Common names are used throughout this summary. For a list of the common and scientific names of species discussed in this summary and for links to an FEIS species review, see the Appendix.RESEARCH PROJECT SUMMARY CITATION:
The information in this Research Project Summary comes from the following paper:
Burgason, Barry N. 1976. Prescribed burning for management of hawthorn and alder. New York Fish and Game Journal. 23(2): 160-169. .STUDY LOCATION:
Four vegetative types were recognized at the time of the study:
The study area occurs in a riparian zone in the northeastern United States. Very little is known about historical fire regimes in this plant community type.PLANT PHENOLOGY:
Burning was conducted in the early afternoon of 13 April 973. Fuels were "quite dry", but emerging forbs in the understory were moist enough to have "a dampening effect" on fire behavior. The air temperature was 70 F (20 °C), and wind was approximately 5 to10 miles/hour (8-16 km/hr) from the northwest. A drip torch was used to ignite the upwind corner of the study area. Drip-torch ignition continued completely around the perimeter and then crisscrossed the interior of the area. The fire burned readily through the open vegetation type (type 1), but the dense vegetation types (2 and 3) burned mainly along the edges.FIRE EFFECTS ON PLANT COMMUNITY:
Fire top-killed 55% of sampled speckled alder stems and 60% of hawthorn stems. The 2 species responded similarly to fire: All stems less than 0.4 inch (1.0 cm) basal diameter were top-killed. Top-kill was greater than 60% for stems up to 1.2 inch (3.0 cm) basal diameter. Less than half of stems larger than 1.2 inch (3.0 cm) basal diameter were top-killed. Stems in dense stands seemed less likely to suffer top-kill than stems in open areas:
|Percent of sampled stems top-killed under different site conditions.|
Within 9 months of the prescribed fire, most burned stems of both speckled alder and hawthorn had sprouted near the base of the stem, at or within 2 inches (5 cm) of the soil surface.
All top-killed hawthorn stems sprouted, and no unburned stems sprouted. Top-killed stems produced an average of 4.6 sprouts, with an average basal diameter of 0.1 inch (3 mm) and an average height of 13 inches (32 cm). Cottontails browsed 83.6% of hawthorn sprouts within 9 months of the burn.
Sprouting in speckled alder was not related to fire, occurring on burned and unburned stems at approximately the same rate (90%). Sampled stems produced an average of 8 to 10 sprouts, with basal diameters ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 inch (3-12 mm) and heights ranging from 9 to 47 inches (22-120 cm). Twelve percent of speckled alders were browsed within 9 months of the fire by either white-tailed deer or cottontails.FIRE MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS:
|Common name||Scientific name|
|goldenrod species||Solidago species|
|bulrush||Schoenoplectus (Scirpus*) species|
|hawthorn species||Crataegus species|
|speckled alder||Alnus incana subsp. rugosa|
|*This genus has undergone a taxonomic split. The name in parentheses is that used in the source paper.|
1. Burgason, Barry N. 1976. Prescribed burning for management of hawthorn and alder. New York Fish and Game Journal. 23(2): 160-169.