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Thousand Cankers Disease Survey Information
TCD Survey Background

Thousand Cankers Disease (TCD ) results from the combined activity of a fungus, Geosmithia morbida, and the walnut twig beetle (WTB), Pityophthorus juglandis. TCD was originally described from scattered locations throughout western states. Now it appears that walnut twig beetle (WTB) and, by association, TCD, is present wherever susceptible walnut species grow in the west. In July 2010, TCD was reported in Knoxville, Tennessee, causing dieback on black walnut. The Tennessee infestation is believed to be at least 10 years old. This was the first report east of the 100th meridian, raising concerns that large native populations of black walnut in the eastern United States may suffer severe decline and mortality. We do not know the true distribution of this insect/disease association across the United States. While TCD has caused dieback and mortality across various climatic zones and among several walnut species, the extent of risk and impact to black walnut within its native range is still unknown.

Black walnut is a significant economic, social and environmental resource, and appears to be highly susceptible to TCD. Laboratory and field research with G. morbida have shown that all walnuts and butternut show significant amounts of dead bark tissue in response to controlled inoculations of the pathogen. The survival of butternut is already seriously threatened by butternut canker. The only other known host for WTB and G. morbida is wingnut (Pterocarya spp.)

How the Survey Information will be used

Since 2012, United States Department of Agriculture: Forest Service (FS) and Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) have funded eastern and central states to establish a WTB trap network. Survey information supports early detection of new outbreaks and helps us define the range of WTB and the level of risk to the walnut resource from TCD.

The aggregation pheromone lure can be used to detect an incipient population of WTB, or, in areas where TCD or WTB has been recently discovered, to delimit a known population. Once identified, State Plant Regulatory Officials may decide to impose quarantines on the movement of walnut material from infested counties to prevent the human assisted spread of the disease complex.

See below for the map of 2013 WTB trap survey results.

Survey Maps
PDF
2013 WTB Trap Survey Results (674 KB PDF) Adobe Acrobat Reader PDF file
Survey Guidelines
PDF
Thousand cankers disease survey guidelines (11 MB PDF) Adobe Acrobat Reader PDF file
Thousand cankers disease survey forms by state
STATE
XLSX
STATE
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STATE
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STATE
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Arkansas Microsoft Excel File Kansas Microsoft Excel File Missouri Microsoft Excel File South Carolina Microsoft Excel File
Georgia Microsoft Excel File Kentucky Microsoft Excel File North Carolina Microsoft Excel File Tennessee Microsoft Excel File
Iowa Microsoft Excel File Maryland Microsoft Excel File New York Microsoft Excel File Virginia Microsoft Excel File
Illinois Microsoft Excel File Michigan Microsoft Excel File Ohio Microsoft Excel File Wisconsin Microsoft Excel File
Indiana Microsoft Excel File Minnesota Microsoft Excel File Pennsylvania Microsoft Excel File West Virginia Microsoft Excel File
Contact

Manfred Mielke
NA Plant Pathologist
Email: mmielke@fs.fed.us

Paul Merten
Entomologist
Email: pmerten@fs.fed.us

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