Research Project Summary: Effects of fall and spring prescribed burning in sagebrush steppe in east-central Oregon



RESEARCH PROJECT SUMMARY CITATION:
Ulev, Elena, compiler. 2008. Research Project Summary: Effects of fall and spring prescribed burning in sagebrush steppe in east-central Oregon. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

Sources: Unless otherwise indicated, the information in this Research Project Summary comes from the following papers:

Sapsis, David B. 1990. Ecological effects of spring and fall prescribed burning on basin big sagebrush/Idaho fescue--bluebunch wheatgrass communities. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 105 p. Thesis. [4].

Sapsis, David B.; Kauffman, J. Boone. 1991. Fuel consumption and fire behavior associated with prescribed fires in sagebrush ecosystems. Northwest Science. 65(4): 173-179. [5].

SPECIES INCLUDED IN THE SUMMARY:
Common names are used throughout this summary. For a complete list of the common and scientific names of species discussed in this summary and for links to FEIS species reviews, see the Appendix.

STUDY LOCATION:
The study was conducted on the Sheep Rock Unit of the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, southeastern Oregon [4,5].

SITE DESCRIPTION:
Elevations on the fall and spring burn sites range from 700 to 860 m. Slopes are 20% to 60% and face north. Soils are very stony clay-loam occurring on moderately deep and well drained slopes. Mean annual precipitation is 290 mm [4,5].

PREFIRE PLANT COMMUNITY:
The prefire plant community was a steppe community dominated by basin big sagebrush in the overstory and Idaho fescue and bluebunch wheatgrass in the understory. Fuels were partitioned into the following categories: grass/forbs live, grass/forbs dead, woody debris 0 to 0.63 cm DBH (1-hour timelag), woody debris 0.63 to 2.54 cm DBH (10-hour timelag), and woody debris >2.54 cm DBH (100-hour timelag) [4,5].

The prefire biomass of herbaceous fuels in both burn units exceeded minimum threshold values needed for fire spread. Total prefire aboveground biomass was significantly higher in fall- than in spring-burned plots, and moisture content of soil and vegetation was generally higher in spring-burned plots [4,5]:

Mean prefire aboveground biomass and moisture content measures on fall and spring burn plots [4,5]
Fuel variable Fire treatment
Fall Spring
Prefire aboveground biomass (Mg/ha)
Standing live basin big sagebrush* 4.11 1.67
Canopy cover of basin big sagebrush (%) 15 7.5
Standing dead basin big sagebrush* 1.96 1.26
Grass/forbs* 3.01 2.67
1-hour timelag* 1.80 0.86
10-hour timelag* 2.22 1.03
100-hour timelag* 2.72 1.35
Total aboveground biomass 10.59 6.23
Moisture content (%)
Soil surface 2.90 3.21
Dead grass/forbs 8.88 7.36
Live grass not sampled due to lack of vegetation 142.60
Sagebrush foliage* 97.19 186.02
10-hour timelag 4.59 4.99
*Significant difference between treatments (P<0.05).

Study sites are classified in the following plant community and probably historically experienced the fire regime described below:

Fire regime information on the vegetation community studied in this Research Project Summary. Fire regime characteristics are taken from the LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment Vegetation Model [3]. This vegetation model was developed by local experts using available literature and expert opinion as documented in the PDF file linked from the Potential Natural Vegetation Group listed below.
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
Basin big sagebrush Replacement 80% 50 10 100
Mixed 20% 200 50 300
*Fire Severities:
Replacement=Any fire that causes greater than 75% top removal of a vegetation-fuel type, resulting in general replacement of existing vegetation; may or may not cause a lethal effect on the plants.
Mixed=Any fire burning more than 5% of an area that does not qualify as a replacement, surface, or low-severity fire; includes mosaic and other fires that are intermediate in effects [1,2].

PLANT PHENOLOGY:
Phenology of the vegetation before the fall and spring fires was not described in detail, but vegetation was likely actively growing before the spring fire and beginning to senesce at the time of the fall fire.

FIRE SEASON/SEVERITY CLASSIFICATION:
Fall/moderate to high
Spring/low

FIRE DESCRIPTION:
The research objective was to examine the effects of fall and spring burning in a basin big sagebrush/Idaho fescue-bluebunch wheatgrass plant community, including fuel consumption and plant species' responses to fire treatments [4,5].

Prefire data for the fall fire were collected in July and August 1987, and fall burning was conducted on 25 September 1987. Postfire data for the fall fire were collected in May and June 1988 (postfire year 1) and June and July 1989 (postfire year 2). For the spring prescribed fire, prefire data were collected in April and May 1988, and spring burning was conducted on 24 May 1988. Postfire data for the spring fire were collected in June and July 1989 (postfire year 1); data were not collected for the spring fire in postfire year 2. Each burn unit was 30 50 m in area [4,5].

Ambient temperatures during the fall burn were 15 C to 18 C, relative humidity was 41% to 48%, and windspeeds were 0 to 15 km/h. Ambient temperatures during the spring burn were 23 C to 35 C, relative humidity was 21% to 24%, and windspeeds were 0 to 17 km/h [4,5].

Fire behavior: Higher aboveground biomass and lower fuel moisture in fall-burned plots resulted in significant differences in fire behavior parameters in fall-burned plots compared to spring-burned plots [4,5]:

Fire behavior on fall and spring burn plots. Data are means [4,5].
Variable Treatment
Fall Spring
Flame length (m)* 4.14 1.74
Fireline intensity (kW/m)* 6,441 883
Flame height (m)* 2.17 1.12
Flame depth (m)* 10.35 2.56
Rate of spread (m/s) 1.57 0.23
Total energy release (kJ/m)* 18,119 9,267
Residence time (s) 6.92 11.66
* Significant difference in fire behavior between treatments (P<0.05).

Fuel consumption and residual fuel loads: Fuel consumption was significantly greater on fall- than on spring-burned plots for 10-hour and 100-hour fuels as a result of greater fuel loads and lower fuel moisture. Total postfire biomass of residual fuels was not significantly different between treatments [4,5]:

Mean fuel consumption and residual fuel loads in fall and spring prescribed burn plots [4,5]
Variable

Treatment

Fall Spring
Fuel consumption (Mg/ha and % consumption)
Fine fuels 3.64 95% 2.76 92%
1-hour timelag 1.65 92% 0.66 77%
10-hour timelag* 1.90 86% 0.54 52%
100-hour timelag* 2.63 97% 1.27 94%
Total biomass* 9.8 93% 5.23 84%
Residual fuel loads (Mg/ha)
Fine fuels 0.23 0.23
1-hour timelag 0.15 0.20
10-hour timelag 0.32 0.49
100-hour timelag 0.09 0.08
Total biomass 0.79 1.00
*Significant difference in fuel consumption between treatments (P<0.05).

FIRE EFFECTS ON PLANT COMMUNITY: Responses of dominant bunchgrasses to fire: Both bluebunch wheatgrass and Idaho fescue showed good survivorship and recovery from the fires. Postfire survivorship, abundance, growth, and production of seed-bearing culms were generally higher for bluebunch wheatgrass than for Idaho fescue [4], probably due to bluebunch wheatgrass's larger stature.

Survivorship: Bluebunch wheatgrass showed more resistance to fire-induced mortality than Idaho fescue. Survival of both species was greater after spring than fall fires, likely due to their higher moisture contents in spring. Most individuals killed by fall fires were located near basin big sagebrush plants [4].

Mean first-year mortality (% of 8-32 individually marked plants) of bluebunch wheatgrass and Idaho fescue after prescribed fires [4]
Species Treatment
Fall Spring Control
Bluebunch wheatgrass 5.2a 4.4b 0b
Idaho fescue 20.1a 3.5b 0.7b
Different superscripted letters denote a significant difference in mortality between treatments (P<0.10).

Abundance:
Density: Mean density of bluebunch wheatgrass was relatively constant across treatments. Density of Idaho fescue was greater on fall-burned plots compared to control plots throughout the study period [4]:

Mean density (plants/m) of bluebunch wheatgrass and Idaho fescue by treatment and year [4]
Year Treatment
Fall Spring Control
Bluebunch wheatgrass
Prefire 2.2 3.3 1.8
Postfire year 1 2.2 3.8 1.8
Postfire year 2 1.9 ND* 2.0
Idaho fescue
Prefire 18.8a 3.2 1.7
Postfire year 1 17.3a 2.2 1.5
Postfire year 2 17.3a ND 1.2
*ND denotes that data were not collected for postfire year 2.
A superscripted letter denotes a significant difference between fire treatment and control (P<0.1).

Basal cover of bluebunch wheatgrass was relatively stable across time on fire and control plots. Basal cover of Idaho fescue was significantly greater on fall-burned plots compared to control plots throughout the study period [4]:

Mean basal area (cm) of bluebunch wheatgrass and Idaho fescue by treatment and year [4]
Year Treatment
Fall Spring Control
Bluebunch wheatgrass
Prefire 198.5a 161.2 189.3
Postfire year 1 214.7ab1 148.9 153.6
Postfire year 2 271.2b1 ND* 171.8
Idaho fescue
Prefire 60.9 40.5 66.1
Postfire year 1 46.9 45.6 56.8
Postfire year 2 54.8 ND 48.6
*ND denotes that data were not collected for postfire year 2.
Different superscripted letters denote a significant difference between years within treatments; a superscripted number denotes a significant difference between treatment and control within year a (P<0.1).

Mean basal area of bluebunch wheatgrass increased by 36% from prefire levels to postfire year 2 after fire burning; the decrease observed after spring burning was not statistically significant. Idaho fescue showed decreases after fall and spring fires, but none were significant [4].

Mean basal area (cm) of bluebunch wheatgrass and Idaho fescue by treatment and year [4]
Year Treatment
  Fall Spring Control
Bluebunch wheatgrass
Prefire 67.1a 33.6a 64.8a 17.1 70.0a 4.6a
Postfire year 1 59.5b 11.6b1 59.6b1 16.7 63.8b 28.1b
Postfire year 2 83.1c1 58.7c1 ND* ND 73.4a 22.6c
Idaho fescue
Prefire 42.7a 17.7a 19.4a 0.0a 39.6a 22.4a
Postfire year 1 14.7b1 0.0b 26.2b1 2.3b1 18.3b 0.0b
Postfire year 2 36.8a 11.1c1 ND ND 39.0a 6.9c
*ND denotes that data were not collected for postfire year 2.
Different superscripted letters denote a significant difference between years within treatments. A superscripted number denotes a significant difference between treatment and control within years (P<0.1).

Growth and reproduction: Fire effects were variable for height and flowering culm production for both bluebunch wheatgrass and Idaho fescue. Mean maximum height of bluebunch wheatgrass and Idaho fescue on fall burns significantly decreased from prefire levels in postfire year 1 but significantly increased between postfire year 1 and postfire year 2. By postfire year 2, mean number of flowering culms had significantly increased on fall-burned compared to prefire and control plots for bluebunch wheatgrass but had decreased for Idaho fescue. Spring burning decreased maximum height of bluebunch wheatgrass compared to prefire and control plots, but spring burning did not significantly change the number of bluebunch wheatgrass's flowering culms compared to prefire numbers. For Idaho fescue, spring burning significantly increased the mean number of flowering culms and maximum plant height compared to the number of culms and maximum plant height on prefire and control plots [4].

Mean height (cm) and number of flowering culms of bluebunch wheatgrass and Idaho fescue by treatment and year [4]
Year Treatment
Fall Spring Control
height number height number height number
Bluebunch wheatgrass
Prefire 67.1a 33.6a 64.8a 17.1 70.0a 4.6a
Postfire year 1 59.5b 11.6b1 59.6b1 16.7 63.8b 28.1b
Postfire year 2 83.1c1 58.7c1 ND* ND 73.4a 22.6c
Idaho fescue
Prefire 42.7a 17.7a 19.4a 0.0a 39.6a 22.4a
Postfire year 1 14.7b1 0.0b 26.2b1 2.3b1 18.3b 0.0b
Postfire year 2 36.8a 11.1c1 ND ND 39.0a 6.9c
*ND denotes that data were not collected for postfire year 2.
Different superscripted letters denote a significant difference between years within treatments. A superscripted number denotes a significant difference between treatment and control within years (P<0.1).

Responses of annual grasses, forbs, and woody species: Plant species diversity increased in the sagebrush steppe community on both fall-and spring-burned plots compared to prefire levels. The prescribed fires generally increased annual forb abundance and decreased abundance of annual grasses and woody species [4].

Density: Prescribed burning generally reduced the density of annual grasses compared to prefire densities. The exception was small sixweeks grass, which increased the year after fall fire but returned to prefire density in postfire year 2. Both fall and spring burning caused high mortality of basin big sagebrush, broom snakeweed, and western juniper, the only tree on study plots. Fire had no significant effect on green rabbitbrush density [4].

Mean density (plants/m) of species with significant responses to fire, by treatment and year. 1987 is the prefire year for the fall treatment; 1988 is the prefire year for the spring treatment [4].
Species Treatment
Fall Spring Control
1987 1988 1989 1988 1989 1978 1988 1989
Annual grasses
rattlesnake brome 23 0 2 3.0 0 13 0 0
soft chess 82a 10b 0b 37a 0b 160a 0b 0b
cheatgrass 446a 43b 169b 552 85b 524 662 476
small sixweeks grass 1.9 11 1.9 0 0 0 0 0
Shrubs
basin big sagebrush 3,033a 0b 0b 987 133 1,334 1,334 1,334
shadscale 133 0 0 0 0 667 667 667
green rabbitbrush 33 33 33 240 240 44 44 44
broom snakeweed 500 0 0 400 112 889 1,121 946
Tree
western juniper 456 0 0 369 0 733 733 1,040
Within treatments, different superscripted letters denote a significant difference between years (P<0.10).

Frequency: Out of a total of 59 plant species, relatively few showed changes in frequency compared to prefire levels. Only 10, 9, and 4 species showed significant changes in frequency after fall fire, spring fire, and control treatments, respectively. Both fall and spring burning caused a short-term reduction in cheatgrass, but cheatgrass returned to prefire levels by the second postfire year on the fall burn. Sagebrush Mariposa lily frequency increased greatly following fall burning. Western yarrow and basin big sagebrush increased greatly after spring burning; increases in basin big sagebrush were due mostly to germinants [4].

Mean frequency (%) of plant species with significant responses to fire, by treatment and year. 1987 is the prefire year for the fall treatment; 1988 is the prefire year for the spring treatment [4].
Species

     Year

1987 1988 1989
Fall fire
Annual grasses
rattlesnake brome 22a 2b 4b
cheatgrass 87a 54b 84a
Annual forbs
spring draba 0a 0a 59b
Canadian horseweed 0a 2a 15b
chaparral willowherb 4a 3a 14b
jagged chickweed 45a 11b 55c
threadleaf phacelia 0a 1a 27b
tumble mustard 1a 1a 27b
Perennial forbs
sagebrush Mariposa lily 2a 3a 20b
yellow salsify 9a 12a 3b
Spring fire
Annual grasses
soft chess *ND 27a 3b
cheatgrass ND 89a 73b
Annual forbs
jagged chickweed ND 33a 72b
prickly lettuce ND 9a 24b
Perennial forbs
western yarrow ND 46a 67b
smallflower woodland-star ND 24a 0b
bigseed biscuitroot ND 15a 1b
sagebrush false dandelion ND 20a 4b
Shrub
basin big sagebrush ND 13a 50b
Control
Annual grass
rattlesnake brome 10a 0b 0b
Perennial forbs
western yarrow 2a 17b 39b
nineleaf biscuitroot 0a 17b 1a
Shrub
basin big sagebrush 2a 9a 33b
Within rows, different superscripted letters denote a significant difference between years (P<0.10).

Plants showing no changes or statistically insignificant changes in response to fire are listed below [4].

Changes in relative plant frequency (%) relative to prefire conditions. "+" indicates significant increase, "-" indicates significant decrease, "0" indicates no significant change (P<0.1). Empty cells indicate the species was not found on that treatment unit [4].
Common name Scientific name Response to treatment
Fall burn** Spring burn*** Control****
Annual grasses
rattlesnake brome Bromus brizeformis - - 0 - -
soft chess Bromus hordaceus
(Bromus mollis)*
0 0 - 0 0
cheatgrass Bromus tectorum - 0 - 0 0
small sixweeks grass Vulpia microstachys
(Festuca microstachys)*
0 0 0 0 0
Perennial grasses
bottlebrush squirreltail Elymus elymoides
(Sitanion hystrix)*
0 0    
Idaho fescue Festuca idahoensis 0 0 0 0 0
needle-and-thread grass Hesperostipa comata
(Stipa comata)*
0 0    
prairie Junegrass Koeleria macrantha
(Koeleria cristata)*
0 0   0 0
bulbous bluegrass Poa bulbosa 0
Kentucky bluegrass Poa pratensis 0 0 0 0 0
Sandberg bluegrass Poa secunda
(Poa sandbergii)
0 0 0 0 0
bluebunch wheatgrass Pseudoroegneria spicata
(Agropyron spicatum)*
0 0 0 0 0
Annual forbs
pale madwort Alyssum alysoides 0 0 0 0 0
bristly fiddleneck Amsinckia tessellata 0
rough eyelashweed Blepharipappus scaber 0
sticky chickweed Cerastium glomeratum
(C. viscosum)*
0 0 0 0 0
thyme-leaf sandmat Chamaesyce serpyllifolia
(Euphorbia serpyllifolia)*
0 0 0  
lambsquarters Chenopodium album 0 0
miner's-lettuce Claytonia perfoliata
(Montia perfoliata)*
0 0    
Canadian horseweed Conyza canadensis 0 + 0
maiden blue-eyed Mary Collinsia parviflora 0
pinnate tansymustard Descurainia pinnata 0 0
spring draba Draba verna 0 + 0 0 0
chaparral willowherb Epilobium minutum 0 + 0 0 0
cutleaf filaree Erodium cicutarium
stickywilly Galium aparine 0 0 0
common sunflower Helianthus annuus 0 0  0
jagged chickweed Holosteum umbellatum + + + 0 0
branched lagophylla Lagophylla ramosissima 0 0 0 0
clasping pepperweed Lepidium perfoliatum 0 0 0 0 0
threadleaf phacelia Phacelia linearis 0 + 0 0 0
longhorn plectritis Plectritis macrocera 0 0 0 0 0
tumble mustard Sisymbium altissimum 0 + 0 0 0
common dandelion Taraxacum officinale
Perennial forbs
western yarrow Achillea millefolium 0 0 + + +
low pussytoes Antennaria dimorpha 0 0 0 0 0
basalt milkvetch Astragalus filipes 0 0 0 0 0
woollypod milkvetch Astragalus purshii 0
sagebrush mariposa lily Calochortus macrocarpus 0 + 0
heart-podded hoary cress Cardaria draba 0 0 0
bull thistle Cirsium vulgare 0
largeflower hawksbeard Crepis occidentalis 0 0 0
threadleaf fleabane Erigeron filifolius 0 0 0 0
desert yellow fleabane Erigeron linearis 0 0 0
shaggy fleabane Erigeron pumilus 0 0 0
Blue Mountain buckwheat Eriogonum strictum 0 0 0
prickly lettuce Lactuca serriola 0 0 + 0 0
smallflower woodland-star Lithophragma parviflorum -
bigseed biscuitroot Lomatium macrocarpum 0 0 - 0 0
nineleaf biscuitroot Lomatium triternatum 0 0 0 + 0
sagebrush false dandelion Nothocalais troximoides
(Microseris troximoides)*
0 0 - 0 0
silverleaf phacelia Phacelia hastata 0
woolly groundsel Packera cana
(Senecio canus)*
0 0 0 0 0
spearleaf stonecrop Sedum lanceolatum 0 0 0 0 0
Munro's globemallow Sphaeralcea munroana 0 0
common mullein Verbascum thapsus 0
Shrubs
basin big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata
   subsp. tridentata
0 0 + 0 +
chadscale Atriplex confertifolia 0 0 0 0
green rabbitbrush Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus 0 0
broom snakeweed Gutierrezia sarothrae 0 0 0 0 0
Tree
western juniper Juniperus occidentalis 0 0 0 0
*For species that have undergone scientific name changes, scientific names in parentheses are those used in the research paper.
**1st value is for postfire year 1 (1988) relative to prefire (1987); 2nd value is for postfire year 2 (1989).
***Relative to prefire (1988).
****1st value is for 1988 relative to 1987; 2nd value is for 1989 relative to 1987.

Fire effects on the seed bank: In greenhouse trials using soil and duff collected from burned and unburned plots, both fall and spring fires caused significant reductions in viable soil-stored seed populations. Fall fire significantly reduced the number of viable cheatgrass, spring draba, and jagged chickweed seeds. Spring fire reduced the number of viable cheatgrass and cutleaf filaree seeds [4].

Greenhouse trials and burned and unburned soil and duff samples by fire treatment. Data are mean number of germinants in paired burned and unburned soil samples (0.04 m) [4].
Species and season of burning

Treatment

Burned Unburned
Fall
cheatgrass 19* 184
spring draba 8.2* 95
cutleaf filaree 0.6 3.8
jagged chickweed 5.4* 151
common dandelion 0.2 1.4
Spring
cheatgrass 4.0* 161
spring draba 12.8 67
cutleaf filaree 4.2* 2.0
jagged chickweed 0 2.0
*Significant difference between burned and unburned treatments (P<0.05).

FIRE MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS:
Fire behavior and fuel consumption in basin big sagebrush plant communities differed greatly between fall and spring burning. Differences in active flaming were related to fuel moisture, and differences in fuel consumption and total energy were related to fuel availability. Fall fires stimulated growth of bluebunch wheatgrass and temporarily reduced the size and abundance of Idaho fescue plants. Both fall and spring burning shifted plant community composition toward dominance by forbs and native perennial bunchgrasses. Abundance all woody species except green rabbitbrush was reduced by the fires. High postfire frequency of basin big sagebrush germinants on spring-burned plots suggests that basin big sagebrush may reestablish from seed relatively quickly from the spring fire. Sapsis [4] recommends burning in either fall or spring to restore native vegetation in basin big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass-Idaho fescue communities. Spring burning may also lessen the fire hazard for the coming summer.

SPECIES INCLUDED IN THE SUMMARY:
This Research Project Summary contains fire effects and/or fire response information on the following species. For further information, follow the highlighted links to the FEIS reviews for those species.

Appendix

Common name Scientific name
Grasses
Annual grasses
rattlesnake brome Bromus briziformis
soft chess Bromus hordaceus (annual or biennial)
(Bromus mollis)*
cheatgrass Bromus tectorum
small sixweeks grass Vulpia microstachys
(Festuca microstachys)*
Perennial bunchgrasses
Idaho fescue Festuca idahoensis
bluebunch wheatgrass Pseudoroegneria spicata
(Agropyron spicatum)*
Forbs
Annual forbs
pale madwort Alyssum alysoides
bristly fiddleneck Amsinckia tessellata
rough eyelashweed Blepharipappus scaber
sticky chickweed Cerastium glomeratum
(C. viscosum)*
thyme-leaf sandmat Chamaesyce serpyllifolia
(Euphorbia serpyllifolia)*
lambsquarters Chenopodium album
miner's-lettuce Claytonia perfoliata
(Montia perfoliata)
maiden blue-eyed Mary Collinsia parviflora
Canadian horseweed Conyza canadensis
(annual or biennial)
pinnate tansymustard Descurainia pinnata
spring draba Draba verna
chaparral willowherb Epilobium minutum
cutleaf filaree Erodium cicutarium
stickywilly Galium aparine
common sunflower Helianthus annuus
jagged chickweed Holosteum umbellatum
branched lagophylla Lagophylla ramosissima
clasping pepperweed Lepidium perfoliatum
(annual or biennial)
threadleaf phacelia Phacelia linearis
longhorn plectritis Plectritis macrocera
tumble mustard Sisymbrium altissimum
(annual or biennial)
yellow salsify Tragopogon dubius
(annual or biennial)
Perennial forbs
western yarrow Achillea millefolium 
low pussytoes Antennaria dimorpha
basalt milkvetch Astragalus filipes
woollypod milkvetch Astragalus purshii
sagebrush Mariposa lily Calochortus macrocarpus
Canadian horseweed Conyza canadensis
(biennial or perennial)
prickly lettuce Lactuca serriola
(biennial or perennial)
smallflower woodland-star Lithophragma parviflorum
bigseed biscuitroot Lomatium macrocarpum
nineleaf biscuitroot Lomatium triternatum
sagebrush false dandelion Nothocalais troximoides
common dandelion Taraxacum officinale
Shrubs
basin big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata subsp. tridentata
shadscale Atriplex confertifolia
green rabbitbrush Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus
broom snakeweed Gutierrezia sarothrae
Tree
western juniper Juniperus occidentalis
*For species that have undergone scientific name changes, scientific names in parentheses are those used in the research paper.

REFERENCES:


1. Hann, Wendel; Havlina, Doug; Shlisky, Ayn; [and others]. 2005. Interagency fire regime condition class guidebook. Version 1.2, [Online]. In: Interagency fire regime condition class website. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service; U.S. Department of the Interior; The Nature Conservancy; Systems for Environmental Management (Producer). Variously paginated [+ appendices]. Available: http://www.frcc.gov/docs/1.2.2.2/Complete_Guidebook_V1.2.pdf [2007, May 23]. [66734]
2. LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment. 2005. Reference condition modeling manual (Version 2.1), [Online]. In: LANDFIRE. Cooperative Agreement 04-CA-11132543-189. Boulder, CO: The Nature Conservancy; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service; U.S. Department of the Interior (Producers). 72 p. Available: http://www.landfire.gov/downloadfile.php?file=RA_Modeling_Manual_v2_1.pdf [2007, May 24]. [66741]
3. LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment. 2007. Rapid assessment reference condition models, [Online]. In: LANDFIRE. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Lab; U.S. Geological Survey; The Nature Conservancy (Producers). Available: http://www.landfire.gov/models_EW.php [2008, April 18] [66533]
4. Sapsis, David B. 1990. Ecological effects of spring and fall prescribed burning on basin big sagebrush/Idaho fescue--bluebunch wheatgrass communities. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 105 p. Thesis. [16579]
5. Sapsis, David B.; Kauffman, J. Boone. 1991. Fuel consumption and fire behavior associated with prescribed fires in sagebrush ecosystems. Northwest Science. 65(4): 173-179. [16594]

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