceous mineralogy. Soils are mostly fine to medium textured, relatively deep, and have an adequate moisture supply during the growing season.

Potential Natural Vegetation. K\"uchler classifies vegetation as Appalachian oak forest and mixed mesophytic forest. The predominant vegetation form is cold-deciduous broad-leaved forest with evergreen needle-leaved trees. The oak-hickory forest cover type dominates this Section. The oaks on drier sites include post, southern red, scarlet, chestnut, and blackjack; on moister sites, white, southern red, and black oaks predominate. Shortleaf pine is usually present. Hickories, including pignut, mockernut, shagbark, and bitternut, form a common but minor component.

Fauna. The primary game animals and furbearers of the region are the white-tailed deer, gray fox, bobcat, raccoon, and gray squirrel. Black bears are present in low numbers in some areas. Some characteristic small mammals of forested habitats include the smoky shrew, short-tailed shrew, white-footed mouse, pine vole, and woodland jumping mouse. Rock talus habitats and high elevation wood lands also support masked shrews, rock shrews, cloudland deer mice, and the endemic Cumberland red-backed vole. The sandstone cliff lines and associated rock shelters are used by the eastern spotted skunk, Allegheny woodrat, northern long-eared bat, and eastern small-footed bat. The wild turkey and ruffed grouse are the two principal game birds of the Section; some characteristic songbirds include the solitary vireo, chestnut-sided warbler, black-throated green warbler, cerulean warbler, black and white warbler, American redstart, worm-eating warbler, overbird, and hooded warbler. Swainson's warbler is occasional in dense rhododendron thickets. The reptile fauna features the timber rattlesnake, northern red-bellied snake, northern ringneck snake, eastern garter snake, black rat snake, five-lined skink, and eastern box turtle. Common amphibian species are the Kentucky spring salamander, Black Mountain salamander, seal salamander, mountain dusky salamander, Cumberland Plateau salamander, spotted salamander, mountain chorus frog, pickerel frog, and wood frog. Several rare species of land snails to the glassy grapeskin, cupped vertigo, and the endemic Pine Mountain disc to occur in this Section.

The blackside dace, eastern sand darter, arrow darter, and the flame chub are the notable ichthyofauna in this Section. Many of the other fish fauna in this Section are typical of the entire state. The mining industry has had a significant impact on this Section and effectively inhibits habitat and populations. Many mussel fauna occur in this Section, however, none have been Federally listed. The Cumberland elktoe also occurs. A few are State sensitive but their range is unknown, as a large part of this Section has not been adequately inventoried. Mining and impoundments have affected and continue to affect habitat and populations.

Climate. Precipitation averages 46 in (1,170 mm); snow averages 20 in (500 mm) annually. Temperature averages 55 oF (13oC). The growing season lasts about 175 days.

Surface Water Characteristics. There is a moderate density of small to medium intermittent and perennial streams and associated rivers, most with moderate rates of flow. A dendritic drainage pattern has developed on a strongly dissected plateau. Tributaries of the Cumberland River drain this Section.

Disturbance Regimes. Fire has probably been the principal historical source of disturbance, previously burning over moderate-size areas between natural barriers with moderate frequency and low intensity. Climatic influences include occasional summer droughts and ice storms.

Land Use. Natural vegetation has been cleared for agriculture on about 20 percent of the Section. Coal mining is extensive in some areas.

Cultural Ecology. Reserved.

Compiled by Southern Region and Southeastern Forest Experiment Station.

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Section 221J--Central Ridge and Valley

Geomorphology. This Section is in the Ridge and Valley geomorphic province. The Section consists of a folded, faulted, and uplifted belt of parallel valleys and ridges, strongly dissected by differential erosion, mass wasting, fluvial transport, and deposition. Landforms on most of the Section consists of open hills. Elevation ranges from 650 to 2,000 ft (200 to 600 m). Local relief ranges from 300 to 700 ft (90 to 210 m).

Lithology and Stratigraphy. Rocks formed during the early Paleozoic Era. Strata consist of approximately equal amounts of Cambrian (carbonates, conglomerates, and shales) and Ordovician (limestone, shales, and sandstone) marine sediments.

Soil Taxa. Soils are mostly Udults, with a small amount of Ochrepts. Paleudults are on areas underlain by sandstone. Valleys underlain by acid shale are dominated by Hapludults. Dystrochrepts and Eutrochrepts are on colluvium and bottomlands, respectively. These soils have a udic moisture regime and a thermic or mesic temperature regime. Soil depths range from shallow on sandstone ridges, to deep in limestone valleys. Most soils are well drained and have adequate moisture during the growing season.

Potential Natural Vegetation. K\"uchler classifies vegetation as Appalachian oak forest. The predominant vegetation form is cold-deciduous broad-leaved forest with evergreen needle-leaved trees. The oak-pine forest cover type dominates. The oaks on drier sites include post, southern red, scarlet, chestnut, and blackjack; on moister sites, white, southern red, and black oaks predominate. Shortleaf pine usually forms a major part of the canopy. Hickories, including pignut, mockernut, shagbark, and bitternut, form a common but minor component throughout. The loblolly pine-shortleaf pine cover type is prevalent in the southern part of the Section. In these stands canopy hardwoods on well-drained soils include sweetgum, blackgum, southern red oak, post oak, white oak, mockernut hickory, and pignut hickory.

Fauna. Among the fauna in this Section are white-tailed deer, black bear, bobcat, gray fox, raccoon, gray squirrel, fox squirrel, eastern chipmunk, white-footed mouse, pine vole, short-tailed shrew, and cotton mouse. The turkey, ruffed grouse, bobwhite, and mourning dove are game birds in various parts of this Section. Songbirds include the red-eyed vireo, cardinal, tufted titmouse, wood thrush, summer tanager, blue-gray gnatcatcher, hooded warbler, and Carolina wren. The herpetofauna include the box turtle, common garter snake and timber rattlesnake.

Climate. Average annual precipitation ranges from 36 to 55 in (920 to 1,400 mm). Temperature ranges from 55 to 61 oF (13 to 16 oC). The growing season averages 170 to 210 days.

Surface Water Characteristics. This Section has a high density of small to medium perennial streams and associated rivers, most with moderate to high rates of flow. Trellis-type drainage pattern has developed, largely as a result of bedrock structural control. Most water originates from the adjacent Blue Ridge Mountains and Southern Cumberland Mountains Sections. The largest rivers are the Tennessee and Clinch.

Disturbance Regimes. Fire has probably been the principal historical source of disturbance, previously burning over small areas between natural barriers with moderate frequency and low intensity. Climatic influences include occasional droughts and ice storms. During the early 1900's, all American chestnut trees were killed by an introduced pathogen; sprouting still occurs from root systems.

Land Use. Natural vegetation has been cleared for agriculture and pasture on over 60 percent of the area.

Cultural Ecology. Reserved.

Compiled by Southeastern Forest Experiment Station and Southern Region.

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