Colorado River Plateau, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, 75,300 mi2 (195,000 km2)
Land-surface form.--The Colorado Plateau Province consists of tablelands with moderate to considerable relief in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah. Elevations of the plateau tops range from 5,000 to 7,000 ft (1,500 to 2,100 m), with local relief ranging from 500 to more than 3,000 ft (150 to 900 m) in some of the deeper canyons that dissect the plateaus (such as the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River). In some areas, volcanic mountains rise 1,000 to 3,000 ft (300 to 900 m) above the plateau surface. Stream valleys are narrow and widely spaced. The Colorado River, which crosses the northern part of the province, is the region's only large stream. Many other streams flow year-round, but the volume of water fluctuates considerably.
Monument Valley, Arizona, a well-defined tableland on the Colorado Plateau. (Photo: John S. Shelton.)
Climate.--Due to the region's generally high altitude, the climate is characterized by cold winters. Summer days are usually hot, but nights are cool; accordingly, the diurnal variation in temperature is considerable. Annual average temperatures are 40 to 55F (4 to 13C), decreasing with rising elevation. Average annual precipitation is about 20 in (510 mm), except on the higher mountains; some parts of the province receive less than 10 in (260 mm). Summer rains are thunderstorms, with ordinary rains arriving in winter. Thus, this province differs from the Intermountain Semidesert Province, which generally lacks summer rains.
Vegetation.--Vegetational zones are conspicuous but lack uniformity. In the lowest zone, there are arid grasslands, but the shortgrass sod seldom covers the ground completely, leaving many bare areas. Xeric shrubs often grow in open stands among the grasses, and sagebrush is dominant over extensive areas. A profusion of annuals and perennials blooms during the summer rainy season. At low elevations in the south, several kinds of cactus and yucca are common. Cottonwoods and, more rarely, other trees grow along some of the permanent streams.
The woodland zone is the most extensive, dominated by open stands of two-needle pinyon pine and several species of juniper, often termed a pygmy forest. Between the trees the ground is sparsely covered by grama, other grasses, herbs, and various shrubs, such as big sagebrush and alderleaf cercocarpus.
The montane zone extends over considerable areas on the high plateaus and mountains, but it is much smaller in area than the pinyon-juniper zone. Vegetation in the montane zone varies considerably from area to area. In the south, especially in Arizona, ponderosa pine is the dominant forest tree. Douglas-fir is associated with ponderosa pine or else grows in more sheltered locations or at higher elevations. In Utah, by contrast, lodgepole pine and aspen are dominant.
The subalpine zone is characterized by abundance of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir. On San Francisco Mountain in northern Arizona, the spruce is often associated with bristlecone pine. Because only a few isolated mountains rise above timberline, the alpine zone is not extensive.
South of the Mogollon Rim in Arizona, toward the American Desert, lies a foothill forest. The principal trees are Mexican pinyon, alligator juniper, and various species of oak. Forests of ponderosa pine and common Douglas-fir carpet moist canyons and northfacing slopes. Pointleaf manzanita is a common evergreen shrub.
Soils.--Entisols occur along the floodplains of major streams. Aridisols cover plateau tops, older terraces, and alluvial fans. Badlands of rough broken land are extensive in the mountains and on plateaus.
Fauna.--Major mammals are the mule deer, mountain lion, coyote, and bobcat; elk are locally important. Pronghorn antelope are the primary large mammal in the arid grasslands. Smaller species include the blacktail jackrabbit, Colorado chipmunk, rock squirrel, wood rat, white-footed mouse, cliff chipmunk, cottontail, porcupine, and gray fox. The ringtail cat and spotted skunk occur rarely.
The most abundant resident birds are the bushtit, pinyon jay, plain titmouse, black-chinned hummingbird, Woodhouse's jay, red-tailed hawk, golden eagle, red-shafted flicker, and rock wren. Summer residents include the chipping sparrow, nighthawk, black-throated gray warbler, northern cliff swallow, lark sparrow, and mourning dove. Common winter residents are the pink-sided junco, Shufeldt's junco, gray-headed junco, red-backed junco, Rocky Mountain nuthatch, mountain bluebird, robin, and Steller's jay. Turkeys are locally abundant during winter.
Reptiles include the horned lizard, collared lizard, and rattlesnake.