Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Parthenocissus quinquefolia

Introductory

SPECIES: Parthenocissus quinquefolia
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Coladoanto, Milo. 1991. Parthenocissus quinquefolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].
ABBREVIATION : PARQUI SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : PAQU2 COMMON NAMES : Virginia creeper woodbine thicket creeper five-leaved ivy TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for Virginia creeper is Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. [8]. Recognized varieties and forms are as follows [33]: P. quinquefolia var. hirsuta (Pursh) Planch. P. quinquefolia var. minor (Graebn.) Rehd. P. quinquefolia var. murorum (Focke) Rehd. P. quinquefolia var. saint-paulii (Graebn.) Rehd. P. quinquefolia forma engelmannii (Graebn.) Rehd. LIFE FORM : Vine FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Parthenocissus quinquefolia
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Virginia creeper is widely distributed in the eastern and central United States. Its range extends from Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana, east to Florida and north through the Coastal Plain to Maine and Nova Scotia, west to southern Ontario, and south through parts of Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, eastern Nebraska, and Kansas [33,8]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES10 White - red - jack pine FRES11 Spruce - fir FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine FRES14 Oak - pine FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES16 Oak - gum - cypress FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood FRES18 Maple - beech - birch STATES : AL AR CT DE FL GA IA IL IN KS KY LA ME MD MA MI MN MS MO NC NE NH NJ NY OH PA RI SC TN TX VA VT WI WV NS ON BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : NO-ENTRY KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K084 Cross Timbers K086 Great Lakes pine forest K089 Black Belt K090 Live oak - sea oats K094 Conifer bog K095 Great Lakes pine forest K096 Northeastern spruce - fir forest K097 Southeastern spruce - fir forest K100 Oak - hickory forest K101 Elm - ash forest K102 Beech - maple forest K103 Mixed mesophytic forest K104 Appalachian oak forest K106 Northern hardwoods K107 Northern hardwood - fir forest K108 Northern hardwood - spruce forest K110 Northeastern oak - pine forest K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest K112 Southern mixed forest K113 Southern floodplain forest K114 Pocosin K115 Sand pine scrub SAF COVER TYPES : 1 Jack pine 5 Balsam fir 14 Northern pin oak 15 Red pine 20 White pine - northern red oak - maple 21 Eastern white pine 22 White pine - hemlock 23 Eastern hemlock 24 Hemlock - yellow birch 25 Sugar maple - beech - yellow birch 26 Sugar maple - basswood 27 Sugar maple 28 Black cherry - maple 30 Red spruce - yellow birch 31 Red spruce - sugar maple - beech 32 Red spruce 33 Red spruce - balsam fir 34 Red spruce - Fraser fir 35 Paper birch - red spruce - balsam fir 37 Northern white cedar 38 Tamarack 39 Black ash - American elm - red maple 40 Post oak - blackjack oak 43 Bear oak 44 Chestnut oak 45 Pitch pine 46 Eastern redcedar 51 White pine - chestnut oak 52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak 53 White oak 55 Northern red oak 57 Yellow poplar 58 Yellow poplar - eastern hemlock 59 Yellow poplar - white oak - northern red oak 60 Beech - sugar maple 61 River birch - sycamore 62 Silver maple - American elm 64 Sassafras - persimmon 65 Pin oak - sweetgum 69 Sand pine 70 Longleaf pine 72 Southern scrub oak 73 Southern redcedar 74 Cabbage palmetto 75 Shortleaf pine 76 Shortleaf pine - oak 78 Virginia pine - oak 79 Virginia pine 80 Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine 81 Loblolly pine 82 Loblolly pine - hardwood 83 Longleaf pine - slash pine 84 Slash pine 85 Slash pine - hardwood 87 Sweetgum - yellow poplar 88 Willow oak - water oak - diamondleaf oak 89 Live oak 91 Swamp chestnut oak - cherrybark oak 92 Sweetgum - willow oak 93 Sugarberry - American elm - green ash 94 Sycamore - sweetgum - American elm 95 Black willow 96 Overcup oak - water hickory 97 Atlantic white cedar 98 Pond pine 100 Pondcypress 101 Baldcypress - tupelo 103 Water tupelo - swamp tupelo 104 Sweetbay - swamp tupelo - redbay 109 Hawthorn 110 Black oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Common associates include southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), greenbrier (Smilax spp.), poison-ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), and grape (Vitis spp.). A complete list of trees growing with Virginia creeper would include a majority of trees growing in the eastern United States [21,24].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Parthenocissus quinquefolia
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Songbirds are the principal consumers of Virginia creeper fruit, but deer, squirrels, and other small animals also eat them [16,30]. Cattle and deer sometimes browse the foliage [11]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : A combination tebuthiuron-fire treatment increased protein content of Virginia creeper in a Cross Timbers oak woodland in Oklahoma. Percent crude protein of plants collected on treated and control plots was as follows [2]: Sampling date Treatment Year 6-1 7-4 8-15 9-1 ------------------------------------------------- Control 1985 12.6 10.7 ---- --- Control 1986 10.3 8.6 ---- ---- Teb + fire 1985 13.6 12.5 14.4 12.0 Teb + fire 1986 14.6 10.3 13.1 14.4 COVER VALUE : Virginia creeper provides cover for many small birds and mammals [11]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Virginia creeper is used for watershed protection and erosion control [11]. Propagation: Seeds can be sown in the fall or preferably in the spring after stratification. Drilling and covering with about 3/8 inch (1 cm) of soil or mulch is recommended. Optimum planting density is 10 plants per square foot (0.1. sq m). Virginia creeper can also be propagated from hardwood cuttings or layerings [11]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Virginia creeper is often cultivated as an ornamental because of its attractive foliage. The bark has been used in domestic medicine as a tonic, expectorant, and remedy for dropsy [33]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Management considerations call for the control of Virginia creeper when it competes with desirable pines and hardwoods. Aerial application of Arsenal at about 4 to 6 pints per acre (1.9-2.8 l/ha) has been recommended [19].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Parthenocissus quinquefolia
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Virginia creeper is a deciduous liana that climbs by tendrils to a height of 60 feet (18 m). The leaves are palmately compound, containing five leaflets, and have acuminate tips [29,32]. The twigs are orange brown, finely pubescent with pinnately branched tendrils ending in adhesive discs. The fruit is a dark purple berry containing four seeds. The flowers are green, perfect, and borne in panicles of compound cymes [13,27]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Vegetative: Virginia creeper sprouts from horizontal aboveground stems [29]. Sexual: Wildlife use of Virginia creeper's fruit suggests that its seeds are animal dispersed [32]. Natural germination is epigeal and occurs during the first or second spring following dispersal. Germination can be improved by stratification in moist sand or peat at 41 degrees Fahrenheit (5 deg C) for about 60 days [11]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Virginia creeper grows over a wide geographic range. It prefers soils that are moist but grows well in a wide variety of soil types. Virginia creeper is tolerant of shade but often grows in open places such as the borders of clearings and along fence rows and streambanks [11,33]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species Virginia creeper is a shade-tolerant, mid- to late-seral species. It grows well under shade but will climb up trees, poles, and other structures to reach the sunlight [9,20]. It is a component of climax forests in the eastern United States [4,5,12]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Virginia creeper flowers between June and July; fruit ripens between August and October [11].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Parthenocissus quinquefolia
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Virginia creeper is not well adapted to fire. The thin bark provides little insulation for the cambium and the often exposed roots [6].

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Parthenocissus quinquefolia
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Most fires top-kill Virginia creeper plants [6]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Following fire, Virginia creeper may sprout from surviving root crown or remaining live stems [1,3]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : The Research Project Summary Effects of surface fires in a mixed red and eastern white pine stand in Michigan and the Research Paper by Bowles and others 2007 provide information on prescribed fire and postfire response of several plant species, including Virginia creeper, that was not available when this species review was written. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Fire can be an effective agent in controlling Virginia creeper. Seedlings and sprouts can usually be eliminated as a result of normal underburning regimes in most commercial pine stands [15,17].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Parthenocissus quinquefolia
REFERENCES : 1. Alexander, Taylor R. 1955. Observations on the ecology of the low hammocks of southern Florida. Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences. 18(1): 21-27. [11467] 2. Bogle, Laurie A.; Engle, David M.; McCollum, F. Ted. 1989. Nutritive value of range plants in the Cross Timbers. Report P-908. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station. 29 p. [9293] 3. Chen, Ming-Yih; Hodgkins, Earl J.; Watson, W. J. 1975. Prescribed burning for improving pine production and wildlife habitat in the hilly coastal plain of Alabama. Bull. No. 473. Auburn, AL: Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station. 19 p. [9909] 4. Daubenmire, Rexford. 1990. The Magnolia grandiflora-Quercus virginiana forest of Florida. American Midland Naturalist. 123: 331-347. [10871] 5. Dolan, Rebecca W.; Menges, Eric S. 1989. Vegetation and environment in adjacent post oak (Quercus stellata) flatwoods and barrens in Indiana. American Midland Naturalist. 122: 329-338. [10412] 6. Ewel, Katherine Carter. 1984. Effects of fire and wastewater on understory vegetation in cypress domes. In: Ewel, Katherine Carter; Odum, Howard T., eds. Cypress swamps. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press: 119-126. [14845] 7. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 8. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press. 1632 p. (Dudley, Theodore R., gen. ed.; Biosystematics, Floristic & Phylogeny Series; vol. 2). [14935] 9. Fitch, Henry S.; Kettle, W. Dean. 1983. Ecological succession in vegetation and small mammal populations on a natural area of northeastern Kansas. In: Kucera, Clair L., ed. Proceedings, 7th North American prairie conference; 1980 August 4-6; Springfield, MO. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri: 117-121. [3211] 10. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 11. Gill, John D.; Pogge, Franz L. 1974. Parthenocissus Planch. Creeper. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 568-571. [7720] 12. Glitzenstein, Jeff S.; Canham, Charles D.; McDonnell, Mark J.; Streng, Donna R. 1990. Effects of environment and land-use history on upland forests of the Cary Arboretum, Hudson Valley, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 117(2): 106-122. [13301] 13. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239] 14. Gorchov, David L. 1987. Sequence of fruit ripening in bird-dispersed plants: consistency among years. Ecology. 68(1): 223-225. [3395] 15. Gunderson, Lance H. 1984. Regeneration of cypress in logged and burned strands at Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary, Florida. In: Ewel, Katherine Carter; Odum, Howard T., eds. Cypress swamps. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press: 349-357. [14857] 16. Hardin, Kimberly I.; Evans, Keith E. 1977. Cavity nesting bird habitat in the oak-hickory forests--a review. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-30. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 23 p. [13859] 17. Hodgkins, Earl J. 1958. Effects of fire on undergrowth vegetation in upland southern pine forests. Ecology. 39(1): 36-46. [7632] 18. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 19. Kunzmann, Michael R; Bennett, Peter S. 1989. Arsenal as a control agent for saltcedar (tamarix). In: Kunzmann, Michael R.; Johnson, R. Roy; Bennett, Peter, technical coordinators. Tamarisk control in southwestern United States; 1987 September 2-3; Tucson, AZ. Special Report No. 9. Tucson, AZ: National Park Service, Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, School of Renewable Natural Resources: 82-90. [11354] 20. Kurz, Herman. 1944. Secondary forest succession in the Tallahassee Red Hills. Proceedings, Florida Academy of Science. 7(1): 59-100. [10799] 21. Lawson, Edwin R. 1990. Pinus echinata Mill. shortleaf pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 316-326. [13394] 22. Little, Silas; Moorhead, George R.; Somes, Horace A. 1958. Forestry and deer in the Pine Region of New Jersey. Station Pap. No. 109. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 33 p. [11681] 23. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 24. McLemore, B. F. 1990. Cornus florida L. flowering dogwood. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Vol. 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 278-283. [13963] 25. Nixon, E. S.; Ward, J. R.; Fountain, E. A.; Neck, J. S. 1991. Woody vegetation of an old-growth creekbottom forest in north-central Texas. Texas Journal of Science. 43(2): 157-164. [15407] 26. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 27. Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life Sciences Misc. Publ. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p. [12907] 28. Sotala, Dennis J.; Kirkpatrick, Charles M. 1973. Foods of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, in Martin County, Indiana. American Midland Naturalist. 89(2): 281-286. [15056] 29. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the North Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804] 30. Stransky, J. J.; Halls, L. K.; Nixon, E. S. 1976. Plants following timber harvest: importance to songbirds. Texas Forestry Pap. No. 28. Nacogdoches, TX: Stephen F. Austin State University, School of Forestry. 13 p. [15292] 31. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 32. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240] 33. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707] 34. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090]


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