Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Vitis californica


Introductory

SPECIES: Vitis californica
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Howard, Janet L. 1993. Vitis californica. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : VITCAL SYNONYMS : Vitis californicum Benth. SCS PLANT CODE : VICA5 COMMON NAMES : California wild grape TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of California wild grape is Vitis californica Benth. There are no subspecies, varieties, or forms. [17,19,21] LIFE FORM : Vine FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Vitis californica
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : California wild grape is endemic to southern Oregon and California. It is distributed in the Coast Ranges from Douglas County, Oregon, south to San Luis Obispo County, California; in the Klamath Mountains, the Cascade Range, and the Sierra Nevada from Siskiyou to Kern counties, California; and in the Central Valley [19,21]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES27 Redwood FRES28 Western hardwoods FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub FRES41 Wet grasslands FRES42 Annual grasslands STATES : CA OR BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 3 Southern Pacific Border 4 Sierra Mountains KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K005 Mixed conifer forest K006 Redwood forest K029 California mixed evergreen forest K030 California oakwoods K048 California steppe K049 Tule marshes SAF COVER TYPES : 221 Red alder 222 Black cottonwood - willow 232 Redwood 233 Oregon white oak 234 Douglas-fir - tanoak - Pacific madrone 243 Sierra Nevada mixed conifer 244 Pacific ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir 245 Pacific ponderosa pine 246 California black oak 249 Canyon live oak 250 Blue oak - Digger pine 255 California coast live oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : California wild grape is a conspicuous vine of riparian forests and woodlands. It is a minor to major component of valley oak (Quercus lobata) riparian, mixed-oak riparian, Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii), black cottonwood (P. trichocarpa), cottonwood-willow, mixed-hardwood riparian, red alder (Alnus rubra), and white alder (A. rhombifolia) communities [28]. It may dominate the lower and midstories and reach into the canopy, particularly in valley oak and Fremont cottonwood forests [10]. The following classifications name California wild grape as a dominant in community types: Terrestrial natural communities of California [10] The vascular plant communities of California [28] Tree associates of California wild grape not listed in Distribution and Occurrence include California black walnut (Juglans hindsii), California sycamore (Platanus racemosa), interior live oak (Quercus wislizenii), California box elder (Acer negundo var. californicum), Oregon ash (Fraxinus latifolia), California bay (Umbellularia californica), and California buckeye (Aesculus californica) [3,8,10,15]. Common shrub associates are Mexican tea (Chenopodium ambrosoides), California blackberry (Rubus vitifolius), coyote bush (Baccharis pilularis var. consanguinea), California wild rose (Rosa californica), valley willow (Salix hindsiana), and arroyo willow (S. lasiolepis) [3,8,9]. Dutchman's pipe vine (Aristolochia californica), poison-oak (Toxicodendron diversilobum), and wild clematis (Clematis spp.) are vine associates [3,12]. Groundcover associates include Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), holly fern (Polystichum lonchitis), and blue vervain (Verbena hastata) [3,15,18].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Vitis californica
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Riparian vegetation provides important habitat for wildlife [15]. California wild grape is among the most valuable of the riparian plant species. As well as providing cover, it is an important animal food. The fruits are a fall staple for many animal species, including coyote, opossum, western spotted skunk, striped skunk, wood duck, band-tailed pigeon, California quail, mountain bluebird, and other passerines [2,16]. Black-tailed deer browse the leaves and young stems. Additionally, it is browsed by all classes of domestic livestock [24]. PALATABILITY : California wild grape browse has been rated fair to poor for sheep, goats, and black-tailed deer and poor to useless for cattle and horses [24]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : California wild grape is planted for riparian restoration [8]. It is easily started from cuttings [13,23] and shows favorable rates of establishment. Containerized cuttings transplanted onto the north banks of the Crescent Bypass and the South Fork of the Kings River showed less than 2 percent mortality after 2 years [20]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : California wild grape is of great importance to wine industries throughout the world. This species was used to save the European wine industry between 1870 and 1900 when most wine grapes (Vitis vinifera) were killed by leaf- and root-attacking grape phylloxera aphids (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae). Since that time, nearly all commercial wine grapes grown anywhere in the world have been grafted onto rootstocks of resistant California wild grape cultivars. The grapes of this species are palatable to humans. They are eaten raw or made into jelly. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Trees such as valley oak and Fremont cottonwood often die after California wild grape climbs into their canopies [11,24]. California wild grape is a host of the western grapeleaf skeletonizer (Harrisina brillians). This moth can decimate commercial vinyards [25].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Vitis californica
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : California wild grape is a native, usually dioecious, deciduous liana. Stems are from 6.6 to 60 feet (2-20 m) long. When support such as trees or shrubs is available, California wild grape attaches to and climbs the support using branched tendrils located opposite its leaves. It has a sprawling and bushlike form when support is unavailable. California wild grape leaves are from 2.8 to 5.6 inches (7-14 cm) broad. The fruit is a pulpy berry. The seeds have a thick, hard testa; hard endosperm; and minute embryo [19,21,24]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : California wild grape reproduces from seed [13]. Plants require outcrossing to effect pollination [23]. Seeds are presumably disseminated by frugivorous animals. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : California wild grape grows in mesic riparian areas such as swales, streambanks, and canyon bottoms [19,30]. It is found at elevations below 4,000 feet (1,219 m) [19]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Faculative Seral Species California wild grape is found in climax valley oak riparian forests. It is also named as a component of communities (such as Fremont cottonwood and Great Valley mixed-hardwood riparian forests) that undergo recurrent flooding [10]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : California wild grape flowers from May to June [19]. Fruits ripen in September. Leaves are shed from mid-October to November (pers. obs.).

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Vitis californica
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Literature concerning California wild grape adaptations to fire is scant. Sampson and Jesperson [24] list California wild grape as a root crown sprouter. Its hard-coated seeds may be cracked by fire, but documented evidence linking fire with increased germination of California wild grape seed is lacking. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Secondary colonizer - off-site seed

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Vitis californica
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : California wild grape is probably top-killed by fire [5,24]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : California wild grape sprouts from the root crown after fire [24]. It probably colonizes from animal-dispersed seed. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : California wild grape is probably a ladder fuel, carrying fire into the canopies of the trees upon which it climbs.

References for species: Vitis californica


1. Airola, Daniell A.; Messick, Timothy C. 1987. Sliding toward extinction: the state of California's natural heritage, 1987. Report prepared at the request of the California Senate Committee on Natural Resources and Wildlife. [Location of publisher unknown]: [Publisher unknown]. 123 p. On file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [19482]
2. Barrett, Reginald H. 1983. Food habits of coyotes, Canis latrans, in eastern Tehama County, California. California Fish and Game. 69(3): 184-186. [13786]
3. Belluomini, Linda; Trapp, Gene R. 1984. Ringtail distribution and abundance in the Central Valley of California. In: Warner, Richard E.; Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian systems: Ecology, conservation, and productive management. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press: 906-914. [5880]
4. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]
5. Conrad, C. Eugene. 1987. Common shrubs of chaparral and associated ecosystems of southern California. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-99. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 86 p. [4209]
6. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]
7. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]
8. Goldner, Bernard H. 1984. Riparian restoration efforts associated with structurally modified flood control channels. In: Warner, Richard E.; Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian systems: Ecology, conservation, and productive management: Proceedings of the conference; 1981 September 17-19; Davis, CA. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press: 445-451. [5852]
9. Hehnke, Merlin; Stone, Charles P. 1979. Value of riparian vegetation to avian populations along the Sacramento River Sy. In: Johnson, R. Roy; McCormick, J. Frank, technical coordinators. Strategies for protection and management of floodplain wetlands & other riparian ecosystems: Proc. of the symposium; 1978 December 11-13; Callaway Gardens, GA. General Technical Report WO-12. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 228-235. [4363]
10. Holland, Robert F. 1986. Preliminary descriptions of the terrestrial natural communities of California. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Fish and Game. 156 p. [12756]
11. Jepson, Willis Linn. 1925. A manual of the flowering plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1238. [19365]
12. Katibah, Edwin F. 1984. A brief history of riparian forests in the Central Valley of California. In: Warner, Richard E.; Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian systems: Ecology, conservation, and productive management: Proceedings of the conference; 1981 September 17-19; Davis, CA. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press: 23-29. [5822]
13. Kruckeberg, A. R. 1982. Gardening with native plants of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 252 p. [9980]
14. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384]
15. Langley, Russell D. 1984. SOFAR: a small-town water diversion project on the South Fork, American River. In: Warner, Richard E.; Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian systems: Ecology, conservation, and produtive management: Proceedings of the conference; 1981 September 17-19; Davis, CA. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press: 505-514. [5855]
16. Martin, Alexander C.; Zim, Herbert S.; Nelson, Arnold L. 1951. American wildlife and plants. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 500 p. [4021]
17. Mason, Herbert L. 1957. A flora of the marshes of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 878 p. [16905]
18. Motroni, Robert S. 1984. Seasonal variation of bird numbers in a riparian forest, Sacramento Valley, California. In: Warner, Richard E.; Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian systems: Ecology, conservation, and productive management: Proceedings of a conference; 1981 September 17-19; Davis, CA. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press: 578-586. [5859]
19. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155]
20. Oldham, Jonathan A.; Valentine, Bradley E. 1990. Phase II of the crescent bypass riparian revegetation project. In: Hughes, H. Glenn; Bonnicksen, Thomas M., eds. Restoration '89: the new management challenge: Proceedings, 1st annual meeting of the Society for Ecological Restoration; 1989 January 16-20; Oakland, CA. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Arboretum, Society for Ecological Restoration: 69-78. [14689]
21. Peck, Morton Eaton. 1961. A Manual of the Higher Plants of Oregon. 2d ed. Portland: Metropolitan Printing Company. 936 p. [20708]
22. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]
23. Robbins, James A.; Burger, David W. 1986. Propagating California wild grape. California Agriculture. 40(5/6): 9-10. [20514]
24. Sampson, Arthur W.; Jespersen, Beryl S. 1963. California range brushlands and browse plants. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, California Agricultural Experiment Station, Extension Service. 162 p. [3240]
25. Stern, V. M.; Federici, B. A. [n.d.]. Biological control of western grapeleaf skeletonizer, Harrisina brillian brillians Barnes and McDunnough, with a granulosis virus in California. In: Bostainian, N. J.; Wilson, L. T.; Dennehy, T. J, eds. Monitoring and Integrated Pest Management of Arthropod Pests of Sm Small Fruit Crops. Andover, Hampshire, UK: Intercept Ltd: 167-176. [20652]
26. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 10 p. [20090]
27. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573]
28. Thorne, Robert F. 1976. The vascular plant communities of California. In: Latting, June, ed. Symposium proceedings: plant communities of southern California; 1974 May 4; Fullerton, CA. Special Publication No. 2. Berkeley, CA: California Native Plant Society: 1-31. [3289]
29. Warner, Richard E. 1984. Structural, floristic, and condition inventory of central valley riparian systems. In: Warner, Richard E.; Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian systems: Ecology, conservation, and productive management: Proceedings of a conference; 1981 September 17-19; Davis, CA. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press: 356-374. [5840]
30. Whitlow, Thomas H.; Bahre, Conrad J. 1984. Plant succession on Merced River dredge spoils. In: Warner, Richard E.; Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian systems: Ecology, conservation, and productive management: Proceedings of the conference; 1981 September 17-19; Davis, CA. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press: 68-74. [5826]


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