Indiana ranks third nationally in hardwood lumber production adding over $4 billion to the state's economy. Of the over 1000 business and manufacturers in the forest products industry, 59,000 people are employed with a total payroll over $1 billion annually.
The forest products industry is the fifth largest manufacturing industry in the state. To support the industry, approximately 500 million board feet were harvested in the most recent year for which statistics are available. For the second quarter of 1997, lumber/wood product exports totaled $57 million an increase of 22% from the first quarter. Indiana continues to grow approximately 40% more material (14% more in sawlog volume) than is utilized to produce sawtimber, veneer, handles, pulp and cooperage. However, from 1986 to 1997, this margin has narrowed from 2.5 to 1.0 as a result of increased global and domestic demands for Indiana hardwood products. Since 1907, forestland increased approximately 430,000 acres, and from 1967 to 1998, the volume of timber increased from 3,800 to 6,900 million cubic feet. Hardwoods account for 95% of the forest that is identified into 13 forest types. Good sites (ability to produce >85 ft3/yr) represent 63% of the forest, which is privately owned (85%).
GYPSY MOTH 1/6TH OF 1998.
The question in 1997 was "Where did they come from?" The 1998 survey responded by saying "They came from a larval blow in." Now the 1999 question is "Where did they go?" The 1999 Cooperative Statewide Gypsy Moth (GM) Survey detected 13,498 male moths, which is only 1/6th of the 81,995 moths caught in 1998, 1/5th of the 61,194 moths caught in 1997 and twice as many as 1996. The maps below show the progression/regression of GM from 1996 to 1999 (note: 1996 & 1997 maps based on average moth/trap/county. The 1998 & 1999 maps based on STS analysis from GPS referenced traps).
|The 1999 Cooperative Gypsy Moth Survey completed its
twelfth year of the statewide survey, extended the use of new technologies with
the first application of pheromone flakes and recorded four additional
quarantine counties - Allen, Elkhart, LaGrange and Porter. Trap locations were
geographically referenced for the second straight year using Global Positioning
Satellite (GPS) units and submitted to the GM Slow-The-Spread (STS) web site
13,498 moths were detected in 65 counties with the count ranging from 1 to
3,889 moths per county. The maps below shows the moth catch for Indiana and the
Spray treatments using B.t. (Foray 48B) were conducted on thirteen sites in May. A total of 3,735 acres were treated twice at seven-day intervals. Two sites totaling 3,934 acres in Porter County received one application of pheromone flakes for mating disruption at the end of June. Intensive trapping was conducted within the sites treated with B.t., while intensive trapping in the sites treated with pheromone flakes will be conducted during the 2000 survey.
|Since 1980, male gypsy moths have been detected in the state every year. This indicated that GM could be establishing itself in the state. With the Cooperative Statewide Survey identifying introductions and eradication projects eliminating those introductions, the spread of GM into and within Indiana has been delayed by 10 years. The spread continues to be slowed with the addition of STS technology to the Cooperative Statewide Survey. The maps below show the moth lines for 1999 and 2000 and demonstrate a reduction in moth spread. Without these efforts, GM would have been a resident of Indiana by 1988, widespread forest defoliation would be a reality, and mortality within the forest would be occurring.|
Enlarged version of this map
|Jumping Oak Gall Turns White Oak Foliage Brown|
|The white oak in the forest of south central Indiana
turned brown in color earlier than normal. In late May and early June, the
galls formed on the underside of the foliage by one or more species of a
Cynipid wasp (Neuroterus spp.) caused the leaves to yellow than turn
brown. The damage started along the Ohio River and went north through Perry
County extending to Martin and Lawrence counties and east to Washington County.
Additional reports of the gall occurred in the middle part of the state -
Johnson, Hendricks and Wayne counties. An aerial survey estimated that
discoloration occurred to white oak on 1,000,000 acres of forestland (see
The wasp creates a round gall on the underside of the leaf which results in a small yellow spot that turns brown. With several hundred spots per leaf, eventually the leaf turns totally brown. This is equal to defoliation like the feeding of caterpillars on leaves. The leaf is not able to produce food for the tree and the tree is weakened.
Enlarged version of this map
|With the summer drought adding stress to the tree, the question is what will happen to white oak in 2000. They are expected to survive in a weaker state than normal, and the jumping oak gall is expected to return in 2000 to do damage again.|
The tattered foliage of oak has been reported in Indiana since 1983. The tattered foliage of primarily white oak, and other oaks (burr, swamp white, red, black and shingle), was noticeable in 1999 in the northern part of the state as in prior years. Tatters was reported in scattered counties but was more widespread than the map indicates.
Tattered foliage loses the tissue between the leaf veins, which gives the leaf a "tattered appearance". Heavily tattered trees appear defoliated or with sparse foliage. Commonly found on white oak, tatters occurs on other oaks and occasionally on other hardwoods. Although defoliation to the tree, damage such as mortality has not been widespread.
Tatters occurs to the first flush of foliage in the spring. To date, the cause of tatters has not been verified, however temperature injury, insect feeding or oviposition, and herbicide have been suggested as causes. Tatters is not limited to Indiana, damage has occurred from Ohio west to Iowa.
Enlarged version of this map
|Drought conditions increase wildfires|
|Not since 1988 has Indiana had drought
conditions like the summer and fall of 1999. The drought increased the number
of forest fires and resulted in a statewide burning ban in September and
October. The Indiana Division of Forestry, Fire Section has been working with
the State Emergence Management Agency (SEMA) to manage the forest fires that
included several arson fires and two peat bog fires.
Enlarged version of this map
The distribution of Pine Shoot Beetle, Tomicus pineperda, continues to move through the state with 5 new counties since 1998. This is still a regulatory pest and not considered a serious threat to the health of the pine forests of the state.
Butternut canker affects trees throughout the state. During the past five years, landowners have reported butternut trees that may be tolerant or resistant to the disease. From these reports, nine butternut were located that may have possible resistance/tolerance to this disease. Scionwood was collected from these trees and grafted onto black walnut. Reports of butternut continue each year; however work limitation have slowed the screening of the reported trees. Landowners are still encouraged to locate and report healthy butternut.
|FOREST HEALTH MONITORING
In 1996, Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) established 144 plots across the state. Of these, 38 plots had a forest condition. The FHM plot consists of 4 subplots with each subplot a fixed radius of 24 feet. FHM plots are located according to a national survey grid and are approximately 16 miles apart.
The information collected in the FHM survey is part of a national design. Thus, results of the survey are used to make comparisons and analysis on a national or forest type basis. Using the data to make analysis within state boundaries is not statistically sound as this time. However, the baseline data can give a "snapshot" of the trees and forests in Indiana at the start of the annual FHM survey.
On each subplot, information is taken on all trees 5.0+" DBH. A microplot is used to collect information on seedlings (<1.0") and saplings (1.0-4.9"). The tree information collected consists of crown and damage measures. Crown measures are live crown ratio, crown density, foliage transparency, dieback, crown position, crown exposure and crown diameter.
The crown measures of foliage transparency, crown density, dieback and live crown ratio can be used to access the tree's "health". Trees with low foliage transparency and dieback values and high crown density and live crown ratio have increased potential for carbon fixation, nutrient storage, survival and reproduction.
Using these measures and making comparisons between years, the FHM survey should identify a problem with a tree species or forest type. Once identified, a problem can be evaluated on a more localized basis to understand the problem and define management measures. The information below summarizes the survey findings.
|For foliage transparency, which is used to indicate defoliation, the survey found 97% of the hardwoods and 92% of the softwoods had normal transparency (<30%). Only maple, oak, elm and ash had any trees with moderate to severe transparency (30-50% & >50%).|
|Dieback is the amount
of current years twigs that have died in the outer tree crown. No dieback was
found on 84% of the hardwoods and 96% of the softwoods. Light dieback (6-20%)
was observed on 13.7% of the hardwoods. Moderate to severe dieback (21-50%
& >50%) was recorded on 1.6% of the hardwoods. By genus/species, Oak,
elm, maple, ash and yellow poplar had the most dieback recorded.
|Crown density is the amount of foliage, twigs, branches, and seeds in the crown. The survey found 98.7% of all trees had average to good density (21-50% & >50%). Only hardwoods - elm, yellow poplar and black walnut - recorded trees with poor density (<20%). By genus/species, ash, aspen, and beech had more trees with average density than a good density. Maples had the highest percent of trees with good density for the hardwoods.|
|For hardwoods, 64% of the trees had Live Crown Ratios greater than 40%; whereas the softwoods had 87% of the trees greater than 40%. Examining individual genus/species, there may be concern with ash, yellow poplar, black walnut and elm that had 40%, 58%, 57% and 66%, respectively, of the trees sampled with LCR >40%. This may indicate a problem in the "health" of this genus/species.|
|Damage indicators are cankers, open woods, decay conks,
broken bole, brooms, dead terminals, discolored foliage and more. Decay
indicators represented 70% of the damages recorded. The survey found no damage
on 70% of the hardwoods and 91% of the softwoods. By genus/species, of all
trees sampled, maple, ash, oak, hickory, elm, yellow poplar and beech had
damage recorded more than other species. Within a genus/species, beech, maple
and ash had the highest percentage of trees with damage. In the hardwoods, 8%
of the trees sample had more than one damage.
From the initial data, the "health" of ash, yellow poplar, elm and perhaps maple and oak in Indiana needs to be monitored for future change. The live crown ratio, crown density, crown transparency and crown dieback data for these genus/species indicate they may have a greater "health" concern than other genus/species.
|Updated: January 2000.......|
|1999 Forest Health Highlights - Indiana|
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