Research Project Summary: Response of vegetation to prescribed burning in a Jeffrey pine-California black oak woodland and a deergrass meadow at Cuyamaca Rancho State Park, California



RESEARCH PROJECT SUMMARY CITATION:
Fryer, Janet L., compiler. 2007. Research Project Summary: Response of vegetation to prescribed burning in a Jeffrey pine-California black oak woodland and a deergrass meadow at Cuyamaca Rancho State Park, California. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [ ].

Sources: Unless otherwise indicated, the information in this Research Project Summary comes from the following papers:

Lathrop, Earl W.; Martin, Bradford D. 1982. Response of understory vegetation to prescribed burning in yellow pine forests of Cuyamaca Rancho State Park, California. Aliso. 10(2): 329-343. [4]

Martin, Bradford D. 1981. Vegetation responses to prescribed burning in a mixed-conifer woodland, Cuyamaca Rancho State Park, California. Loma Linda, CA: Loma Linda University. 112 p. Thesis. [5].

Martin, Bradford D. 1982. Vegetation responses to prescribed burning in Cuyamaca Rancho State Park, California. In: Conrad, C. Eugene; Oechel, Walter C., technical coordinators. Proceedings of the symposium on dynamics and management of Mediterranean-type ecosystems; 1981 June 22-26; San Diego, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-58. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 617. [6].

SPECIES INCLUDED IN THE SUMMARY:
See the Appendix.

STUDY LOCATION:
The study sites were in Cuyamaca Rancho State Park in eastern San Diego County, California. Burning was conducted on the West Mesa and East Mesa areas of the park [4,6]. There were 5 burn sites: 1 on West Mesa at Paso Picacho, 2 on East Mesa at Granite Springs, and 2 on East Mesa at Oakzanita [5].

SITE DESCRIPTION:
Elevations at the burn sites were: 1,493 m at Paso Picacho, 1,515 m at Granite Springs, and 1,478 m at Oakzanita. Other site information was not provided.

PREFIRE PLANT COMMUNITY:
The Paso Picacho site was a mixed-conifer Jeffrey pine-California black oak (Pinus jeffreyi-Quercus kelloggii) woodland with a chaparral understory. Incense-cedar (Calocedrus decurrens) dominated the midstory, and pointleaf manzanita (Arctostaphylos pungens) was the dominant understory shrub. Burn size was approximately 6 ha [5].

The first of the 2 Granite Springs fires was conducted on a mixed-conifer Jeffrey pine-California black oak woodland with a chaparral shrub/deergrass (Muhlenbergia rigens) understory. Pointleaf manzanita was the dominant understory shrub. The burn was approximately 85 ha in size. The second fire was on a deergrass meadow and was 0.1 ha in size. Associated species in the deergrass meadow included American bird's-foot trefoil (Lotus unifoliolatus), western yarrow (Achillea millefolium), and California goldenrod (Solidago californica) [5].

The first of the 2 Oakzanita fires was also conducted on a mixed-conifer Jeffrey pine-California black oak woodland. The understory was chaparral shrubs, dominated by pointleaf manzanita. Eastern Mojave buckwheat (Eriogonum fasciculatum) and California coffeeberry (Rhamnus californica) were common associates. The mixed-conifer burn was approximately 1.2 ha in size. The second fire was on a deergrass meadow and was 0.1 ha in size [5].

Study sites are classified in the following plant community and probably experienced the historic fire regime described below:

Fire regime information on the vegetation community studied in this Research Project Summary. Fire regime characteristics are taken from the LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment Vegetation Model [3]. This vegetation model was developed by local experts using available literature and expert opinion as documented in the .pdf file linked from the name of the Potential Natural Vegetation Group listed below.
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
Mixed conifer (north slopes) Replacement 5% 250    
Mixed 7% 200    
Surface or low 88% 15 10 40
Mixed conifer (south slopes) Replacement 4% 200    
Mixed 16% 50    
Surface or low 80% 10    
California grassland Replacement 100% 2 1 3
Fire Severities: Replacement=Any fire that causes greater than 75% top removal of a vegetation-fuel type, resulting in general replacement of existing vegetation; may or may not cause a lethal effect on the plants. Surface or low=Any fire that causes less than 25% upper layer replacement and/or removal in a vegetation-fuel class but burns 5% or more of the area. Mixed=Any fire burning more than 5% of an area that does not qualify as a replacement, surface, or low-severity fire; includes mosaic and other fires that are intermediate in effects [1,2].

PLANT PHENOLOGY
Plant phenology was not described. Plants would have been actively growing during the spring fires and dormant during the late fall fires.

FIRE SEASON/SEVERITY CLASSIFICATION:
Late fall/moderate
Spring/moderate

FIRE DESCRIPTION:
In April 1978, Cuyamaca Rancho State Park staff initiated a prescribed burning program to restore frequent fire in Cuyamaca Rancho State Park communities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of prescribed fires in reducing understory shrubs in mixed-conifer woodlands and in increasing grass productivity for wildlife in mountain meadows [5].

An adjacent, unburned control was used for comparison at each burn site. Conditions on burning days were [4,5]:

Dates and weather conditions during prescribed fires at Cuyamaca Rancho State Park
Site and community Date Air temperature (°C) Relative humidity (%) 10-hr fuelstick moisture content (%) Windspeed (km/hr)
Paso Picacho, mixed-conifer/chaparral fire 24 Apr. 1978 18 30 9-12 ≤16
Granite Springs, mixed-conifer/chaparral/deergrass and deergrass meadow fires 11-15 Dec. 1978 13 17-37 7.5 4.0-9.6
Oakzanita, mixed-conifer fire 3 Dec. 1979 18-25 18-25 6-8 0-6.4
Oakzanita, deergrass meadow fire 16 Apr. 1980 not measured not measured not measured not measured

FIRE EFFECTS ON PLANT COMMUNITY:
Mixed-conifer fires:
Trees and shrubs—Most shrubs were killed or top-killed. The fires had little impact on saplings or larger trees. Across sites, there were no significant differences in tree density or basal area between burned and unburned control sites in postfire year 2 [4,5,6]. The postfire year 2 survey showed the Paso Picacho fire reduced total density of trees and shrubs 15.3% compared to the control. Tree density reduction was not statistically significant; however, shrubs were reduced 91% compared to the control (P<0.1). Total density (all size classes) of pointleaf manzanita, the dominant understory shrub, was reduced 10.9% (P<0.02). Most top-killed shrubs were in the 2- to 8-cm DBH size class. Results were similar at Granite Springs and Oakzanita [5]: Most shrub reduction was in the 2- to 8-cm size class. At Granite Springs, shrubs were reduced 13% (P<0.05) compared to the control; reduction at Oakzanita was 60% (P not reported). At Oakzanita, some pointleaf manzanitas grew in clumped "islands" surrounded by ground too bare to carry fire. Pointleaf manzanitas on islands generally escaped the fire [5]; however, pointleaf manzanita dominance was still reduced 93% compared to the unburned control [5,6]. By postfire year 1.5, Eastwood manzanita, chaparral whitethorn, Palmer ceanothus, birchleaf mountain-mahogany, and skunkbush sumac were sprouting from root crowns or lignotubers on all burned sites where they were present before the fires [4]. Density and dominance of trees and shrubs are shown in the 3 tables below. Relative dominance is based on relative basal area [5].

Mean total density and relative dominance of shrubs and trees in 100-m˛ burned and control mixed-conifer plots in the summer of postfire year 2 at Paso Picacho, Granite Springs, and Oakzanita
Area Density (plants/ha) Relative dominance (%)
Burn Control Burn Control
Paso Picacho
     shrubs 43 480 2.96 16.42
     trees 1,039 1,165 97.04 83.59
Granite Springs
     shrubs 3 31 0.11 1.44
     trees 345 369 99.99 98.56
Oakzanita
     shrubs 240 3,529 12.45 54.28
     trees 407 374 87.55 46.40
Total
     shrubs 286 4,040 3.91 32.25
     trees 1,917 1,782 96.09 67.75

Mean density and relative dominance of large trees and shrubs (≥9 in. DBH) in 100-m˛ mixed-conifer plots in the summer of postfire year 2 at Paso Picacho, Granite Springs, and Oakzanita
Species Density (plants/ha) Relative dominance (%)
Burn Control Burn Control
Paso Picacho
white fir 3 4 0.11 0.03
incense-cedar 760 846 31.75 44.28
limber pine 3 ----* 0.11 ----
Jeffrey pine 236 77 46.03 17.14
coast live oak 43 ---- 2.06 ----
canyon live oak 30 77 1.11 4.14
California black oak 47 35 15.87 18.00
pointleaf manzanita 40 ---- 2.86 ----
Palmer ceanothus 3 ---- 0.05 ----
oceanspray ---- 4 ---- <0.01
Granite Springs
Jeffrey pine 218 169 48.89 50.00
coast live oak ---- 79 ---- 4.12
California black oak 127 121 51.10 44.44
Eastwood manzanita ---- 7 --- 0.36
pointleaf manzanita ---- 24 ---- 1.08
birchleaf mountain-mahogany 3 ---- 0.11 ----
Oakzanita
Jeffrey pine 107 209 24.22 17.50
coast live oak 273 137 49.22 23.20
California scrub oak ---- 10 ---- 1.50
California black oak 27 28 14.11 5.70
Eastwood manzanita ---- 28 ---- 1.00
pointleaf manzanita 233 3,318 12.43 48.40
chaparral whitethorn ---- 18 ---- 0.20
Palmer ceanothus ---- 18 ---- 0.80
birchleaf mountain-mahogany 7 9 0.02 0.08
eastern Mojave buckwheat ---- 73 ---- 0.20
California coffeeberry ---- 55 ---- 2.10
*not present.

Relative coverage by size class was [5]:

Basal area percentage of trees and shrubs by size class in 100-m˛ mixed-conifer plots at Paso Picacho and Granite Springs in the summer of postfire year 2. Data for Oakzanita were not reported.
Species Size class (DBH in cm)
2-8 9-16 17-24 25-32 33-40 41-48 49-56 57+ Total (%)
Paso Picacho, burn plots
white fir ----* 0.28 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.28
incense-cedar 19.94 27.06 8.83 4.27 1.42 2.28 0.85 0.57 65.24
limber pine ---- 0.28 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.28
Jeffrey pine 2.28 6.56 3.42 1.42 2.28 ---- 2.28 1.99 20.28
coast live oak 1.71 0.28 0.57 0.85 ---- 0.28 ---- ---- 3.70
canyon live oak ---- 0.85 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 2.56
California black oak ---- 0.57 0.28 0.28 0.28 1.14 0.85 0.57 3.99
pointleaf manzanita 0.57 0.57 1.14 0.85 ---- ---- 0.28 ---- 3.42
Palmer ceanothus ---- 0.28 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.28
Size class totals 24.50 37.59 15.09 7.69 3.98 3.70 4.26 3.13  
Paso Picacho, control plots
white fir 0.26 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.26
incense-cedar 17.95 16.92 8.72 4.87 3.85 3.08 0.26 0.77 56.41
Jeffrey pine 1.03 0.51 0.26 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.26 4.10
canyon live oak 2.82 1.79 ---- 0.51 ---- ---- ---- ---- 5.13
California black oak ---- 0.26 ---- -.26 ---- ---- 1.03 0.77 2.31
pointleaf manzanita 12.31 8.46 5.38 1.54 0.51 0.26 ---- 0.51 28.97
Palmer ceanothus ---- 0.77 0.51 0.77 0.51 ---- ---- ---- 2.56
oceanspray 0.26 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.26
Size class totals 34.63 28.71 14.87 8.46 5.38 3.85 1.80 2.31  
Granite Springs, burn plots
Jeffrey pine ---- 0.9 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----   0.9
coast live oak ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----  
California black oak ---- 0.9 3.5 7.0 4.3 8.7 4.3 7.8 36.5
Eastwood manzanita ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----  
pointleaf manzanita ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----  
birchleaf mountain-mahogany ---- 0.9 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.9
Granite Springs, control plots
Jeffrey pine 7.8 2.6 6.0 6.0 5.2 6.0 5.2 3.5 42.3
coast live oak 16.4 0.9 ---- ---- 1.7 ---- 0.9 ---- 19.9
California black oak 0.9 0.9 4.3 5.2 7.8 6.0 3.5 1.7 30.3
Eastwood manzanita ---- 0.9 0.9 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 1.8
pointleaf manzanita 2.6 1.7 0.9 0.9 ---- ---- ---- ---- 6.1
birchleaf mountain-mahogany ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----  
*not present.

Sapling trees and shrubsThe fires significantly reduced total density of sapling trees and shrubs (2-8 inches DBH) compared to unburned controls [4,5,6]. Reduction of sapling trees and shrubs across sites was 94% in postfire year 2. Due to postfire sprouting, mean density of 2- to 8-cm coast live oak, canyon oak, and California black oak increased after burning on most sites, while conifer density was less on burned sites compared to controls [6]. At Paso Picacho, sapling density on 100-m˛ plots was reduced 90% on the burn compared to the unburned control (P<0.01) in postfire year 2. Incense-cedar saplings comprised over 89% of saplings in burn and control plots, and both incense-cedar and canyon live oak saplings showed significant (P<0.02) reductions in density on burned plots. At Granite Springs, total sapling density was significantly reduced (P<0.01), with Jeffrey pine showing greatest change in density. Jeffrey pines comprised 85% of total saplings on control plots. In postfire year 2, Jeffrey pine density was significantly reduced (P<0.01) on burned 100-m˛ plots compared to control plots. Total tree sapling reduction on 100-m˛ burn plots at Oakzanita was significant at P<0.05, even though total tree sapling density was low on control plots. At Oakzanita, 1-m˛ plots were used in addition to 100-m˛ plots. On 1-m˛ quadrats, total sapling density showed an 88% increase due to sprouting shrubs. Eastern Mojave buckwheat and skunkbush sumac were the only 2 species common to both burned and control plots, and both species increased on 1-m˛ burned plots compared to controls. Sapling tree and shrub density and relative dominance are shown in the 2 tables below [5].

Mean density and relative dominance (based on basal area) of sapling trees and shrubs (2-8 in. DBH) in 100-m˛ mixed-conifer plots in the summer of postfire year 2 at Paso Picacho, Granite Springs, and Oakzanita
Species Density (plants/ha) Relative dominance (%)
Burn Control Burn Control
Paso Picacho
white fir ----* 4 ---- 0.23
incense-cedar 97 1,562 97.00 89.62
Jeffrey pine ---- 8 ---- 0.46
coast live oak 3 15 3.00 0.86
canyon live oak ---- 104 ---- 5.96
California black oak ---- 27 ---- 1.55
Palmer ceanothus ---- 23 ---- 1.32
Granite Springs
Jeffrey pine 3 72 50.00 84.71
coast live oak ---- 10 ---- 11.76
California black oak ---- 3 ---- 3.53
birchleaf mountain-mahogany 3 ---- 50.00 ----
Oakzanita
Jeffrey pine ---- 9 ---- 16.67
coast live oak ---- 36 ---- 66.67
California black oak ---- 9 ---- 16.67
birchleaf mountain-mahogany 7 ---- 100.00 ----
*not present.

Mean density and relative dominance (based on basal area) of sapling tree and shrubs (2-8 in. DBH) in 1-m˛ mixed-conifer plots at Oakzanita (summer of postfire year 2)
Species Density (plants/m˛) Relative dominance (%)
Burn Control Burn Control
Oakzanita
eastern Mojave buckwheat 1.10 0.15 47.21 55.56
Wright's buckwheat ----* 0.05 ---- 18.52
southern honeysuckle 0.02 ---- 0.86 ----
California coffeeberry ---- 0.05 ---- 18.52
skunkbush sumac 0.10 0.02 4.29 7.41
California rose 0.22 ---- 9.44 ----
Parish's snowberry 0.82 ---- 35.19 ----
poison-oak 0.07 ---- 3.00 ----
*not present.

SeedlingsTotal tree and shrub seedling density decreased at Paso Picacho and Granite Springs compared to control plots, but total tree and shrub seedling density greatly increased at Oakzanita. Most of the reductions were from mortality of trees in the smallest size class, particularly incense-cedar. Total shrub seedling density increased on burned plots compared to unburned plots. At Paso Picacho, tree and shrub seedlings were reduced 62% on burned plots, with incense-cedar seedlings showing greatest reduction in density (P<0.01). Pointleaf manzanita and Palmer ceanothus seedling densities increased approximately 85% compared to control plots. Coast live oak and canyon live oak showed moderate increases in seedling density, while California black oak and Jeffrey pine seedling density slightly decreased compared to control plots. Birchleaf mountain-mahogany seedlings showed minor coverage in the Granite Springs postfire community. At Granite Springs, total tree and shrub seedling density was reduced 76% compared to controls. Jeffrey pine (P<0.02), California black oak (P<0.02), and coast live oak (P<0.01) seedling densities were significantly reduced on burn plots. At Oakzanita, there was no significant difference between total tree and shrub seedling density between burned and unburned 100-m˛ plots. On 1-m˛ plots, however, there was a substantial increase (41%) in total tree and shrub seedling density. Most of the increase was due to coast live oak seedling establishment. Pointleaf manzanita and Palmer ceanothus also showed density gains compared to unburned controls. In contrast to the Paso Picacho and Granite Springs sites, California black oak seedling density increased after burning at Oakzanita [5].

Mean density and relative dominance (based on basal area) of seedling trees and shrubs (< 2 in. DBH) in 100-m˛ mixed-conifer plots at Paso Picacho, Granite Springs, and Oakzanita (summer of postfire year 2)
Species Density (plants/ha) Relative dominance (%)
Burn Control Burn Control
Paso Picacho
incense-cedar 287 3.096 17.89 72.90
Jeffrey pine 3 8 0.18 0.19
coast live oak 137 27 8.54 0.64
canyon live oak 197 169 12.28 3.98
California black oak 700 912 43.64 21.47
pointleaf manzanita 30 4 1.87 0.09
Palmer ceanothus 250 31 15.58 0.72
Granite Springs
Jeffrey pine 9 48 2.02 2.66
coast live oak 79 710 17.71 39.31
California black oak 352 1,048 78.92 58.03
Palmer ceanothus 6 ----* 1.35 ----
Oakzanita
Jeffrey pine ---- 18 ---- 0.44
coast live oak 5,375 3,909 62.87 95.34
California black oak 3,075 91 35.96 2.22
pointleaf manzanita 25 82 0.29 2.00
Palmer ceanothus 75   0.88  
*not present.

Mean density and relative dominance (based on basal area) of seedling trees and shrubs (< 2 in. DBH) in 1-m˛ mixed-conifer plots at Oakzanita (summer of postfire year 2)
Species Density (plants/m˛) Relative dominance (%)
Burn Control Burn Control
Oakzanita
Jeffrey pine ---- 0.02 ---- 1.72
coast live oak 5.62 1.07 94.77 92.24
California black oak 0.12 0.07 2.02 6.03
pointleaf manzanita 0.02 ---- 0.34 ----
eastern Mojave buckwheat 0.07 ---- 1.18 ----
Palmer ceanothus 0.10 ---- 1.69 ----
*not present.

Herbaceous vegetationThe prescribed burns increased total herbaceous vegetation density at Paso Picacho but decreased total herb density at Oakzanita. At Paso Picacho, mean total herb density was 107.7% that of herb density on control plots in postfire year 2. At Oakzanita, total herb density decreased 22%, but total herb diversity increased. The decrease in density was mainly due to the dominance of California goldenrod on control plots. Fifty percent of total herb density on control plots was California goldenrod, and California goldenrod density was reduced 39% on burn plots compared to control plots [5]. Burn and control densities of herbs at Granite Springs were not compared. For herbs, species responses to fire were not measured on any of the mixed-conifer sites.

Deergrass meadow:
The prescribed fires removed nearly all standing vegetation on both meadow sites. Approximately 50% of the standing deergrass biomass before the fires was dead foliage. At Granite Springs, deergrass gained 145% live foliage cover 3 months after prescribed burning compared to control plots [5,6]. At Oakzanita, deergrass showed a 51% gain of live foliar cover at postfire month 15. Deergrass is a bunchgrass, and there were over 3 times more deergrass clumps on the Oakzanita burn compared to the control. However, deergrass clumps were about 5 times larger in the control compared to the burn. Pre- and postfire herbaceous cover of plants at Oakzanita is shown below [5].

Mean dominance and relative dominance of herbaceous cover on Oakzanita deergrass meadows at postfire month 3 (16 July 1980)
Species Dominance (% foliar cover) Relative dominance (%)
Burn Control Burn Control
western yarrow 1.00 2.67 1.48 3.11
western ragweed ----* 1.00 ---- 1.20
attenuate Indian paintbrush ---- 0.33 ---- 0.38
winecup clarkia 1.67 0.67 2.48 0.78
San Bernardino larkspur 0.33 0.33 0.49 0.38
tall annual willowherb 0.33 0.33 0.49 0.38
western marsh cudweed 1.00 1.33 1.48 1.55
American bird's-foot trefoil 4.66 5.67 6.92 6.62
dwarf checkerbloom 3.66 1.67 5.43 1.95
California goldenrod 7.67 2.33 11.39 2.72
notchleaf clover 1.00 ---- 1.40 ----
bottlebrush squirreltail 1.00 ---- 1.48 ----
smallflower melicgrass 6.00 ---- 8.91 ----
deergrass (live) 15.33 30.33 22.70 35.49
deergrass (dead) ---- 28.00 ---- 32.69
Kentucky bluegrass 1.67 5.67 2.49 6.62
Sandberg bluegrass 1.67 ---- 2.49 ----
rattail sixweeks grass 20.33 4.33 30.19 5.05
*not present.

Recovery of deergrass clumps is shown below [5].

Mean density of deergrass clumps on meadow sites at Granite Springs in postfire month 18 (11 June 1980) and at Oakzanita in postfire month 11 (12 March 1981).
Site Clumps/plot area/clump (m˛) Total basal area (m˛) Dominance (% basal area)
Granite Springs
Burn 593 0.014 8.04 5.39
Control 194 0.060 11.72 7.82
Oakzanita
Burn 12.93 0.003 0.48 3.2
Control 4.13 0.017 1.05 7.0

FIRE MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS:
This study demonstrates that spring or late fall prescribed burning can control woody plant encroachment in both mixed-conifer understories and deergrass mountain meadows of southern California. The dominant shrub, pointleaf manzanita, is a nonsprouter. It was reduced an average of 93% on burned sites and showed relatively little seedling establishment in postfire years 1 and 2. Associated sprouting shrubs (for example, Eastwood manzanita and chaparral whitethorn) were also reduced by prescribed fire, and their recovery was slow as of postfire year 2. Sprouting species will probably regain postfire cover within a few years without frequent prescribed burning [4,5,6].

This study further showed the ability of pole-sized and mature oaks and pines to withstand low-severity prescribed underburning. Frequent prescribed fire generally favors oak species over pointleaf manzanita. Martin [5] found that prescribed late fall fire reduced Jeffrey pine seedling density, so he recommended spring prescribed burning to increase Jeffrey pine seedling establishment. After fire, Jeffrey pine seedlings tend to establish in "hot spots" where fire temperatures cause plant mortality. Lack of vegetation reduces postfire growth interference from herbaceous species, and spring fires may create more hot spots than late fall fires, favoring Jeffrey pine.

The fires demonstrated the effectiveness of spring and late fall underburns in controlling young incense-cedars. Incense-cedar is a late-successional species which, with fire exclusion, eventually replaces oaks and pines . Incense-cedar seedlings and saplings were greatly reduced by the prescribed fires. Incense-cedar seedlings generally show little establishment on new burns, so their establishment would be slight with frequent prescribed fires [5].

Herbaceous species on the deergrass meadows recovered quickly after prescribed burning. Deergrass showed greatly increased productivity after burning, probably due in part to removal of dead material within its clumps. Additionally, blackened soil probably encouraged earlier spring growth on burned sites compared to controls. Although not quantified, deergrass apparently showed increased flower and seed production on burned sites compared to unburned controls. Due to relatively greater recovery of deergrass after the spring burn at Oakzanita compared to the late fall burn at Granite Springs, Martin [5] recommends spring prescribed burning to increase deergrass productivity.


SPECIES INCLUDED IN THE SUMMARY:
This Research Project Summary contains fire effects and fire response information on the following species. For further information, follow the highlighted links to the FEIS reviews for those species.

Appendix

Common name Scientific name
Trees
white fir Abies concolor
incense-cedar Calocedrus decurrens
limber pine Pinus flexilis
Jeffrey pine Pinus jeffreyi
coast live oak Quercus agrifolia
canyon live oak Quercus chrysolepis
California black oak Quercus kelloggii
Shrubs
Eastwood manzanita Arctostaphylos glandulosa
pointleaf manzanita Arctostaphylos pungens
Palmer ceanothus Ceanothus palmeri
chaparral whitethorn Ceanothus leucodermis
birchleaf mountain-mahogany Cercocarpus montanus var. glaber (Cercocarpus betuloides)*
eastern Mojave buckwheat Eriogonum fasciculatum
Wright's buckwheat Eriogonum wrightii
oceanspray Holodiscus discolor
southern honeysuckle Lonicera subspicata
California scrub oak Quercus berberidifolia (Q. dumosa)*
California coffeeberry Rhamnus californica
skunkbush sumac Rhus trilobata
California rose Rosa californica
Parish's snowberry Symphoricarpos parishii
poison-oak Toxicodendron diversilobum
Forbs
western yarrow Achillea millefolium
western ragweed Ambrosia psilostachya
attenuate Indian paintbrush Castilleja attenuata (Orthocarpus attenuatus)
winecup clarkia Clarkia purpurea
San Bernardino larkspur Delphinium parryi
tall annual willowherb Epilobium brachycarpum (Epilobium paniculatum)
western marsh cudweed Gnaphalium palustre
American bird's-foot trefoil Lotus unifoliolatus (Lotus purshianus)
dwarf checkerbloom Sidalcea malviflora
California goldenrod Solidago californica
notchleaf clover Trifolium bifidum
Grasses
bottlebrush squirreltail Elymus elymoides (Sitanion hystrix)
smallflower melicgrass Melica imperfecta
deergrass Muhlenbergia rigens
Kentucky bluegrass Poa pratensis
Sandberg bluegrass Poa secunda (Poa scabrella)
rattail sixweeks grass Vulpia myuros
*For species that have undergone scientific name changes, names in parentheses are those used in the research papers.

REFERENCES:


1. Hann, Wendel; Havlina, Doug; Shlisky, Ayn; [and others]. 2005. Interagency fire regime condition class guidebook. Version 1.2, [Online]. In: Interagency fire regime condition class website. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service; U.S. Department of the Interior; The Nature Conservancy; Systems for Environmental Management (Producer). Variously paginated [+ appendices]. Available: http://www.frcc.gov/docs/1.2.2.2/Complete_Guidebook_V1.2.pdf [2007, May 23]. [66734]
2. LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment. 2005. Reference condition modeling manual (Version 2.1), [Online]. In: LANDFIRE. Cooperative Agreement 04-CA-11132543-189. Boulder, CO: The Nature Conservancy; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service; U.S. Department of the Interior (Producers). 72 p. Available: http://www.landfire.gov/downloadfile.php?file=RA_Modeling_Manual_v2_1.pdf [2007, May 24]. [66741]
3. LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment. 2007. Rapid assessment reference condition models. In: LANDFIRE. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Lab; U.S. Geological Survey; The Nature Conservancy (Producers). Available: http://www.landfire.gov/models_EW.php [66533]
4. Lathrop, Earl W.; Martin, Bradford D. 1982. Response of understory vegetation to prescribed burning in yellow pine forests of Cuyamaca Rancho State Park, California. Aliso. 10(2): 329-343. [15943]
5. Martin, Bradford D. 1981. Vegetation responses to prescribed burning in a mixed-conifer woodland, Cuyamaca Rancho State Park, California. Loma Linda, CA: Loma Linda University. 112 p. Thesis. [64684]
6. Martin, Bradford D. 1982. Vegetation responses to prescribed burning in Cuyamaca Rancho State Park, California. In: Conrad, C. Eugene; Oechel, Walter C., technical coordinators. Proceedings of the symposium on dynamics and management of Mediterranean-type ecosystems; 1981 June 22-26; San Diego, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-58. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 617. [6088]

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