Developed by the National Technology & Development Program, Missoula, MT.


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This training is intended to be used with the Pocket Safety Guide for Dams and Impoundments.

Pocket Safety Guide for Dams and Impoundments
INTRODUCTION [1 of 3]

INTRODUCTION

Dams are essential to the infrastructure of the United States. They are built to store water for human consumption, power generation, flood control, irrigation, stock watering, wildlife, and recreation.


Photograph of a typical earthen dam

Typical earthen dam.

INTRODUCTION [2 of 3]

The National Inventory of Dams currently indicates our nation has more than 85,000 dams. The Forest Service owns or has under its special use authorization about 1,800 dams; more than 50 percent are beyond their design life. Due to their advanced age and limited maintenance, dams need to be assessed regularly to ensure they will not fail.


A failure can cause devastating losses to life and property. Dam safety is critical.


Photograph of a dam that has seen limited maintenance

Dam that has seen limited maintenance.

INTRODUCTION [3 of 3]

Dam owners play a major role in dam safety. This training will help land management employees and special use owners contribute to the safety of low hazard dams or impoundments. The training has five parts:


RESPONSIBILITY [1 of 2]

WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR A DAM?

The owners of a dam are responsible for safely operating and maintaining their dam.


There are two types of dams on National Forests, those owned and operated by the Forest Service and those owned and operated by holders of authorizations–Special Use permits, pre-Forest Service easements, Ditch Bill easements, Congressionally authorized, and Federal Energy Regulatory Commission authorized.


Dam outlet structure has not been maintained.

Dam outlet structure has not been maintained.

RESPONSIBILITY [2 of 2]

The extent of an owner's liability varies from State to State and depends on statutes and case law precedents. An owner could be held liable for any failure of a dam and all the damages resulting from its failure. Maintaining a safe dam is critical to preventing failures and limiting an owner's liability.


Spillway is blocked and could cause overtopping of the dam.

Spillway is blocked and could cause overtopping of the dam.

OVERVIEW [1 of 3]

OVERVIEW OF DAMS

Dams may either be manmade or natural. Manmade dams, also known as impoundments, are artificial barriers that impound or divert water on a temporary or long-term basis. Naturally occurring dams may be created by beavers, landslides or glacial deposits.


Photograph of a beaver dam blocking the spillway

Beaver dam blocking the spillway.

OVERVIEW [2 of 3]

The two most common manmade dams include gravity and embankment dams. Gravity dams are usually constructed of concrete or masonry. Embankment dams are constructed of earth, rock, or industrial waste materials. This training addresses earthen embankment dams.


Photograph of a typical earthen dam

Typical earthen embankment dam.

OVERVIEW [3 of 3]

Some of the essential features of a dam are:


This animation contains a schematic image of a typical earthen dam with essential features highlighted and labelled - when the cursor is placed near a label, a text box with a description of the particular feature appears.


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Scroll over the text for definitions.

FAILURES [1 of 8]

DAM FAILURES

Dams have many failure modes. Failure modes can include slope failures, consolidation, differential settlement, drain failures, outfall failure, spillway failure…the list is extensive.


Photograph depicting a minor failure that is progressing toward a failure of the dam

Minor failure that is progressing toward a failure of the dam.

FAILURES [2 of 8]

Failures occur in varying degrees, from minor to catastrophic. Minor failures are not an immediate threat to the overall stability or integrity of the dam. However, minor failures often lead to major failures or total breaching of the dam.


Example of a minor failure such as slope erosion

Minor failure such as slope erosion.

FAILURES [3 of 8]

Major failures involve the sudden and uncontrolled release of water. Major failures are often described as catastrophic since the damage they cause is often catastrophic. The top three categories of earthen dam failures are piping, overtopping, and structural.


Piping along the outlet pipe caused this dam to fail.

Piping along the outlet pipe caused this dam to fail.

FAILURES [4 of 8]

Piping is caused by the progressive development of internal erosion of embankment materials by uncontrolled seepage. Seepage is evident by the excessive growth of grass or plants, wet areas, or salt deposits on the downstream slope of the dam. Depressions or sink holes in the dam face can also be an indicator of internal erosion.


Photograph of piping through a dam

Seepage caused by piping through the dam's embankment.

FAILURES [5 of 8]

Overtopping of dams may be caused by an inadequate principal spillway design or clogging of the spillway by debris. Water troughs running across the top of the dam or down the downstream slope of the dam from past flooding events may be evidence of overtopping.


Low spots in the dam may allow for the dam to be overtopped.

Low spots in the dam may allow overtopping and concentrate flows.

FAILURES [6 of 8]

Structural failures are usually the result of seepage paths caused by inadequate foundation materials and the lack of properly designed seepage control measures. A boil at the downstream toe of the dam is a sign of uncontrolled seepage through the dam's foundation materials.


Photograph of a boil located downstream of a dam

Boil located downstream of a dam.

FAILURES [7 of 8]

Problems that may cause dam failure are:


This animation contains a schematic of a typical earthen dam with an array of common problems highlighted with a yellow warning symbol - when the cursor is placed near a warning symbol, a text box containing information about the problem will appear.


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Scroll over the warning symbols to identify problems that, if left unchecked, may lead to a dam failure.

FAILURES [8 of 8]

Each dam has a hazard potential classification. The rating indicates the potential impact the dam may have if it fails. It is not based on its current structural condition. There are three hazard classifications:



The earthen dams covered in this training are low hazard dams.

ASSESSMENT [1 of 7]

VISUAL CONDITION ASSESSMENT OF DAMS

Before heading into the field, prepare to conduct a visual condition assessment of a dam. Review the Job Hazard Analysis for working around dams.


Job Hazard Analysis

Click to view a sample dam inspection Job Hazard Analysis.

ASSESSMENT [2 of 7]

Dress in appropriate field clothing and sturdy boots.

Minimal Personal Protection Equipment for use in the field

Minimal personal protective equipment for use in the field.

ASSESSMENT [3 of 7]

Make sure to bring a camera to photograph any suspected problems. Another item to bring is the "Pocket Safety Guide for Dams and Impoundments." The guide will serve as a reminder of important features of dams and common problems. You may also want to bring a notebook, pen or pencil, measuring tape, and 6-foot ruler. The ruler will add scale to the photographs.


Basic record keeping tools

Basic recordkeeping tools.

ASSESSMENT [4 of 7]

A visual condition assessment of a dam should be conducted following a consistent sequence. This will reduce the chance that a problem will be missed. One way is to start at the downstream side of the dam and work your way toward the reservoir.


This animation contains a schematic of a typical earthen dam with a sequence of number placed over certain areas - when the cursor is placed near a number, a text box will appear. The numbers and text detail the chronological process required to conduct a dam assessment.


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Scroll over the numbers for instructions on conducting a dam assessment.

ASSESSMENT [5 of 7]

There are two types of visual condition assessments: cursory and hands-on. The cursory assessment involves looking at the dam as a whole and identifying possible defects or problems.


Cattle grazing near an earthen dam

Overall view of the dam.

ASSESSMENT [6 of 7]

The hands-on assessment involves getting within arm's reach of the feature looking for potential problems. If you feel you can't assess a feature safely, err on the side of caution and don't do it.


Spotting a problem and then investigating it at an arm's reach

Spotting a problem and then investigating it at an arm's reach.

ASSESSMENT [7 of 7]

If you think you have found a problem, photograph it, try to determine a possible cause, and follow the recommended actions in the pocket safety guide. The recommended actions you take will depend on your experience level. Inexperienced individuals need to report the problem to the appropriate Federal or State agency official or the dam owner.


Document the problem by taking pictures

Document the problem by taking pictures.

PROBLEMS [1 of 19]

DAM PROBLEMS

Let's take a look at some common problems you may see when visibly assessing the condition of earthen embankment dams.


Typical earthen dam

Typical earthen embankment dam.

PROBLEMS [2 of 19]

SINKHOLES—surface depressions. Sinkholes are caused by piping or the internal erosion of embankment materials or the foundation. A cave-in or a small hole in the wall of the outlet pipe or drain can also cause a sinkhole.


Sinkholes.      Whirlpool action is an indication of advanced piping.

Click on the images to view larger versions.


Piping will cause a dam embankment or foundation to fail if not repaired.


PROBLEMS [3 of 19]

SLIDE, SLUMP or SLIP—the unplanned movement of earth or rock down the upstream or downstream face of a dam. This can be caused by foundation movement, excessive seepage, seismic loading, drain failure, over steepened slopes, or a combination of those factors.


Slide, slump, or slip.      Slumping on the downstream face of a dam.

Click on the images to view larger versions.


If a slide, slump, or slip is not corrected, the principal spillway may become blocked or the dam may fail all together.


PROBLEMS [4 of 19]

BROKEN DOWN or MISSING RIPRAP—damage to the large stone, precast blocks, bags of cement, or other material on the upstream face of a dam. Riprap protects slopes against wave action, erosion, or scour. Riprap can be damaged through poor quality material, wave or ice action, or rocks rolling out.


Broken down or missing riprap.      Wave erosion on the unprotected face of a dam.

Click on the images to view larger versions.


The dam itself may erode if broken down or missing riprap is not replaced.


PROBLEMS [5 of 19]

EROSION—the wearing away of the upstream or downstream face of a dam by natural processes. Erosion can be caused by rainstorms or melting snow.


Erosion.      Erosion on the downstream face of a dam.

Click on the images to view larger versions.


If the erosion is not corrected, troughs may develop, deteriorating the downstream face, which may cause the dam to fail.


PROBLEMS [6 of 19]

TREES or OBSCURING VEGETATION—the unwanted growth of trees and bushes on the dam. Trees and bushes grow when dam faces have not been properly maintained. Grass is the desired vegetation on a dam to stabilize slopes.


Trees or obscuring vegetation.      Trees growing on the crest and the faces of a dam.

Click on the images to view larger versions.


Trees and bushes that are not removed from a dam can impede inspection and attract damaging rodents. In addition, the roots may allow seepage paths to develop and large trees can blow down during storms causing damage to a dam or even failure.


PROBLEMS [6b of 19]

Dam Failure Caused by a Tree


This animation shows the typical progression of a dam failure caused by the growth of a tree on the embankment of the dam.


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Click play to begin the demonstration. Use the green numbered tiles to progress through the animation.

PROBLEMS [7 of 19]

RODENT ACTIVITY or ANIMAL IMPACT—the unwanted presence of burrowing rodents or other animals on the dam. This activity is frequently caused by poor vegetation maintenance. An overabundance of vegetation, such as cattail-filled areas and trees close to the reservoir, provide an ideal habitat and foraging area for rodents and other animals.


Rodent activity.      Rodent holes in the dam face can cause dam failures.

Click on the images to view larger versions.


When rodents and other animals are not controlled, they can dig holes, tunnels, and caverns. Rodent tunnels into the dam embankment increase the possibility of seepage issues through the embankment which may lead to a piping failure of the dam.


PROBLEMS [8 of 19]

LIVESTOCK and CATTLE TRAFFIC—the unwanted crossing or grazing of livestock on a dam. Livestock traffic often is the result of damaged fences or barriers.


Livestock and cattle traffic.      Livestock paths on dam faces can lead to dam erosion.

Click on the images to view larger versions.


Livestock on the dam may create paths, possibly reducing erosion protection and causing erosion channels. Grazing livestock may also create bare areas where water can pool. As these pools evaporate, drying cracks may result.


PROBLEMS [9 of 19]

TRANSVERSE CRACKING—where the embankment of a dam has separated along a line perpendicular to the crest of the dam. This kind of cracking can be caused by uneven movement between adjacent zones within the embankment. It can also be caused by structural stress or instability.


Transverse cracking.      Transverse cracks can be an indication of dam instability.

Click on the images to view larger versions.


If transverse cracking is not corrected, the weakened area may cause additional movement, further deformation, or even failure. In other instances, water may enter the crack and saturate the surrounding area leading to a localized failure.


PROBLEMS [10 of 19]

LONGITUDINAL CRACKING—where the embankment of a dam has separated lengthwise. Longitudinal cracking is caused by uneven settlement between the adjacent sections or zones of the embankment. It can also be caused by a foundation failure or embankment slide.


Longitudinal crack.      Longitudinal cracks can be an indication of dam instability.

Click on the images to view larger versions.


If longitudinal cracking is not corrected, the weakened area may cause additional movement, further deformation, or even failure. In other instances, water may enter the crack, saturate the surrounding area, and lead to a localized failure.


PROBLEMS [11 of 19]

LOW AREA IN THE CREST OF A DAM—a depression on the top of a dam. Low areas are caused by uneven settling of the embankment or foundation, internal eroding of the embankment, spreading of the foundation, or improper grading of a road on the crest after construction.


Low area in the crest of a dam.      Low areas in the crest of a dam can reduce the freeboard.

Click on the images to view larger versions.


Low areas can reduce the available freeboard, the distance between the normal reservoir elevation and the crest of the dam. Reduced freeboard may allow water to spill over the top of the dam. Overtopping can erode the downstream face and toe of the dam and an eventual dam failure.


PROBLEMS [12 of 19]

EXCESSIVE QUANTITY or MUDDY WATER EXITING FROM A POINT—when water and sediment flows or leaks out of the downstream face of a dam. Rodents, frost, tree roots, and poor construction contribute to internal eroding of the embankment that may create pathways, channels, and piping through the dam. Leaks can also develop when seepage causes excessive pressure in the downstream face or toe of the dam.


Excessive quantity and/or muddy water exiting from a point.      Excessive water piping through the dam at the toe of the embankment.

Click on the images to view larger versions.


If leaks are not fixed, water may saturate parts of the embankment potentially causing embankment erosion, slides, or a dam failure.


PROBLEMS [13 of 19]

SEEPAGE WATER EXITING AS A BOIL IN THE FOUNDATION—when water bubbles out from underneath the foundation of a dam. Boils may be caused by a sand or gravel layer in the foundation that provides a pathway for water to flow.


Seepage water exiting as a boil in the foundation.      Sandbags surrounding a boil on the downstream side of the dam.

Click on the images to view larger versions.


Unfixed boils can cause the foundation to erode and lead to a dam failure.


PROBLEMS [14 of 19]

SEEPAGE WATER EXITING AT THE ABUTMENT CONTACT—when water flows between the interface of the dam's embankment and the valley's side slope. This seepage is caused when water flows through pathways in the native abutment soils, fractured bedrock, or the dam embankment.


Seepage exiting at the abutment contact (groin).      Seepage at the abutment contact (groin) can lead to dam failure.

Click on the images to view larger versions.


Flows at the abutment contact must be monitored over the long term to detect the relationship between the flow and the reservoir elevation. Abutment seepage transporting soil (looks like cloudy water) must be reported immediately.


PROBLEMS [15 of 19]

SEEPAGE WATER EXITING FROM A POINT ADJACENT TO THE OUTLET PIPE—when water flows through a dam along the side of the outlet. This seepage can be caused by a break in the outlet pipe, a hole in the pipe, or when a water pathway (piping) has developed along the outside of the pipe due to poor compaction.


Seepage water exiting from a point adjacent to the outlet pipe.      Piping of water alongside an outlet pipe.

Click on the images to view larger versions.


If seepage along the outlet is not corrected, the embankment may erode and the dam may fail.


PROBLEMS [16 of 19]

FAILURE OF CONCRETE or ROCK OUTFALL STRUCTURES—when the structure around the end of the outlet pipe has broken or the rock headwall has failed. Failure of concrete outfall structures may be caused by poor concrete quality or too much pressure on the nonreinforced concrete. Failure of rock outfall structures may be caused by blockage from rocks that roll down too steep of slopes.


Failure of a concrete outfall structure.      Rock failure around an outlet pipe.

Click on the images to view larger versions.


If the outfall structure is not repaired, the embankment may erode from exposure to outlet releases and lead to dam failure.


PROBLEMS [17 of 19]

OUTLET RELEASES ERODING THE TOE OF THE DAM—when reservoir water flowing through the outlet pipe causes a scour hole to develop underneath the outlet pipe. This erosion can be caused by an outlet pipe that is too short. It also can be caused when the end of the outlet pipe does not have an energy-dissipating pool or structure.


Outlet releases erode the toe of the dam.      A scour hole at an outlet erodes the toe of the slope.

Click on the images to view larger versions.


If the toe of the dam erodes, the downstream face may become too steep or progressive sloughing may occur and lead to dam failure.


PROBLEMS [18 of 19]

EXCESSIVE VEGETATION or DEBRIS IN THE SPILLWAY CHANNEL OR AROUND THE INLET—the unwanted presence of plants or other natural material in a dam's principal spillway channel or around the inlet. Typical causes are beavers constructing dams, dirt sliding, vegetation growing, and dead trees or other debris collecting in the channel or around the inlet.


Excessive vegetation or debris in a spillway channel.      A blocked spillway channel may cause overtopping of the dam.

Click on the images to view larger versions.


If the principal spillway channel or inlet is partially or completely blocked, it may overflow, possibly causing flow through the emergency spillway or the dam to overtop. Most earthen dam crests are not armored so overtopping can lead to significant structural damage and failure.


PROBLEMS [19 of 19]

EROSION OF SPILLWAY CHANNELS—the wearing away of the manmade channel that transports water from the reservoir to the natural downstream channel, especially during intense rainstorms or flows from the reservoir. In concrete-lined spillways, erosion occurs after the lining fails exposing the bed material. When this material is exposed, erosion hollows out the spillway foundation resulting in large voids and the eventual collapse of the spillway lining. Livestock hooves can also trigger damage by erosion especially in areas subject to flowing water like spillways. Livestock should never be allowed to graze on any part of a dam for any reason.


Erosion channels.      Erosion of the spillway channel may lead to slumps or slides of the spillway sides.

Click on the images to view larger versions.


If this erosion is not corrected, slides, slumps, or slips can occur reducing the spillway's capacity, leading to the dam overtopping and possibly failing as a result.


SUMMARY [1 of 4]

SUMMARY

In this training, you learned about dam owner responsibilities, common dam terms and features, possible dam failures, visual condition assessments of dams, and some of the most common dam problems. Most importantly, remember this training does not make you an expert but it will help you recognize potential problems that could result in dam failures.


For additional information, including useful terms and references, please refer to the pocket safety guide.

SUMMARY [2 of 4]

CERTIFICATE OF COMPLETION

Link to Certificate of Achievement

Click on the certificate to print and sign your name. Submit it to your supervisor or training coordinator for signature.


All safety training needs to be entered into AgLearn by your supervisor or training coordinator. Click here for information on how to enter this training into AgLearn.

SUMMARY [3 of 4]

CREDITS

PRODUCED BY:
U.S. Forest Service, Missoula Technology and Development Center


SPONSORED BY:
U.S. Forest Service, Washington Office of Engineering
U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency,
National Dam Safety Program


PROJECT LEADER: James Scott Groenier
SOCIOLOGIST: Lisa Outka-Perkins
EDITOR: Geraldine Wolf
DESIGNER: Amanda Determan
ILLUSTRATOR: E.R. Jenne


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Association of State Dam Safety Officials' Owner Outreach Committee
Kevin Bourne, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern/Intermountain Regions
Cliff Denning, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Eastern Region/Washington Office
Rene Renteria, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region
Steve Romero, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region
Charles Showers, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Missoula Technology and Development Center
Atiq Syed, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain/Southwest Regions

SUMMARY [4 of 4]

DISCLAIMER

The Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), has developed this information for the guidance of its employees, its contractors, and its cooperating Federal and State agencies and is not responsible for the interpretation or use of this information by anyone except its own employees. The use of trade, firm, or corporation names in this document is for the information and convenience of the reader and does not constitute an endorsement by the Department of any product or service to the exclusion of others that may be suitable.


The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability, and where applicable, sex, marital status, familial status, parental status, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, political beliefs, reprisal, or because all or part of an individual's income is derived from any public assistance program. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA's TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD). To file a complaint of discrimination, write to USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, 1400 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20250-9410, or call (800) 795-3272 (voice) or (202) 720-6382 (TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.