Research

Scientists' Biosketches

Ariel E. Lugo

a_lugo

alugo@fs.fed.us, phone: 787-766-5335, ext. 224, fax: 787-766-6263

Biography:

Born in Mayagüez, Puerto Rico; April 28, 1943. Married to Helen Nunci (1984). Daughter and son, forty five and thirty eight, three grandchildren.

  • Mayagüez Public Schools; Hostos High School, Mayagüez, 1959
  • B.S. (Biology) 1963; M.S. (Biology) University of Puerto Rico, 1965
  • Ph.D. Department of Botany, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1969.

Research Interests (including applicable SPAs):

  • Assembly and Functioning of Novel Ecosystems (Invasive Species SPA)
  • Vulnerability and Functioning of Urban Ecosystems
  • Response of Tropical Forests to Environmental Change

Scientific Highlights During FS Career:

  • Project Leader 1979-1993
  • ST- Appointment
  • Distinguished Scientist
  • Highly cited author
  • Contributed to Nobel Prize IPC Report
  • Written two monographs on forests and tree plantations of the Luquillo Mountains
  • Edited books on forested wetlands of the world, global carbon cycle, issues of big-leaf mahogany conservation, and the ecosystems of the Luquillo Mountains.
  • Written hundreds of articles on tropical forests

Current Projects:

  • Carbon and nutrient cycles of novel forests
  • Urban Long-Term Research Area of the Río Piedras Watershed
  • Warming of a tropical forest
  • Spanish text on the forests of Puerto Rico

Selected Publications: (3-5 Max).

  • Lugo, A.E. 2008. Visible and invisible effects of hurricanes on forest ecosystems: an international review. Austral Ecology 33:368-398.
  • Lugo, A.E. 2010. Let’s not forget the biodiversity of the cities. Biotropica 42(5):576-577.
  • Lugo, A.E. 2012. Conundrums, paradoxes, and surprises: A brave new world of biodiversity conservation. Pages 1-12 in T. Schlichter and L. Montes, editors. Forests in development: a vital balance. Springer, New York. 81p.

Grizelle González

GGphoto

ggonzalez@fs.fed.us, phone: 787-766-5335, ext. 112, fax: 787-766-6302

Biography:

Grizelle obtained her Bachelor’s degree in Science in Biology from the University of Puerto Rico- Río Piedras Campus in 1993; and 1996 obtained a Master’s of Science in Soil Ecology for her research on “Earthworm abundance and distribution patterns in two different plant communities within a subtropical wet forest in Puerto Rico” from the same institution. At the University of Colorado in Boulder, she obtained a Doctorate of Philosophy (1999) in Soil Ecology and Biology. Grizelle started working at IITF in 2000. Currently, she is Acting Project Leader of the Research Unit, and adjunct faculty of the Department of Biology and the Department of Environmental Sciences at the University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus. She oversees operations at the Sabana Field Research Station, is an executive committee member of the Luquillo Long-Term Ecological Research Program, and is a member of editorial boards of the Caribbean Journal of Science, International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, and International Scholarly Research Network-Soil Science.

Research Interests (including applicable SPAs):

  • Soil ecology and biology, Ecosystem Ecology, Tropical Ecology, Earthworm Ecology
  • SPAs: Inventory and Monitoring, Invasive Species and Water, Air and Soil

Scientific Highlights During FS Career:

  • Discover the dramatic influence of land use history and disturbance, plant communities and restoration practices, on the community structure and functional strategies of earthworms. During secondary succession, the density of earthworms decreases but the diversity of the worm community increases as a result of changes in the chemistry of organic inputs rather than soil properties and litter quantity.
  • Quantified and described the importance of faunal effects on decay and nutrient mineralization processes in tropical, temperate and boreal wet and dry forests.
  • Described the composition, soils, conservation status, and structural and environmental characteristics of eight mature tropical forest plant communities that occur along an elevation gradient in northeastern Puerto Rico.
  • Reviewed and had management recommendations about the effects of earthworm invasions in the tropics.

Current Projects:

  • Luquillo - Long Term Ecological Research Program (LUQ)
  • The goal of LUQ is to understand how forest and stream ecosystems, and the services they support, are changing in Puerto Rico. Particularly, we seek to understand how key environmental drivers – hurricanes, climate, and land use – cause long-term change in biodiversity, biogeochemistry, and their interactions, with the ultimate aim of foreseeing future ecosystem states and managing ecosystem services in the tropics.

  • Ecological Gradient Analyses in Tropical Ecosystems
  • This is a comprehensive analysis of ecological gradients in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. This tropical island setting comprises six ecological life zones and is ideal for studying environmental gradients given dramatic differences in temperature and precipitation that are associated with a rise in elevation from sea level to more than 1000 m over a distance of 10-15 km.

  • Earthworm Effects on Ecosystem Processes
  • These studies aim to tease out the influence of earthworm communities on soil carbon and nitrogen cycling in a sub-tropical wet forest in northeastern Puerto Rico.

Selected Publications:

  • González, G., W.A. Gould, A.T. Hudak, and T. Hollingsworth. 2008. Decay of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) wood in moist and dry boreal, temperate and tropical forest fragments. Ambio 37(7-8):577-587.
  • González, G., C.M. Murphy, and J. Belén. 2012. Direct and indirect effects of millipedes on the decay of litter of varying lignin content. In: Tropical Forests. ISBN 978-953-307-954-7. P.Sudarshana, M. Nageswara-Rao and J. R. Soneji (Eds.). Pages 37-50.
  • Richardson, B.A., Richardson, M.J., González, G., Shiels, A.B., and D.S. Srivastava. 2010. A Canopy Trimming Experiment in Puerto Rico: the response of litter invertebrate communities to canopy loss and debris deposition in a tropical forest subject to hurricanes. Ecosystems. Published online, Feb 13, 2010. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-010-9317-6
  • Wall DA, González G, and Simmons BL. 2011. Seasonally dry forest soil biodiversity and functioning. In: Seasonally dry tropical forests, ecology and conservation. R Dirzo, H.S. Young, H.A. Mooney, and G. Ceballos (Eds.). Island Press, Washington, DC. Pages 61-70.
  • Zalamea, M., and G. González. 2008. Leaf Fall Phenology in a Subtropical Wet Forest in Puerto Rico: from Species to Community Patterns. Biotropica 40(3):295-304.

Kathleen Mcginley

Kathleen McGinley

kmcginley@fs.fed.us, phone: 919-513-3331, fax: 919-513-2978

Biography:

Kathleen is a research social scientist who has been with IITF for ten years and an adjunct professor in the Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources at North Carolina State University (NCSU) since 2009. She received a PhD in Forestry from NCSU in 2008. She has a MS in Tropical Forest Management and Conservation from CATIE in Turrialba, Costa Rica and a BS in Forestry and Natural Resources Conservation from the University of Florida.

Research Interests (including applicable SPAs):

Kathleen studies existing and evolving natural resource and forest policies, institutions, and governance approaches, primarily in Latin America and the Caribbean, to determine their effects on tropical landscapes, forests and other natural resources, and associated human dimensions. USFS Strategic Program Areas include Resource Management and Use of working lands.

Scientific Highlights During FS Career:

With collaborators from NCSU, we determined the effects of different forest policy approaches and implementation strategies on policy adoption and compliance by forest owners and users in Latin America and the Caribbean and identified key settings and arrangements that hold promise in fostering sustainable forest management in the region. Also, with collaborators from CATIE, we developed standards for the reliable and efficient evaluation of the ecological sustainability of forest management, which have been incorporated into national forest policy and legislation in Costa Rica and Nicaragua.

Current Projects:

  • Assessing forest laws and policy directives for sustainable forest management throughout the Americas.
  • Identifying the means and mechanisms for implementing and enforcing forest policy in the Tropics and the impacts on forest landscapes and associated human dimensions.
  • Determining existing and emerging forest governance approaches at local, domestic, and global levels and their capacity to advance the long-term sustainability of ecological, economic, and social values of tropical forests.

Selected Publications: (3-5 Max).

  • McGinley, K., Cubbage, F. 2011. Governmental regulation and nongovernmental certification of forests in the tropics: Policy, execution, uptake, and overlap in Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Nicaragua. Forest Policy and Economics, 13 (2011): 206–220.
  • Bernstein, S., Cashore, F., Eba’a Atyi, R., Maryudi, A., McGinley, K. 2010. Examination of the influences of global forest governance arrangements at the domestic level. In: J. Rayner, A. Buck, and P. Katila (eds.) Embracing Complexity: Meeting the Challenges of International Forest Governance. A Global Assessment Report. Prepared by the Global Forest Expert Panel on the International Forest Regime. IUFRO World Series Volume 28. Vienna, Austria.
  • McGinley, K.; Finegan, B. 2003. The ecological sustainability of tropical forest management: evaluation of the national forest management standards of Costa Rica and Nicaragua, with emphasis on the need for adaptive management. Forest Policy and Economics, 5:421-431.

TISCHA A. MUÑOZ-ERICKSON

Tischa Muñoz-Erickson

tamunozerickson@fs.fed.us, phone: 928-600-1613, fax: 928-226-0056

Physical Address: 201 N. Park, Suite 1, Flagstaff, AZ 86001

Biography:

Tischa recently joined IITF as a Social Scientist Trainee under the Forest Service’s Chief’s Scholar Program. She is in the final stages of her sustainability science doctoral degree (with emphasis on policy and governance) from the nation’s first School of Sustainability at Arizona State University. Tischa also served as an IGERT Fellow in the Urban Ecology program at ASU and holds a M.S. in Environmental Science and Policy from Northern Arizona University. Tischa’s scientific training is interdisciplinary and collaborative at its core, with the particular goal of enhancing the role of social sciences and engagement of stakeholders in the knowledge production process.

Research Interests (including applicable SPAs):

Tischa’s research interests focus on the institutional arrangements, processes, and tools (e.g. collaborative adaptive management, participatory scenario planning, knowledge systems development, indicator programs, to name a few) for facilitating more productive interactions among diverse research and policy stakeholders and improving the ability of decision-makers, managers, and citizens to achieve more sustainable and just outcomes. A key approach to her research has been to study the institutional and knowledge systems of governance as part of the broader social-ecological system under study so as to simultaneously understand the process, outcomes, and emerging properties affecting the resilience and adaptive capacity of the system. In this way, her research falls under the Resource Management and Use SPA and is relevant to the Inventory and Monitoring SPA). Tischa has conducted research on forest management in the US southwest, Puerto Rico, and Costa Rica, and now on urban forests in San Juan.

Scientific Highlights During FS Career:

As an affiliate to IITF in 2009, Tischa co-authored a successful interdisciplinary NSF grant under the Urban Long-Term Research Area Exploratory (ULTRA-Ex) program. She currently serves as Project Leader and Co-PI of this collaborative research program in San Juan (14 natural scientists and 12 social scientists).

Current Projects:

Under the umbrella of the urban social-ecological and sustainability program of San Juan ULTRA, Tischa currently leads research on governance systems, specifically looking at knowledge systems and adaptive capacities of stakeholder organizations in land use and green area planning in the city. Tischa is also involved in numerous national and international programs, including a recently funded NSF’s Research Collaborative Network where she is engaged in cross-city comparisons of governance and knowledge systems for urban sustainability.

Selected Publications:

  • Miller, T. R. T. A. Muñoz-Erickson, and C. L. Redman. 2011. Transforming knowledge for sustainability: Towards more adaptive and engaged academic institutions. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education (12) 2
  • Muñoz-Erickson, T.A., B. Cutts, L. Larson, K. Darby, M. Neff, A. Wutich, and B. Bolin. 2010. Spanning boundaries in an Arizona watershed partnership: information networks as tools for entrenchment or ties for cooperation? Ecology and Society 3 (15)
  • Muñoz-Erickson, T.A, B.J. Aguilar-Gonzalez, M.R. Loeser, and T.D. Sisk. 2010. A framework to evaluate ecological and social outcomes of collaborative management: Lessons from implementation with a northern Arizona collaborative group. Environmental Management 45 (1) 132-144.
  • Muñoz-Erickson, T. A., A. E. Lugo, M. Figueroa and O. Ramos. 2008. Meeting Report: Setting an Interdisciplinary Research Agenda for San Juan ULTRA. A Report for the USDA’s International Institute of Tropical Forestry: Río Piedras, Puerto Rico
  • Muñoz-Erickson, T.A, B.J. Aguilar-Gonzalez and T.D. Sisk. 2004. Linking ecosystem health indicators and collaborative management: A systematic framework to evaluate outcomes. Ecology and Society 12 (2): 6

Wayne J. Arendt

Wayne J. Arendt

warendt@fs.fed.us, phone: 787-397-7319, fax: 787-766-6302

Biography:

Born in Indiana and now a supervisory research wildlife biologist, Wayne has been interested in the natural world since his impressionable childhood years in Illinois and Michigan. He received his undergraduate training in biology at UC Los Angeles, a Master’s degree in Wildlife Ecology (minor in statistics) at UM-Columbia, and a doctorate in Wildlife Ecology (minor in Forestry) at UW-Madison.

For some 34 years he has been stationed at the Sabana Field Research Station in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, the base from which he has conducted research, training and technology transfer in diverse areas of the Neotropics, promoting international conservation, technology transfer, and training of natural resource stewards in the principles and techniques used in wildlife ecology, biomonitoring, eco- and avetourism, and assessments of persistent toxic substances throughout the Caribbean and Mesoamerica.

Several stakeholders, e.g., young professionals, university students, private wildlife reserve owners, regional biologists, rural and indigenous youth and local communities are ‘beneficiaries’ of his research, mentoring, and cooperative biodiversity and biomonitoring studies. Many already have begun to obtain advanced academic degrees, landed prominent positions in government and state agencies, universities, and conservation-related organizations; others have enhanced their livelihoods directly or indirectly from research and management guidelines, revenues generated from eco- and avetourism, both the latter of which are on the rise worldwide and, more recently, in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean.

Research Interests (including applicable SPAs):

(All three of my personal research interests fall within the following SPAs: Resource Management and Use; Wildlife and Fish; Inventory and Monitoring; and Invasive Species)

REGION

Caribbean and Central America

  • Disturbance ecology, climate change, conservation and management of Neotropical resident and migratory bird communities and invasive species, with an emphasis on distribution, population dynamics, avian ectoparasites and life-history strategies.
  • Proximate and long-term responses of assorted Neotropical bioindicator taxa to natural and anthropic disturbances, e.g., invasive species and persistent toxic substances, in a changing global climate.
  • Biodiversity’s role in enhancing human livelihoods from revenues generated through eco- and avetourism, ecosystem services, adaptive management and provisioning of comestibles to secure sustainable development in rural communities.

Scientific Highlights During FS Career:

  • Life cycle and impact of the philornid botfly on avian hosts -- Pilot study in Puerto Rico and the LEF, and the first quantified ecological study (Arian Pont – World expert on Philornis botflies – in litt.) of the ectoparasitc botfly (Philornis sp.) or any botfly.
  • Birds, rats, bees and bots: impact of keystone species in Puerto Rican Parrot recovery effort -- Long-term research (~20 yr) revealed detailed reproductive and dispersal phenologies of the major predators, competitors and ectoparasites impacting the health and reproductive success of the critically endangered Puerto Rican parrot.
  • Pearly-eyed Thrasher’s life history, ecology, reproduction, lifetime reproductive success -- Long-term research study (with management implications) of the primary nest predator and competitor of the critically endangered Puerto Rican Parrot.
  • Avian supertramps in the West Indies -- First in-depth study (>2 decades) (Jared Diamond in litt.) of an avian supertramp, and first classification of West Indian birds using "tramp" classification, i.e., “tramps” (dispersal experts) vs. High-S (highly competitive) species.
  • Avian communities in endangered tropical dry forest: the first 40 years -- Long-term avian research involving resident and Nearctic migratory birds in mature dry forest within the Guánica Biosphere Reserve. Major research results with management implications: Population collapse in several species of migratory and resident birds; USA and Canadian breeding grounds of migrants; cyclic and acyclic patterns of precipitation, droughts, hurricanes, and repercussions; nomadism in some wintering migrants and site tenacity in others; negative impact of avian brood parasitism and nest predators on residents, including endemics; sexual segregation of forest habitat; example of sex reversal in birds.
  • International Research, technology transfer, mentoring, training, and eco-tourism -- Lead and PI on IITF-IC’s international interdisciplinary advisory team responsible for long-term biomonitoring in Central America and the Caribbean.

Current Projects: (3 major)

  • Long-term Guánica dry forest avian community research continues
  • Research, biomonitoring, and capacity building in Nicaragua: ameliorating effects of global climate change to ensure conservation of biodiversity and perpetuity of ecosystem services.
  • Multidisciplinary assessment of Persistent Toxic Substances (PTS) and bioaccumulation of PTS in upper trophic level bioindicator species (top predators, piscivorous birds, waders, shorebirds, and songbirds) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems throughout Mesoamerica and the Caribbean.

Selected Publications: (3–5 Max).

  • Arendt WJ. 1985. Philornis ectoparasitism of Pearly-eyed Thrashers. I. Impact on growth and development of nestlings. Auk 102:270–280.
  • Arendt WJ, Gibbons DW, Gray G. 1999. Status of the volcanically threatened Montserrat Oriole Icterus oberi. Bird Conservation International 9:351–372.
  • Arendt WJ. 2000. Impact of nest predators, competitors, and ectoparasites on Pearly-eyed Thrashers, with comments on the potential implications for Puerto Rican Parrot recovery. Ornitología Neotropical 11:13–63.
  • Arendt WJ. 2006. Adaptations of an avian supertramp: distribution, ecology, and life-history strategy of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus). Gen. Tech. Rep. 27. San Juan, PR: U.S.D.A. Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry. 404 p. (see also: Neotropical Birds Online (Margarops fuscatus) (Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology).
  • Arendt WJ, Tórrez M, Vílchez S. 2012. Diversidad de aves en agropaisajes cafetaleros en la región norte de Nicaragua. [“Avian diversity in agroscapes in Nicaragua’s northern highlands”] Ornitología Neotropical 23:113–131.

Joseph M. Wunderle Jr.

Joseph M. Wunderle Jr.

jmwunderlejr@fs.fed.us, phone: 787-888-3673 or 889-7485, fax: 787-766-6302

Biography:

B.S. in Biology, Univ. of Maine (1971); M.S. (1976) and Ph.D. (1980) in Behavior & Ecology, Univ. of Minnesota. Ph.D. focused on the ecology, behavior, and genetics of a songbird, on Grenada, W.I., where also a faculty member and Director of the Canadian Junior College for Marine Biology (1977-78). Visiting Assist. Prof. in Zoology at North Carolina State Univ. (1980-81), and Coordinator for graduate Tropical Biology course with the Organization for Tropical Studies in Costa Rica (1982). In 1982-90 was Assistant & Associate Professor of Biology at the Univ. of Puerto Rico, Cayey before joining the IITF, as Wildlife Team Leader and Research Wildlife Biologist. Train students at the Univ. of Puerto Rico and Univ. of the West Indies and College of the Bahamas. Fellow of the American Ornithologists Union, and Past President of the Caribbean Ornithological Society and the Neotropical Ornithological Society.

Research Interests:

Conservation biology of birds, especially Neotropical-Nearctic migrants and their response to human and natural disturbances with objective of devising management practices to ameliorate adverse effects as part of the Wildlife SPA.

Scientific Highlights During FS Career:

Studies have identified management prescriptions for sensitive populations in response to disturbance effects from hurricanes, agriculture, selective logging, and droughts in the Neotropics.

Current Projects:

Research on the ecology and conservation biology of the threatened migrant Kirtland’s Warbler on its wintering grounds in The Bahamas.

Selected Publications:

  • Wunderle, J. M., D. J. Lodge and R. B. Waide. 1992. Short-term effects of Hurricane Gilbert on terrestrial bird populations on Jamaica. Auk 109:148-166.
  • Wunderle, J. M. 1997. The role of animal seed dispersal in accelerating native forest regeneration on degraded tropical lands. Forest Ecology & Manage. 99:223-235.
  • Wunderle, J. M. and S. C. Latta. 2000. Winter site fidelity of Nearctic migrant birds in shade coffee plantations of different sizes in the Dominican Republic. Auk 117:596-614.
  • Wunderle, J. M., L. M. P. Henriques, and M. R. Willig. 2006. Short-term responses of birds to forest gaps and understory: an assessment of reduced impact logging in a lowland Amazon forest. Biotropica 38:235-255.
  • Wunderle, J. M., D. Currie, E. H. Helmer, D. N. Ewert, J. D. White, T. S. Ruzycki, B. Parresol, C.Kwit. 2010. Kirtland’s Warblers in anthropogenically disturbed early successional habitats on Eleuthera, The Bahamas. Condor 112:123-137.

Frank H. Wadsworth

Frank H. Wadsworth

Biography

  • Birthplace
    • Chicago, Illinois
  • Scientific education
    • Lewis Institute
      • Calculus, land surveying
    • University of Michigan
      • BSF – Forest management
      • MF – Natural reforestation of sandbars, Yukon River, Alaska
      • PhD - Development of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico
  • Research career
    • Research Assistant –FS, Sw. Forest and Range Exp. Sta., Arizona. 1939-1941
    • Research Forester FS, TFES, ITF, IITF, Puerto Rico 1942-1999
    • Official Volunteer. FS, IITF 2000-2012

Research interests

  • Strategic Program Area – Resource Management and Use – Scientific and technical basis for the management and sustainable use of forests and fiber-based products – silviculture and production

Scientific highlights

  • Growth potential of released suppressed ponderosa pines
  • Editing scientific Caribbean Forester. 1942-1964
  • Field identification of 250 tropical tree species
  • 2% inventory of 4,550 ha of the Caribbean National Forest
  • Site adaptability of 40 planted tropical tree species
  • Research in the 270-ha coastal limestone Cambalache Experimental Forest
  • The sustainable timber harvesting level in the Caribbean National Forest.
  • Reservation of a 745-ha Research Natural Area in the Luquillo Experimental Forest.
  • Freeing the Luquillo Experimental Forest from 125 subsistence farm families
  • Research in the 60-ha dry Estate Thomas Experimental Forest on St. Croix, VI.
  • Inaugurating the scientific recovery of the endangered Puerto Rican parrot
  • Tree growth in representative plots in 13 public forests of Puerto Rico
  • Discovery of circumstances of variation of tree growth within moist tropical forests
  • Discovery of an adjacent forest density limit for acceptable tropical timber tree growth

Current projects

  • Selecting and editing scientific journal abstracts relevant to tropical forestry for ISTF News, the newsletter of the International Society of Tropical Foresters
  • Tropical forestry library miscellanea – classification, public inquiry responses

Selected publications

  • The development of the forest land resources of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. PhD thesis. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 481p. 1949
  • New observations of tree growth in tabonuco forest. Caribbean Forester 14(3/4):106-111, 1953
  • Records of forest plantation growth in Mexico, the West Indies, and Central and South America. Caribbean Forester 21 (Supplement), 272p. 1960
  • Forest production for tropical America. Washington, D. C, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Agricultural Handbook 710, 563 p. 1997
  • Cutover tropical forest productivity potential merits assessment. (With B. Bryan, y J. C. Figueroa-Colón.) Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 305(3):33-41, 2010.

Ernesto Medina

Ernesto Medina

XXX@fs.fed.us, phone: 787-766-5335, ext. XXX, fax: 787-766-6302

Biography:

Born in Maracaibo, Edo. Zulia Venezuela. Degree in Biology from the Universidad Central de Venezuela in 1961, Doctor in Agronomy from the University of Hohenheim, Germany in 1964, Postdoctoral fellow of the Carnegie Institution of Washington 1970. Presently Emeritus Professor of the Universidad Central de Venezuela, and Emeritus Researcher of the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas. Guggenheim Fellow 1986-87, Foreign Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1992) and the National Academy of Sciences (1992), Member Third World Academy of Sciences (1993), Bacardi Scholar, University of Florida (1995). Currently Adjunct Scientist at IITF, San Juan, PR

Research Interests (including applicable SPAs):

Physiological ecology of plants in stressful environments (wetlands, calcareous substrates) with emphasis on carbon balance, water stress, and nutrient relations, related directly to the Resource Management and Use SPA.

Scientific Highlights During FS Career:

I have been Adjunct Scientist at IITF for several years, during which I developed projects on physiological ecology of wetland plants, mangroves at Jobos Bay and Roosevelt Road, and Pterocarpus forests around Puerto Rico, documenting physiological mechanisms related to salt tolerance. In addition, I participated in the nutritional evaluation of mahogany plantations throughout Puerto Rico.

Current Projects:

  • Ecophysiological analysis of woody plants on calcareous substrates (karst)
  • Nutrient relations of mangrove species in the Caribbean
  • Accumulation of Ca as oxalate in plants with different photosynthetic metabolism

Selected Publications: (3-5 Max).

  • Medina E, Cuevas E, Lugo A. Nutrient and salt relations of Pterocarpus officinalis L. in coastal wetlands of the Caribbean: assessment through leaf and soil analyses. Trees 21:321-327. 2007.
  • Medina E., Cuevas E., Lugo A.E. Nutrient Relations of Dwarf Rhizophora mangle L. Mangroves on Peat in Eastern Puerto Rico. Plant Ecology 207: 13-24. 2010.
  • Mehlig U., Menezes M.P.M., Reise A., Schories D., and Medina E. Mangrove Vegetation of the Caeté Estuary. Pp. 71-108 In: Saint-Paul, U.; Schneider, H. (Eds.): Mangrove dynamics and management in north Brazil. Ecological Studies, Berlin: Springer. 2010
  • Medina E., E. Cuevas E. and Huber O. Origin of organic matter leading to peat formation in the Southeastern Guayana Uplands and Highlands. Chapter 8, in Zinck J.A. and Huber O.(eds.), Peatlands of the Western Guayana Highlands, Venezuela, Ecological Studies 217, pp. 237-246. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Tana E. Wood

Tana E. Wood

wood.tana@gmail.com, phone: 787-766-5335, ext. 208, fax: 787-766-6302

Web Site: http://www.tanawood.net

Biography:

  • Ph.D. University of Virginia, Environmental Sciences, emphasis on Ecology
  • M.S. University of Virginia., Environmental Sciences, emphasis on Ecology
  • B.S. University of Texas, Austin, Ecology, Evolution & Conservation Biology.

Research Interests (including applicable SPAs):

My research addresses the effects of climate and land-use change on soil and ecosystem-level processes. As an ecosystem ecologist and biogeochemist, I approach my research from a variety of perspectives, ranging from field studies that evaluate landscape-scale responses to variability in climate to laboratory experiments that elucidate linkages between microbes and the soil environment. My ultimate goal is to conduct research that informs policy makers, improves the management of natural resources, and enables us to better predict the consequences of environmental change on the function and composition of ecosystems, including feedbacks to future climate change.

SPA’s:

Water, Soil & Air; Inventory & Monitoring

Current Projects:

  • Tropical Forests in a Warmer World:
  • A collaborative effort to establish the first integrated canopy-soil warming experiment in Puerto Rico. http://www.forestwarming.com

  • Soil Moisture Controls on Carbon and Nutrient Cycling:
  • Investigating the effects of drought on carbon and nutrient cycling, microbial ecology, and greenhouse gas emissions of a humid tropical forest in Puerto Rico.

  • Seasonal and Inter-annual Variation in Leaf Litter Nutrient Cycling:
  • Investigating long-term (14-17 yrs) variability in leaf litter nutrients of a wet tropical forest in Costa Rica and Puerto Rico and the relationship with climate.

  • Controls of Oxygen on Methane Production and Oxidation:
  • Working in collaboration with Dr. Whendee Silver and Dr. Wendy Yang to understand oxygen controls on methane production and oxidation in the California Bay Delta

Selected Publications: (3-5 Max).

  • Wood T.E., Silver, W.L., Detto, M.A. In Review. The sensitivity of soil respiration to short-term variability in soil moisture and temperature in a humid tropical forest. Ecology.
  • Tully K.A., Wood T.E., Schwantes A., Lawrence D. In Review. Soil nutrient availability and reproductive effort drive patterns of nutrient resorption in the tropical legume Pentaclethra macroloba. Ecology.
  • Wood, T.E. and Silver, W.L. In Press. Strong spatial variability in trace gas dynamics following experimental drought in a humid tropical forest. Global Biogeochemical Cycles.
  • Wood, T.E.; Cavaleri, M.A.; Reed, S.C. 2012. Tropical forest carbon balance in a warmer world: A critical review spanning microbial- to ecosystem-scale processes. Biological Reviews. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-185X.2012.00232.x
  • Reed, S.C., Wood T.E., Cavaleri M.A. 2011. Tropical forests in a warming world. From Leaf to Biosphere: The Effects of a Warming Climate on Tropical Forests an organized oral session at the 96th Annual Meeting, Ecological Society of America Meeting Austin, TX, USA, August 2011. New Phytologist. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03985.x

Tamara Heartsill-Scalley

Tamara Hearsill-Scalley

theartsill@fs.fed.us, phone: 787-766-5335, ext. 204, fax: 787-766-6302

Biography:

A native of Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico, Tamara is currently a Research Ecologist at the IITF. Her research has always included her interest in streams and rivers, and the forests connected to these systems. Her initial research experience was at the watersheds scale, working in the headwaters reaches of the La Plata river, the longest on the island of Puerto Rico, and an important source of water for public consumption. Her current research projects encompass forests in the wider insular Caribbean region.

Dr. Heartsill Scalley got both her Bachelors’ degree in Geography and her Masters’ degree at the University of Puerto Rico Rio Piedras Campus. She was awarded a Fellowship from the College of Natural Resources, Utah State University from where she earned a Doctorate in Ecology. She has been a Post-Doctoral Researcher with the University of Pennsylvania, at the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences.

Research Interests (including applicable SPAs):

I work within two major SPA’s

  • Inventory and Monitoring
  • Water Air and Soil

Main research Interests:

  • Ecosystem services of riparian zones and streams
  • Riparian vegetation and stream dynamics in headwater catchments
  • Ecosystem responses to disturbance
  • Long term plots in Caribbean forests
  • Knowledge and perceptions of riparian zones and wetlands by adjacent communities and stake holders.

Scientific Highlights during FS Career:

  • Stream ecosystem dynamics
  • This contribution to stream ecology and tropical watershed dynamics presents an unprecedented data record of 18 years of export of organic matter from two streams in the Bisley Experimental Watersheds. I organized and proofed data on quantity and quality of exported organic matter over 18 years under a range of conditions that include both droughts and hurricanes. I computed and converted the multiple variables in this data set to be able to effectively analyze and evaluate the annual peaks in exports. Organic matter export was collected at a bi-weekly scale (time interval) while other variables that were needed for analyses were collected at daily (stream runoff ) and weekly time scales (rainfall). The significance of this work included documenting for the first time with analyses I conducted the seasonality of quantity of exports in tropical headwater streams, and also of the quality (or chemical composition) of the exports. Additional studies on stream fauna and ecosystem function are currently being based on these research findings, because native migrating fauna feed on these organic matter exports. This is an important link to management of watersheds, as the ability to export or to retain organic matter in these streams is linked to the successional stage of the forest vegetation. The long-term pattern of stream export is associated with the level of maturity of watershed vegetation.

    Results signal that more attention should be given to changes in rainfall seasonality in the tropics, as these changes could not only affect stream discharge and timing of new leaf and flower production, but also increase the seasonal range in quality of organic matter exports to reach streams. Changes in the quality of organic matter resources in streams can potentially alter ecosystem processes and aquatic food webs which depend on them. Our observations indicate a watershed whose ecosystem has high rates of CPOM break down, and very low exports. The observed long-term patterns indicate that most of the leaf litter that reaches these streams is processed in place and only 0.024% is exported. Very small amounts of coarse particulate organic matter are exported. Forested headwaters continuously provide retention structures to the streams, which contributes to the ability to retain and process organic matter in headwaters. However, headwaters under non-forested land cover conditions may not be able to retain and process large percents of leaf litter inputs, and this in turn can affect water quality and resource availability for aquatic ecosystems downstream.

    Heartsill Scalley T., F. N. Scatena, S. Moya and A. E. Lugo. 2012. Long-term dynamics of organic matter and elements exported as coarse particulates from two Caribbean montane watersheds. Journal of Tropical Ecology 28(2):127-139.

  • Hydrology of El Yunque/ Luquillo Experimental Forest; rainfall dynamics
  • The water consumed in urban and rural Luquillo comes from El Yunque National Forest. To improve water conservation and provide greater understanding of watersheds and water ecosystems, I collaborated with El Yunque National Forest Biologists in an effort sponsored through the program Hydrology for the Environment, Living and Policy (HELP) part of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Community leaders, 80 municipal employees, and other stakeholders from the nearby municipality of Luquillo received information and explanations of the Forest’s shifting rainfall trends as part of the HELP presentation. This was based on the publication were I am the lead author “Disturbance and long-term patterns of rainfall and throughfall nutrient fluxes in a subtropical forest in Puerto Rico”. The audience was shown precise examples of water and nutrient cycles and supplied information on the how climate change will affect their surroundings. Data from my scientific paper also helped provide the Luquillo community with some effective tools they will use to develop better water conservation techniques. The HELP project was initiated on the island in March 2009, when 20 hydrologists and natural resources managers met on the El Yunque National Forest to provide the guidance required to implement future HELP-UNESCO related community efforts, such as the presentation to Luquillo’s municipal employees and town hall meetings.

Current Projects:

  • Riparian vegetation in a restored tropical urban stream.
  • This research is part of the Urban Long Term Research Area Exploratory (ULTRA-Ex) program. The project includes conducting an assessment of the government mandated restoration of Chiclana stream, in the Rio Piedras watershed.

  • Development of Caribbean Foresters Permanent Plot Network.
  • This network will Organize and coordinate the establishment of a network of forest managers, ecologists and foresters from the Caribbean region. Through contacts from participants of the Caribbean Foresters Meeting, we now have collaborators from Jamaica, Dominica, US Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Trinidad and Tobago, and Martinique among others. As part of the next Caribbean Foresters Meeting (CFM) June 2013 agenda, I will lead and coordinate the workshop Assessment of long-term forest dynamics in the Caribbean. The material for this workshop will come from the website www.CaribbeanForesters.org, which will promote active exchanges and interactions with workshop participants and identify regional working groups. Along with USDA Forest Service IITF-International Cooperation Programs and the Fundación Puertorriqueña de Conservación, we are collaborating to meet the needs of the workshop and coordinate the logistics of the general Caribbean Foresters Meeting agenda for 2013.

Selected Publications: (3-5 Max).

  • Heartsill Scalley, T., F.N. Scatena, A.E. Lugo, S. Moya, C. R. Estrada Ruiz. 2010. Changes in structure, composition and nutrients during 15 years of hurricane-induced succession in a subtropical wet forest. Biotropica 42(4): 455–463.
  • Pérez, R., Heartsill Scalley, T. 2011. Root nodulation in the wetland tree Pterocarpus officinalis along coastal and montane systems of Northeast of Puerto Rico. Acta Científica 22(1-3): 45-54.
  • López-Marrero, T., González-Toro, A., Heartsill Scalley, T., Hermansen-Báez, L.A. 2011. Multi-Criteria Evaluation and Geographic Information Systems for Land-Use Planning and Decision Making [Guide] Gainesville, FL: USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station 8 p.
  • Heartsill Scalley T., F. N. Scatena, S. Moya and A. E. Lugo. 2012. Long-term dynamics of organic matter and elements exported as coarse particulates from two Caribbean montane watersheds. Journal of Tropical Ecology 28(2):127-139.
  • Harris, N.L.; Lugo, A.E.; Brown, S.; and Heartsill Scalley, T. 2012. Luquillo Experimental Forest: Research history and opportunities. EFR-1. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture 152 p.

Eileen Helmer

Eileen Helmer

I have been with IITF since 1999. Since 2001 I have coordinated IITF activities related to the Caribbean Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA). My education includes a Ph.D. in Forest Ecology from Oregon State University (1999), an M.S.C.E. in Environmental Engineering and Sciences from the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis (1987), and a B.S. in Ecology from the University of Illinois, Urbana (1984)

Research Interests:

Relationships between tropical forest disturbance and dynamics from stand to landscape scales; monitoring forest disturbance, species composition, structure and phenology with satellite imagery; socioeconomic controls on tropical forest disturbance and recovery (Strategin Program Areas include (Inventory & Monitoring and Wildlife and Fish)

Scientific Highlights:

We were thrilled to find in 2010 that forest height could be mapped with the spectral data from a dense time series of cloud-gap-filled Landsat imagery; and in 2009 that recovering forest productivity could be estimated entirely from space. With field help from forest agency counterparts in the Caribbean, since 2005 we have produced detailed maps of forest types and land cover of several Caribbean countries with cloud-gap-filled Landsat imagery.

Current Projects:

  • Dynamics and diversity of Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Island forests
  • Automated nonitoring of forest disturbance and recovering forest productivity in Amazonia
  • Monitoring tropical forest tree communities and phenology with satellite imagery
  • Mapping disturbance history, species composition and structure of Bahamian forests

Selected Publications:

  • Helmer, E. H., Ruzycki, T. S., Benner, J., Voggesser, S. M., Scobie, B. P., Park, C., Fanning, D. W., & Ramnarine, S. (In Press). Detailed maps of tropical forest types are within reach: forest tree communities for Trinidad and Tobago mapped with multiseason Landsat and multiseason fine resolution imagery. Forest Ecology and Management, 10.1016/j.foreco.2012.05.016
  • Helmer, E. H., Ruzycki, T. S., Wunderle Jr, J. M., Voggesser, S., Ruefenacht, B., Kwit, C., Brandeis, T. J., & Ewert, D. N. (2010). Mapping tropical dry forest height, foliage height profiles and disturbance type and age with a time series of cloud-cleared Landsat and ALI image mosaics to characterize avian habitat. Remote Sensing of Environment, 114(11), 2457-2473, 10.1016/j.rse.2010.05.021
  • Helmer, E. H., Lefsky, M. A., & Roberts, D. A. (2009). Biomass accumulation rates of Amazonian secondary forest and biomass of old-growth forests from Landsat time series and the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 3(033505), 033505:033501-033531, 10.1117/1.3082116
  • Helmer, E. H., Brandeis, T., Lugo, A. E., & Kennaway, T. (2008). Spatial controls on tropical forest age and implications for carbon storage and species diversity of the forests cleared for land development. Journal of Geophysical Research. G. Biogeosciences, 113, G02S04, 10.1029/2007JG000568
  • Helmer, E. H., & Ruefenacht, B. (2005). Cloud-free satellite image mosaics with regression trees and histogram matching. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 71(9), 1079-1089, http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/30086

William A. Gould

William A. Gould

wgould@fs.fed.us, phone: 787-766-5335, ext. 302, fax: 787-766-6302

Biography:

I am a Research Ecologist with the USDA Forest Service at the International Institute of Tropical Forestry in Río Piedras, Puerto Rico. Prior to joining the Forest Service I received Bachelor and Master of Science degrees in Biology from the University of Minnesota, a Doctor of Science degree in Ecology from the University of Colorado, and did postdoctoral work at the University of Alaska in Fairbanks. I am the team leader of the Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands Gap Analysis Projects and associated studies, the Coordinator of the Caribbean Landscape Conservation Cooperative, oversee the IITF Science Seminar Series, and lead the GIS and Remote Sensing Laboratory at the International Institute of Tropical Forestry.

Research Interests (including applicable SPAs):

My research involves integrating field and remote sensing data to analyze landscape patterns and processes in a wide range of ecosystems including tropical, temperate, boreal and arctic biomes. I am active in studies of conservation science, biodiversity, ecology, land cover mapping, modeling future scenarios for conservation planning, and field education and outreach.

Wildlife and Fish/Resource Management and Use SPAs:

Geospatial analyses of terrestrial and aquatic habitats and species distributions under current and future scenarios.

Wildland Fire and Fuels SPA:

Fire ecology, fuels mapping, fire occurrence and risk

Inventory and Monitoring SPA:

Arctic vegetation and climate change, lichen ecology and forest health monitoring.

Scientific Highlights During FS Career:

  • Furthering the science of remote sensing of biodiversity patterns.
  • Documenting long–term response of arctic vegetation to recent climate change.
  • Developing widely used landcover, biodiversity and conservation information for Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands.
  • Developing the Forest Service Research Map Publication Series (RMAP).

Current Projects:

  • Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands terrestrial, marine, and freshwater gap analysis projects.
  • Breeding bird atlas of Puerto Rico.
  • Mapping eco-management units for Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands
  • Future scenarios: Vegetation dynamics, hydrologic, climate, and urban growth modeling.
  • Developing a Fire Danger Rating System for Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands
  • Developing a database of fire occurrences in Puerto Rico
  • Arctic Observing Network (AON): Study of arctic ecosystem changes.
  • Lichen monitoring for forest health assessment in the Puerto Rico.

Selected Publications: (3-5 Max).

  • Elmendorf SC, et al. 2012. Plot-scale evidence of tundra vegetation change and links to recent summer warming. Nature Climate Change 2:453-457.
  • Gould WA, Quiñones M, Solórzano M, Alcobas W, Alarcón C. 2011. Protected natural areas of Puerto Rico. Scale 1:240 000. IITF-RMAP-02. Río Piedras, PR: US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry. In English and Spanish.
  • Gould WA. 2000. Remote sensing of vegetation, plant species richness, and regional diversity hotspots. Ecological Applications. 10:1861-1870.

Sebastián Martinuzzi

Sebastián Martinuzzi

Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison 1630 Linden Drive Madison, WI, 53706 martinuzzi@wisc.edu phone: +1/608 890 3160, fax: +1/608 262 9922

Biography:

  • Visiting researcher at IITF 2003-2006
  • Current: Assistant Scientist, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • PhD in Natural Resources –University of Idaho (2010)
  • Licentiate in Biology/Ecology – Universidad Nacional de La Plata-Argentina (2002)

Research Interests (including applicable SPAs):

  • Remote sensing, biodiversity conservation, environmental change
  • SPAs: Inventory and Monitoring; Wildlife and Fish

Scientific Highlights During FS Career:

  • USDA Forest Service Volunteer Recognition Award (2004)
  • Puerto Rico Gap Analysis Project

Current Projects:

  • Ecological consequences of future land use changes in the United States (with ecologists and economists from various Universities)
  • The 2010’ Wildland-Urban Interface of the United States (UW-USFS collaborative effort)

Selected Publications: (3-5 Max).

  • Radeloff, V. C., E. Nelson, A. J. Plantinga, D. J. Lewis, D. Helmers, J. J. Lawler, J. C. Withey, F. Beaudry, S. Martinuzzi, V. Butsic, E. Lonsdorf, D. White, and S. Polasky. 2012 Economic-based projections of future land use under alternative economic policy scenarios in the conterminous U.S. Ecological Applications (in press)
  • Martinuzzi, S., W. A. Gould, A. E. Lugo, and E. Medina. 2009. Conversion and Recovery of Puerto Rican Mangroves: 200 years of Change. Forest Ecology and Management, 257, 75-84.
  • Martinuzzi, S., Gould, W.A., Ramos Gonzalez, O.M., Quiñones, M., Jimenez, M.E. 2008. Urban and rural land use in Puerto Rico. Scale 1:260000. IITF-RMAP-01. Rio Piedras, PR: US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry.
  • Martinuzzi, S., W. A. Gould, O. M. Ramos Gonzalez. 2007. Land development, land use, and urban sprawl in Puerto Rico integrating remote sensing and population census data. Landscape and Urban Planning, 79, 288-297.