References

Aldrich, J. W. 1966. Life areas of North America (map). Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1:12,500,000.

Atwood, W. W. 1940. The physiographic provinces of North America. Boston: Ginn and Co. 536 p.

Bailey, R. G. 1976. Ecoregions of the United States (map). Ogden, Utah: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 1:7,500,000.

Bailey, R. G. 1983. Delineation of ecosystem regions. Environmental Management 7: 365-373.

Bailey, R. G. 1988. Ecogeographic analysis: a guide to the ecological division of land for resource management. (Misc. Publ. 1465.) Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service. 18 p.

Bailey, R. G. 1989. Explanatory supplement to ecoregions map of the continents. Environmental Conservation 16: 307-309. With separate map at 1:30,000,000.

Bailey, R. G.; Cushwa, C T. 1981. Ecoregions of North America (map). (FWS/OBS-81/29.) Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1:12,000,000.

Bailey, R. G.; Avers, P. E.; King, T.; McNab, W. H., eds. 1994. Ecoregions and subregions of the United States (map). Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service. 1:7,500,000. With supplementary table of map unit descriptions, compiled and edited by W. H. McNab and R. G. Bailey.

Beckinsale, R. P. 1971. River regimes. In: Chorley, R. J., ed. Introduction to physical hydrology. London: Methuen & Co.: 176-192.

Billings, W. D. 1964. Plants and the ecosystem. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing. 154 p.

Borchert, J. F. 1950. The climate of the central North American grassland. Annals Association American Geographers 40: 1-39.

Braun, E. L. 1964. Deciduous forests of eastern North America. New York: Hafner Publishing Co. 596 p.

Brown, D. E.; Lowe, C. H.; Pase, C. P. 1980. A digitized classification system for the natural vegetation of North America with a hierarchical summary for world ecosystems. (Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-73.) Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 93 p.

Burger, D. 1976. The concept of ecosystem region in forest site classification. In: Proceedings, International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO), XVI World Congress, Division I; 20 June-2 July 1976; Oslo, Norway. Oslo, Norway: IUFRO: 213-218.

Clements, F. E.; Shelford, V. E. 1939. Bio-ecology. New York: John Wiley. 425 p.

Cowardin, L. M.; Carter, V.; Golet, F. C.; LaRoe, E. T. 1979. Classification of wetlands and deep-water habitats of the United States. (FWS/OBS-79/31.) Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 103 p.

Crowley, J. M. 1967. Biogeography. Canadian Geographer 11: 312-326.

Dansereau, P. 1957. Biogeography: an ecological perspective. New York: Ronald Press. 394 p.

Dasmann, R. F. 1972. Towards a system for classifying natural regions of the world and their representation by national parks and reserves. Biological Conservation 4: 247-255.

Daubenmire, R. 1978. Plant geography with special reference to North America. New York: Academic Press. 338 p.

Dice, L. R. 1943. The biotic provinces of North America. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 77 p.

ECOMAP. 1993. National hierarchical framework of ecological units. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service. 20 p.

Ecoregion Working Group. 1989. Ecoclimatic regions of Canada, first approximation. (Ecol. Land Classif. Series 23.) Ottawa: Environment Canada. 119 p. With separate map at 1:7,500,000.

Ewel, J. J.; Whitmore, J. L. 1973. The ecological life zones of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (Res. Pap. ITF-18.) Rio Piedra, Puerto Rico: USDA Forest Service, Institute of Tropical Forestry. 72 p. With separate map at 1:250,000.

Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. With separate map at 1:7,500,000.

Fenneman, N. M. 1928. Physiographic divisions of the United States. Annals Association American Geographers 18: 261-353.

Garrison, G. A.; Bjugstad, A. J.; Duncan, D. A.; Lewis, M. E.; Smith, D. R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. (Agr. Handb. 475.) Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service. 68 p. With separate map at 1:7,500,000.

Holdridge, L. R. 1947. Determination of world plant formations from simple climatic data. Science 105: 367-368.

Hall, E. R.; Kelson, K. 1959. Mammals of North America. New York: Ronald Press. 2 v.

Hammond, E. H. 1964. Classes of land-surface form in the forty-eight states, U.S.A. (map). Annals Association American Geographers 54: Map Supp. No. 4. 1:5,000,000.

Hammond, E. H. 1969. Classes of land-surface form (map). In: U.S. Geological Survey. National atlas. Washington, DC: U.S. Geological Survey. 1:7,500,000.

Harshburger, J. W. 1911. Phytogeographic survey of North America. New York: G. E. Stechert. 790 p.

Herbertson, A. J. 1905. The major natural regions: an essay in systematic geography. Geographical Journal 25: 300-312.

Hidore, J. J. 1974. Physical geography: earth systems. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman. 418 p.

Hills, G. A. 1960. Regional site research. Forestry Chronical 36: 401-423.

Hodgkins, E. J. 1965. Southeastern forest habitat regions based on physiography. (For. Dep. Series 2.) Auburn, AL: Auburn University. 10 p.

Hunt, C. B. 1974. Natural regions of the United States and Canada. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Co. 725 p.

Hunt, C. B. 1984. Surficial geology (map). In: U.S. Geological Service. National atlas. Washington, DC: U.S. Geological Survey. 1:7,500,000.

James, P. E. 1966. A geography of man. 3d ed. Waltham, MA: Ginn-Blaisdell Publishing. 581 p.

Joint Federal-State Land Use Planning Commission for Alaska. 1973. Major ecosystems of Alaska (map). Washington, DC: U.S. Geological Survey. 1:2,500,000.

Kendeigh, S. C. 1961. Animal ecology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 468 p.

Koppen, W. 1931. Grundriss der Klimakunde. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter Co. 388 p.

Kricher, J. C. 1988. A field guide to ecology of eastern forests, North America. (Peterson Field Guide Series 37.) Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 368 p.

Kricher, J. C. 1993. A field guide to the ecology of western forests. (Peterson Field Guide Series 45.) Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 554 p.

Krajina, V. J. 1965. Biogeoclimatic zones and classification of British Columbia. In: Krajina, V. J., ed. Ecology of western North America. Vancouver: University of British Columbia: 1-17.

Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United States. (Spec. Pub. 36.) New York: American Geographical Society. 116 p. With separate map at 1:3,168,000.

Kuchler, A. W. 1973. Problems in classifying and mapping vegetation for ecological regionalization. Ecology 54: 512-523.

Merriam, C. H. 1898. Life zones and crop zones of the United States. (Bull. 10.) Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Biological Survey: 1-79.

Meurisse, R. T.; Schmautz, J. T.; Cushwa, C. T. 1974. Criteria for establishing and describing ecological units on National Forest System lands. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service. 14 p.

Oosting, H. J. 1956. The study of plant communities. 2d ed. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. 440 p.

Peterson, S. R. 1975. Ecological distribution of breeding birds. In: Smith, D. R., techn. coord. Proceedings, Symposium on management of forest and range habitats for nongame birds; 6-9 May 1975; Tucson, Arizona. (Gen. Tech. Rept. WO-1.) Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service: 22-38.

Pitelka, F. 1941. Distribution of birds in relation to major biotic communities. American Midland Naturalist 25: 113-137.

Powell, D. S.; Faulkner, J. L.; Darr, D. R.; Zhu, Z.; MacCleery, D. W. 1993. Forest resources of the United States, 1992. (Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-24.) Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 132 p. With separate map at 1:7,500,000.

Rowe, J. S. 1972. Forest regions of Canada. (Publ. No. 1300.) Ottawa: Canadian Forestry Service. 171 p. With separate map at 1:6,336,000.

Shantz, H. L.; Zon, R. 1924. Natural vegetation. In: U.S. Department of Agriculture. Atlas of American agriculture, Pt. 1, Sec. E. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 29 p. With map at 1:8,000,000.

Shear, J. A. 1964. The polar marine climate. Annals Association American Geographers 54: 310-317.

Shelford, V. E. 1963. The ecology of North America. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. 610 p.

Shelford, V. E., ed. 1926. Naturalist's guide to the Americas. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. 761 p.

Shreve, F. 1942. The desert vegetation of North America. Botanical Review 8: 195-246.

Smith, R. L. 1977. Elements of ecology and field biology. New York: Harper & Row. 497 p.

Spurr, S. H.; Barnes, B. V. 1980. Forest ecology. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 687 p.

Strahler, A. N. 1965. Introduction to physical geography. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 455 p.

Thornbury, W. D. 1965. Regional geomorphology of the United States. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 609 p.

Thornthwaite, C. W. 1931. The climates of North America according to a new classification. Geographical Review 21: 633-655. With separate map at 1:20,000,000.

Thornthwaite, C. W. 1933. The climates of the earth. Geographical Review 23: 433-440. With separate map at 1:77,000,000.

Tosi, J. A., Jr. 1964. Climatic control of terrestrial ecosystems: a report on the Holdridge model. Economic Geography 40: 173-181.

Trewartha, G. T. 1968. An introduction to weather and climate. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. 408 p.

Trewartha, G. T.; Robinson, A. H.; Hammond, E. H. 1967. Physical elements of geography. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. 527 p.

Tricart, J.; Cailleux, A. 1973. Introduction to climatic geomorphology. Transl. from the French by C. K. J. de Jonge. New York: St. Martin's Press. 295 p.

Udvardy, M. D. F. 1975. A classification of the biogeographical provinces of the world. (Occas. Pap. 18.) Morges, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. 48 p.

USDA Soil Conservation Service. 1969. Distribution of principal kinds of soils: orders, sub-orders, and great groups (map). In: U.S. Geological Survey. National atlas. Washington, DC: U.S. Geological Survey. 1:7,500,000.

USDA Soil Conservation Service. 1975. Soil taxonomy: A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys. (Agr. Handb. 436.) Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 754 p.

USDA Soil Conservation Service. 1981. Land resource regions and major land resource areas of the United States. (Agr. Handb. 296 (rev.).) Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 156 p. With separate map at 1:7,500,000.

Vankat, J. L. 1979. The natural vegetation of North America: an introduction. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 261 p.

Viereck, L. A.; Dyrness, C. T.; Batten, A. R.; Wenzlick, K. J. 1992. The Alaska vegetation classification. (Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-286.) Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 278 p.

Wahrhaftig, C. 1965. Physiographic divisions of Alaska. (Prof. Paper 482.) Washington, DC: U.S. Geological Survey. 52 p. With separate map at 1:2,500,000.

Walter, H. 1984. Vegetation of the earth and ecological systems of the geo-biosphere. 3d ed. New York: Springer-Verlag. 318 p.

Walter, H.; Lieth, H. 1960-1967. Klimadiagramm Weltatlas. Jena, Germany: G. Fischer Verlag. Irreg. pag.

Walter, H.; Harnickell, E.; Mueller-Dombois, D. 1975. Climate diagram maps of the individual continents and the ecological climatic regions of the earth. New York: Springer-Verlag. 36 p. With maps.

Walter, H.; Box, E. 1976. Global classification of natural terrestrial ecosystems. Vegetatio 32: 75-81.

Weaver, J. E.; Clements, F. E. 1938. Plant ecology. 2d ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. 601 p.

Weaver, J. E.; Albertson, F. W. 1956. Grasslands of the Great Plains. Lincoln, NE: Johnsen Publishing. 395 p.


[ Home | Domains | Divisions | Provinces | References ]

Date last modified: August 19, 2008