SPECIES: Vitis californica
SPECIES: Vitis californica
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Howard, Janet L. 1993. Vitis californica. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ .
ABBREVIATION : VITCAL SYNONYMS : Vitis californicum Benth. SCS PLANT CODE : VICA5 COMMON NAMES : California wild grape TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of California wild grape is Vitis californica Benth. There are no subspecies, varieties, or forms. [17,19,21] LIFE FORM : Vine FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY
SPECIES: Vitis californica
DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : California wild grape is endemic to southern Oregon and California. It is distributed in the Coast Ranges from Douglas County, Oregon, south to San Luis Obispo County, California; in the Klamath Mountains, the Cascade Range, and the Sierra Nevada from Siskiyou to Kern counties, California; and in the Central Valley [19,21]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES27 Redwood FRES28 Western hardwoods FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub FRES41 Wet grasslands FRES42 Annual grasslands STATES : CA OR BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 3 Southern Pacific Border 4 Sierra Mountains KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K005 Mixed conifer forest K006 Redwood forest K029 California mixed evergreen forest K030 California oakwoods K048 California steppe K049 Tule marshes SAF COVER TYPES : 221 Red alder 222 Black cottonwood - willow 232 Redwood 233 Oregon white oak 234 Douglas-fir - tanoak - Pacific madrone 243 Sierra Nevada mixed conifer 244 Pacific ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir 245 Pacific ponderosa pine 246 California black oak 249 Canyon live oak 250 Blue oak - Digger pine 255 California coast live oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : California wild grape is a conspicuous vine of riparian forests and woodlands. It is a minor to major component of valley oak (Quercus lobata) riparian, mixed-oak riparian, Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii), black cottonwood (P. trichocarpa), cottonwood-willow, mixed-hardwood riparian, red alder (Alnus rubra), and white alder (A. rhombifolia) communities . It may dominate the lower and midstories and reach into the canopy, particularly in valley oak and Fremont cottonwood forests . The following classifications name California wild grape as a dominant in community types: Terrestrial natural communities of California  The vascular plant communities of California  Tree associates of California wild grape not listed in Distribution and Occurrence include California black walnut (Juglans hindsii), California sycamore (Platanus racemosa), interior live oak (Quercus wislizenii), California box elder (Acer negundo var. californicum), Oregon ash (Fraxinus latifolia), California bay (Umbellularia californica), and California buckeye (Aesculus californica) [3,8,10,15]. Common shrub associates are Mexican tea (Chenopodium ambrosoides), California blackberry (Rubus vitifolius), coyote bush (Baccharis pilularis var. consanguinea), California wild rose (Rosa californica), valley willow (Salix hindsiana), and arroyo willow (S. lasiolepis) [3,8,9]. Dutchman's pipe vine (Aristolochia californica), poison-oak (Toxicodendron diversilobum), and wild clematis (Clematis spp.) are vine associates [3,12]. Groundcover associates include Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), holly fern (Polystichum lonchitis), and blue vervain (Verbena hastata) [3,15,18].
SPECIES: Vitis californica
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Riparian vegetation provides important habitat for wildlife . California wild grape is among the most valuable of the riparian plant species. As well as providing cover, it is an important animal food. The fruits are a fall staple for many animal species, including coyote, opossum, western spotted skunk, striped skunk, wood duck, band-tailed pigeon, California quail, mountain bluebird, and other passerines [2,16]. Black-tailed deer browse the leaves and young stems. Additionally, it is browsed by all classes of domestic livestock . PALATABILITY : California wild grape browse has been rated fair to poor for sheep, goats, and black-tailed deer and poor to useless for cattle and horses . NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : California wild grape is planted for riparian restoration . It is easily started from cuttings [13,23] and shows favorable rates of establishment. Containerized cuttings transplanted onto the north banks of the Crescent Bypass and the South Fork of the Kings River showed less than 2 percent mortality after 2 years . OTHER USES AND VALUES : California wild grape is of great importance to wine industries throughout the world. This species was used to save the European wine industry between 1870 and 1900 when most wine grapes (Vitis vinifera) were killed by leaf- and root-attacking grape phylloxera aphids (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae). Since that time, nearly all commercial wine grapes grown anywhere in the world have been grafted onto rootstocks of resistant California wild grape cultivars. The grapes of this species are palatable to humans. They are eaten raw or made into jelly. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Trees such as valley oak and Fremont cottonwood often die after California wild grape climbs into their canopies [11,24]. California wild grape is a host of the western grapeleaf skeletonizer (Harrisina brillians). This moth can decimate commercial vinyards .
SPECIES: Vitis californica
BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : California wild grape is a native, usually dioecious, deciduous liana. Stems are from 6.6 to 60 feet (2-20 m) long. When support such as trees or shrubs is available, California wild grape attaches to and climbs the support using branched tendrils located opposite its leaves. It has a sprawling and bushlike form when support is unavailable. California wild grape leaves are from 2.8 to 5.6 inches (7-14 cm) broad. The fruit is a pulpy berry. The seeds have a thick, hard testa; hard endosperm; and minute embryo [19,21,24]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : California wild grape reproduces from seed . Plants require outcrossing to effect pollination . Seeds are presumably disseminated by frugivorous animals. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : California wild grape grows in mesic riparian areas such as swales, streambanks, and canyon bottoms [19,30]. It is found at elevations below 4,000 feet (1,219 m) . SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Faculative Seral Species California wild grape is found in climax valley oak riparian forests. It is also named as a component of communities (such as Fremont cottonwood and Great Valley mixed-hardwood riparian forests) that undergo recurrent flooding . SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : California wild grape flowers from May to June . Fruits ripen in September. Leaves are shed from mid-October to November (pers. obs.).
SPECIES: Vitis californica
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Literature concerning California wild grape adaptations to fire is scant. Sampson and Jesperson  list California wild grape as a root crown sprouter. Its hard-coated seeds may be cracked by fire, but documented evidence linking fire with increased germination of California wild grape seed is lacking. FIRE REGIMES: Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Secondary colonizer - off-site seed
SPECIES: Vitis californica
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : California wild grape is probably top-killed by fire [5,24]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : California wild grape sprouts from the root crown after fire . It probably colonizes from animal-dispersed seed. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : California wild grape is probably a ladder fuel, carrying fire into the canopies of the trees upon which it climbs.
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