Rocky Mountain Piedmont, Upper Missouri Basin Broken Lands, Palouse grassland of Washington and Idaho, 290,700 mi2 (752,900 km2)
Land-surface form.--This region is characterized by rolling plains and tablelands of moderate relief in a broad belt that slopes gradually eastward from an altitude of 5,500 ft (1,520 m) near the foot of the Rocky Mountains to 2,500 ft (760 m) in the Central States. The plains are notably flat, but there are occasional valleys, canyons, and buttes. In the northern section, badlands and isolated mountains break the continuity of the plains. The Palouse region occupies a series of loess-covered basalt tablelands with moderate to high relief, ranging in altitude from 1,200 to 6,000 ft (370 to 1,800 m).
Shortgrass prairie and badland topography along Little Missouri River, North Dakota.
Climate.--This region lies in the rain shadow east of the Cascade Range and the Rocky Mountains. The climate of the Great Plains grasslands is a semiarid continental regime. The average annual temperature is 45F (7C) throughout most of the region, but can reach as high as 60F (16C) in the south. Winters are cold and dry, and summers are warm to hot. The frost-free season ranges from fewer than 100 days in the north to more than 200 days in Oklahoma. Precipitation ranges from 10 in (260 mm) in the north to more than 25 in (640 mm) in the south, with maximum rainfall in summer. Evaporation usually exceeds precipitation, and the total supply of moisture is low. When precipitation does occur, it is often in the form of hail or blizzards, and tornadoes and dust storms are frequent.
The climate of the Palouse grassland east of the Cascades is similar to that of the Great Plains grasslands east of the Rockies, except for the timing of precipitation: on the Palouse dry steppe, there is a winter maximum.
Vegetation.--Steppe, sometimes called shortgrass prairie, is a formation class of short grasses usually bunched and sparsely distributed. The steppe in this province is dry, with 6-7 arid months per year. The Great Plains grasslands east of the Rockies have scattered trees and shrubs, such as sagebrush and rabbitbrush, and support all gradations of cover, from semidesert to woodland. Because ground cover is scarce, much soil is exposed.
Many species of grasses and herbs grow in this province. A typical grass is buffalo grass; sunflower and locoweed are typical plants. Other grasses include grama, wheatgrass, and needlegrass. Many wildflower species bloom in spring and summer. The blazingstar and white prickly poppy are usually abundant. The alien Russian-thistle, also know as tumbleweed, is sometimes abundant.
Except for the presence of shrubs, the Palouse grassland resembles the Great Plains shortgrass prairie. The dominant species, however, are distinctive. They include bluebunch wheatgrass, fescue, and bluegrass.
Soil.--In this climatic regime, the dominant pedogenic process is calcification; salinization is dominant on poorly drained sites. Soils contain a large excess of precipitated calcium carbonate and are rich in bases. Mollisols are typical. Humus content is small because vegetation is sparse.
Fauna.--Large herds of buffalo migrated with the seasons across the steppe plains. Now the pronghorn antelope is probably the most abundant large mammal, but mule deer and whitetail deer are common where brush cover is available along stream courses. The whitetail jackrabbit occupies the northern part of the province, with the blacktail jackrabbit in the area south of Nebraska. The desert cottontail is widespread. The lagomorphs, prairie dogs, and several other small rodents are preyed upon by the coyote and several other mammalian and avian predators; one, the blackfooted ferret, is classified as an endangered species. The thirteen-lined ground squirrel is common here; both prairie dogs and ground squirrels are preyed upon by badgers. The Washington and Columbia ground squirrels inhabit large areas of the Palouse grassland.
The lesser prairie chicken, once abundant, is now classified as threatened. Sage grouse, greater prairie chickens, and sharp-tailed grouse are present in the area. Among the many smaller birds are the horned lark, lark bunting, and western meadowlark. Two bird species are unique to the shortgrass prairies east of the Rockies, the mountain plover and McCown's longspur. Mountain plovers, which resemble killdeer, live in small flocks often seen feeding in freshly plowed fields. Construction of stock ponds has created an important "duck factory" in the northern Great Plains.