Gercke, Diane M., and Stewart, Susan A., 2007, Strategic placement of treatments (SPOTS): Maximizing the effectiveness of fuel and vegetation treatments on problem fire behavior and effects

Abstract - In 2005, eight US Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management interdisciplinary teams participated in a test of strategic placement of treatments (SPOTS) techniques to maximize the effectiveness of fuel treatments in reducing problem fire behavior, adverse fire effects, and suppression costs. This interagency approach to standardizing the assessment of risks and proposing strategically placed treatments to mitigate that risk uses an iterative, collaborative strategic approach to proposing landscape scale treatment patterns. The pilot teams used FARSITE and FlamMap, spatially explicit fire behavior prediction models, to evaluate the effectiveness of proposed treatments on fire behavior
and effects at scales appropriate to address the expected problem fire event. A primary objective was to develop a consistent, systematic approach that integrates multiple land and resource management objectives when addressing and evaluating fuels risks. This paper discusses the accomplishments and challenges the pilot project teams faced as they tested strategic placement of treatments methods in different landscapes, vegetation, fire regimes, and ownerships.

Hood, S.M., and Miller, M., 2007, Fire Ecology and Management of the Major Ecosystems of Southern Utah

Abstract - This GTR provides managers with a literature synthesis of the historical conditions, current conditions, fire regime condition classes (FRCC), and recommended treatments for the major ecosystems in southern Utah. Sections are by ecosystems and include: 1) coniferous forests (ponderosa pine, mixed conifer, and Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir), 2) aspen, 3) pinyon-juniper, 4) big and black sagebrush, and 5) desert shrubs (creosotebush, blackbrush, and interior chaparral). Southern Utah is at the ecological crossroads for much of the Western U.S. It contains steep environmental gradients and a broad range of fuels and fire regimes associated with vegetation types representative of the Rocky Mountains, the Great Basin, Northern Arizona and New Mexico, and the Mohave Desert. The Southern Utah Demonstration Area consists of contiguous state and federal lands within the administrative boundaries of Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the Fishlake and Dixie National Forests, and Bryce Canyon and Zion National Parks, roughly encompassing the southern 15 % of Utah (3.24 MM Ha). The vegetation types described are similar in species composition, stand structure, and ecologic function, including fire regime to vegetation types found on hundreds of millions of hectares in the eleven western states.

Scott, J. H. 2006. Comparison of crown fire modeling systems used in three fire management applications. Res. Pap. RMRS-RP-58. Ft. Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 25 p.

ABSTRACT – The relative behavior surface-crown fire spread rate modeling systems used in three fire management applications—CFIS, FlamMap and NEXUS—is compared using fire environment characteristics derived from a set of destructively measured canopy fuel and associated stand characteristics. Although the surface-crown modeling systems predict the same basic fire behavior characteristics (type of fire, spread rate) using the same basic fire environment characteristics, their results differ considerably. Across the range of inputs used in these comparisons, CFIS predicted the highest incidence of crown fire and the highest resulting spread rates, whereas FlamMap predicted the lowest crown fire incidence and lowest spread rates. NEXUS predictions fell between those two systems.

Statton, Richard D. (2006) Guidance on Spatial Wildland Fire Analysis: Models, Tools, and Techniques (PDF)

Abstract - There is an increasing need for spatial wildland fire analysis in support of incident management, fuel treatment planning, wildland-urban assessment, and land management plan development. However, little guidance has been provided to the field in the form of training, support, or research examples. This paper provides guidance to fire managers, planners, specialists, and analysts in the use of “models” (FARSITE, FlamMap, RERAP-Term), tools/programs (KCFAST, RAWS, FireFamily Plus, WindWizard), and procedures for spatial fire analysis. The approach includes a brief discussion about models and their assumptions and limitations, historical fire and weather analysis, landscape file data acquisition and development, landscape file and model output critique, and model calibration.

Keywords: Calibration, FARSITE, FireFamily Plus, Fire History, Fire Modeling, Fire Weather, FlamMap, Fuel Treatment, Gridded Wind, Hazard/Risk Assessment, Landscape Analysis, RAWS, RERAP, WindWizard

Zimmerman, Donald E.; Akerelrea, Carol; Smith, Jane Kapler; O’Keefe, Garrett J. 2006. Communicating forest management science and practices through visualized and animated media approaches to community presentations.Science communication. 27(4): 514-539. (PDF)

Abstract - Natural-resource managers have used a variety of computer-mediated presentation methods to communicate management practices to diverse publics. We explored the effects of visualizing and animating predictions from mathematical models in computerized presentations explaining forest succession (forest growth and change through time), fire behavior, and management options. In an experimental design using purposive samples, rural-mountain, town, and student groups gained substantial information from both the visualized, animated presentation and the nonvisualized, nonanimated presentation. Mountain residents gained significantly more information from the visualized and animated presentation than from the nonvisualized and nonanimated presentation.

Keywords: visualization, animation, presentation, communication, public, model, FVS-FFE, SVS, ponderosa pine, Douglas-fir, succession, fire behavior

Zouhar, Kristin; Smith, Jane Kapler; Sutherland, Steve; Brooks, Matthew L., eds. Wildland Fire in Ecosystems: Fire and Nonnative Invasive Plants. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-volume 6. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.

Abstract - This state-of-knowledge review of information on relationships between wildland fire and nonnative invasive plants can assist fire managers and other land managers concerned with prevention, detection, and eradication or control of nonnative invasive plants. The 16 chapters in this volume synthesize ecological and botanical principles regarding relationships between wildland fire and nonnative invasive plants, identify the nonnative invasive species currently of greatest concern in major bioregions of the United States, and describe emerging fire-invasive issues in each bioregion and throughout the nation. This volume can help increase understanding of plant invasions and fire and can be used in fire management and ecosystem-based management planning. The volume’s first section summarizes fundamental concepts regarding fire effects on invasions by nonnative plants, effects of plant invasions on fuels and fire regimes, and use of fire to control plant invasions. The second part identifies the nonnative invasive species of greatest concern and synthesizes information on the three topics covered in part one for nonnative invasives in seven major bioregions of the United States: Northeast, Southeast, Central, Interior West, Southwest Coastal, Northwest Coastal (including Alaska), and Hawaiian Islands. The third part analyzes knowledge gaps regarding fire and nonnative invasive plants, synthesizes information on management questions (nonfire fuel treatments, postfire rehabilitation, and postfire monitoring), summarizes key concepts described throughout the volume, and discusses urgent management issues and research questions.

Keywords: ecosystem, fire effects, fire management, fire regime, fire severity, fuels, grass/fire cycle, invasibility, invasiveness, monitoring, nonnative species, plant community, plant invasion, plant response, plants, prescribed fire, rehabilitation, succession, vegetation, wildfire


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