Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Sequoia sempervirens

Introductory

SPECIES: Sequoia sempervirens
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Griffith, Randy Scott. 1992. Sequoia sempervirens. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].
ABBREVIATION : SEQSEM SYNONYMS : Taxodium sempervirens (D. Don) Lamb. Steinhauera sempervirens (Voss. S.) Presl. SCS PLANT CODE : SESE3 COMMON NAMES : redwood California redwood coast redwood TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of redwood is Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. Redwood is a member of the Taxodium (Taxodiaceae) family [44]. There are no recognized subspecies, varieties, or forms. LIFE FORM : Tree FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Sequoia sempervirens
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Redwood is endemic to the coastal area of northern California and southwestern Oregon.  The redwoods occupy a narrow strip of land approximately 450 miles (724 km) in length and 5 to 35 miles (8-56 km) in width.  The northern boundary of its range is marked by two groves on the Chetco River in the Siskiyou Mountains within 15 miles (25 km) of the California-Oregon border [22,40].  The southern boundary of redwood's range is marked by a grove in Salmon Creek Canyon in the Santa Lucia Mountains of southern Monterey County, California [40]. ECOSYSTEMS :    FRES20  Douglas-fir    FRES27  Redwood STATES :      CA  OR  HI BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :     1  Northern Pacific Border     3  Southern Pacific Border KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS :    K002  Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest    K006  Redwood forest    K028  Mosaic of K002 and K026    K029  California mixed evergreen forest SAF COVER TYPES :    229  Pacific Douglas-fir    231  Port-Orford-cedar    232  Redwood    234  Douglas-fir - tanoak - Pacific madrone SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Redwood is listed as a dominant or codominant overstory species in the following publications: Coast redwood ecological types of southern Monterey County, California [11]. Terrestrial natural communities of California [26]. The redwood forest and associated north coast forests [58]. Forest associations of Little Lost Man Creek, Humboldt County,   California: Reference-level in the hierarchical structure of   old-growth coastal redwood vegetation [30]. Preliminary plant associations of the Siskiyou Mountain Province [5]. Tanoak series of the Siskiyou Region of southwest Oregon [6].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Sequoia sempervirens
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : Redwood is one of California's most valuable timber species [36].  The wood is soft, weak, easily split, and very resistant to decay [38,40,44].  The clear wood is used for dimension stock and shingles [44].  Redwood burls are used in the production of table tops, veneers, and turned goods [40]. IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Redwood forests provide habitat for variety of mammals, aviafauna, reptiles, and amphibians [7,45,48].  Remnant old-growth redwood stands provide habitat for the federally threatened spotted owl and the California-endangered marbled murrelet [1,46]. In settlement times fire scar cavities at the base of larger redwood boles were used as goose pens; hence the name "goosepens" has been used to denote fire scar cavities [14]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : Redwood forests provide hiding and thermal cover for Roosevelt elk, black-tailed deer, and a variety of small mammals [24,45,48,50]. The pileated woodpecker generally selects broken tree tops or snags with rot for nesting cover.  The softness of redwood, however, allows the pileated woodpecker to use green trees of adequate size.  In one study only half the nests of pileated woodpeckers were in redwoods that had broken tops with rot, while the other half were in sound green trees with no sign of decay in the excavation chips [25]. In California, the state-endangered marbled murrelet nests exclusively in coastal old-growth redwood forests [46]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : In a large cutover area acquired by Redwood National Park, both plantings and natural colonization of redwood on outsloped (recontoured into the hillside) logging roads were used with good success.  This treatment curtailed erosion in the park by an estimated 6.6 million cubic feet (0.2 mil m3) [33]. Redwood was one of a number of native species used successfully to reclaim a riparian ecosystem in a city park in Berkeley; redwoods on the site had a high survival rate [57]. Redwood can be propagated via seed or cuttings.  Seeds should be sown from December to April.  If planting with a seed drill, the recommended depth is 0.125 inch (0.32 cm), with a seeding rate that will yield 30 seedlings per square foot (333 seedlings/sq m) [8].  Cuttings from 2- to 3-year-old seedlings produce the highest percentage of rooted cuttings (up to 90 percent); cuttings from older trees are more difficult to root [36,40].  Hedging (close-cropping) can maintain the rooting capabilities of the donor tree.  By repeated hedging a single donor seedling and its clones can produce a million cuttings in 3 years [40].  Redwood can also be successfully propagated in plant tissue culture.  The callus can be induced to generate cultured plantlets.  The cultured plantlets are usually twice the size of seedlings the same age [40]. Millar and Libby [37] have developed guidelines for redwood seed collection and for the use of redwood in the restoration of disturbed areas. OTHER USES AND VALUES : The cultivars 'Nana Pendula' and 'Prostrata' are grown extensively as ornamentals due to their reduced size [28].  Redwood has been planted in New Zealand, Australia, and Europe [40]. Native Americans used redwood in the construction of canoes and as grave markers [51]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Wildlife:  The marbled murrelet is dependent on old-growth redwood forests for nesting habitat.  This bird is listed as endangered in California and is under consideration for federal protection as a threatened species in California, Oregon, and Washington [1]. Old-growth redwood forests of northern California also provide critical habitat for the federally endangered northern spotted owl [1]. Black-tailed deer numbers increase after clearcutting in the redwood forest type as a result of the sudden increase in available understory forage.  After canopy closure (20 to 30 years), black-tailed deer numbers decrease rapidly [50].         Years after clearcut    Number of deer          0 to 5                      43          5 to 10                    142         10 to 15                     21         15 to 20                     21         20 to 25                      8         25 to 30                      8      Competition:  Evergreen hardwoods are strong competitors in the redwood forest type.  Tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) and Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii) often sprout when cut, and reoccupy the site before redwood.  These competitors can be controlled by trunk injections of triclopyr (Garlon 3A), with two to three treatments over a 4- to 5-year period giving the best results.  Foliar spraying with triclopyr can also control hardwoods but has adverse effects on redwood [56]. Mulching and the use of ground covers increase survival of planted seedlings by reducing water evaporation and reducing competition from shrubs [35].  Seedling survival can also be enhanced with the use of shades [2]. Damage:  Damaging agents include insects, branch canker (Coryneum spp.), and heart rots (Poria sequoiae, P. albipellucida).  The insects associated with redwood cause no significant damage, but the branch canker girdles stems and branches, which can be especially harmful in plantations.  Heart rots cause extensive cull in the redwood forest type [40]. Wood rats girdle and strip the bark of redwood seedlings, and can seriously limit redwood regeneration.  Where this is a problem, site preparation should include destroying wood rat nesting areas [49]. Redwood is susceptible to damage from soil compaction in areas of heavy foot traffic [4]. Silviculture:  The preferred silvicultural system for harvesting redwoods is small clearcuts (30 to 40 acres) [10,41].  Boe [9] provides information on the three silvicultural systems used in the redwood forest type:  clearcut, shelterwood, and selection cut. Other:  Namkoong and Roberds [39] developed an extinction model for redwood.  Their findings reveal there is a small probability of extinction due to natural processes, which can easily be circumvented by planting.

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Sequoia sempervirens
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Redwood is a native, evergreen, long-lived (greater than 2,200 years), monoecious tree [38,40].  Redwoods are among the world's tallest trees; trees over 200 feet (61 m) are common, and many are over 300 feet (91 m) [40].  The largest tree thus far was measured at 364 feet (110.3 m) in height and 20 feet (6.1 m) in d.b.h. [44].  The root system is composed of deep, widespreading lateral roots with no taproot [40,44].  The bark is up to 12 inches (30 cm) thick and quite fibrous [44].  Redwood self-prunes well in dense stands [40]; the base of the bole is strongly buttressed [38]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM :    Phanerophyte (megaphanerophyte) REGENERATION PROCESSES : Redwood reproduces both sexually and asexually.  The male and female strobili are borne separately on different branches.  Redwood begins producing seeds at 5 to 15 years of age.  Large seed crops occur frequently, but viability of the seed is low [8].  A dry period during pollination allows better pollen dispersal and improves seed viability. The seeds are small and light, averaging 120,000 seeds per pound (265,000 seeds/kg).  The wings are not effective for wide dispersal [19], and seeds are dispersed by wind an average of only 200 to 400 feet (61-122 m) from the parent tree [40]. Redwood seeds do not require pretreatment to germinate.  Germination is epigeal [40]; the best seedbed is moist mineral soil with some shade [17,36].  Germination rates are generally low due to low viability rather than to dormancy.  Germination rates with a mean of 10 percent are the norm [8]. Seedlings require adequate moisture to survive.  The roots of redwood seedlings do not have root hairs and are thus inefficient at extracting soil moisture.  Once established seedlings can obtain remarkable growth rates in the first season.  Growth of 18 inches (46 cm) is not uncommon. Older saplings (4 to 10 years old) can grow 6.5 feet (2.0 m) in one growing season [40]. Redwoods can reproduce asexually by layering or sprouting from the root crown or stump.  Sprouts from the root crown are generally favored for tree crops [10]; sprouts originating from the stump are generally not as vigorous as root-crown sprouts, and are very susceptible to wind throw [40].  Sprouts originate from dormant or adventitious buds at or under the surface of the bark [17,40].  The formation of these buds occurs at a young age, as even seedlings have been observed to sprout after top-kill [30].  The sprouting capacity of redwood decreases with size and age [17].  Sprouting appears to be the greatest on the downhill side of the tree [14].  Within a short period after sprouting each sprout will develop its own root system, with the dominant sprouts forming a ring of trees around the parent root crown [40].  The mean crop tree sprouting potential per root crown is five, which adds many crop trees to a given site [10]. Sprouts can achieve heights of 7 feet (2.1 m) in a single growing season.  Shading does not decrease sprout height, but it does reduce the number and weight of sprouts [14].  Density of sprouts also affects sprout vigor; the higher the density, the less vigorous the sprouts [40]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Redwood occurs in a maritime Mediterranean climate, where the winters are cool and rainy, and the summers are dry.  The mean precipitation is 70 inches (180 cm), with 90 percent falling between October and May. The dry summers are mitigated by a heavy fog belt [30].  The fog reduces the drought stress of this hydrophilic plant by reducing evapotranspiration and adding soil moisture.  Redwoods beyond the fog belt appear to be limited to areas of high moisture.  Currently there is considerable debate over the link between the fog belt and redwood distribution [11]. Preferred sites for redwood stands are alluvial fans, coastal plains, and benches along large streams [40].  The size of a redwood can be site dependent:  a 400-year-old specimen on a hillside had a d.b.h. of 2 feet (0.6 m), while a 600-year-old specimen on an alluvial fan had a d.b.h. of 12 feet (3.6 m) [4]. Elevation:  Redwood occurs at elevations ranging from sea level to 3,000 feet (0-915 m), but most stands occur from 100 to 2,320 feet (100-703 m) [11,40].  Redwoods are sensitive to salt spray [40], and are usually separated from the coast by intervening grassland [22] Soils:  Redwood has a strong affinity for deep, moist soils in the Inceptisol and Ultisol soil orders [40].  The common parent materials are graywacke sandstones, shales, and conglomerates [30]. Associates:  In addition to those previously listed under Distribution and Occurrence, overstory associates include Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia), California torreya (Torreya californica), Gowen cypress (Cupressus goveniana), bishop pine (Pinus muricata), Monterey pine (P. radiata), bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum), Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana), and Oregon ash (Fraxinus latifolia) [40]. Understory associates include vine maple (Acer circenatum), chittam bark (Rhamnus purshiana), evergreen huckleberry (Vaccinium ovatum), Pacific rhododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum), salmon berry (Rubus spectabilis), and evergreen ceanothus (Ceanothus velutinus) [40]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species Obligate Climax Species Redwood is classified as a shade-tolerant to very shade-tolerant species due to its high photosynthetic capacity at low light levels [40]. Redwood releases well even at quite an old age.  One specimen after 1,000 years released from 30 to 6 rings per inch (12-2.4 rings/cm) [19]. There is some debate over the classification of redwood as a climax species.  Some consider redwood a climax species, while others consider it a fire-dependent seral species [15,41,54,55].  Osburn and Lowell [41] reported that if fire is excluded from Redwood National Park over the next 2,000 years redwood will disappear, and Sitka spruce, western hemlock (Tsuga heterphylla), and western redcedar (Thuja plicata) will dominate.  Viers [55] on the other hand reported that redwood is a climax species in the vicinity of Redwood National Park because it maintains uneven age distributions with or without fire. After disturbance redwood dominates in early seres due to its ability to sprout [27,58]. In the floodplain environment redwood deploys what has been called "the endurer strategy."  After flooding and stem burial, redwood will develop a new and higher lateral root system from buried buds on the bole of the tree.  While the repeated flooding and deposition of soil (often to depths of 30 inches [76 cm]) kills competing vegetation, redwood endures [3,40,58]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Redwood female strobili become receptive and pollen is shed from late November to early March.  Female strobili start ripening in September of the first year.  Mature female strobili can be identified when their color changes from green to greenish yellow.  Seed dispersal begins in late October, with most of the seeds being dispersed from November to February [8].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Sequoia sempervirens
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Fire has had an ecological role in the redwood forest type [53].  The mean fire interval (MFI) prior to human occupation was approximately 135 to 350 years, and after human influx (about 11,000 years ago) decreased to approximately 17 to 82 years [21].  Redwood has adapted to this fire regime, and mature redwoods are considered very resilient to fire.  The thick bark; great height; and ability to sprout from the root crown or from dormant buds located under the bark of the bole and branches are adaptations that allow redwood to survive cool to hot fires [16]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY :    Tree with adventitious-bud root crown/root sucker    Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)    Crown residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)    Secondary colonizer - on-site seed    Secondary colonizer - off-site seed

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Sequoia sempervirens
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : The effect of fire on redwood varies depending on the size of the tree. The bark of young trees (less than 8 inches [20 cm] d.b.h.) is generally too thin to protect the cambium from damage, and trees of this size are usually top-killed by cool to hot fires [16].  The thick bark of mature redwood insulates the cambium from the heat of the fire [15], and in many cases, fire may only reduce bark thickness [40].  Under more severe circumstances, such as stand-replacing fires, basal wounding and top-kill occurs [40]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : Young trees originating from stump sprouts have a higher rate of top-kill after fire than those originating from seedlings (see fire case study) [16]. Basal wounding provides a vector for heart rot to enter the tree.  Once this has occurred, recurring fires and basal decay produce large basal cavities, called goosepens, that weaken the tree [40]. PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : After fires that destroy all aboveground portions, both mature and young redwoods will sprout from the root crown [40]; even seedlings have the ability to sprout after top-kill [30].  After fires that destroy the crown, redwoods greater than 8 inches (20 cm) will sprout from numerous dormant buds along the bole and produce new foliage (see fire case study) [14,16,40]. Redwood can also reestablish after fire via on-site and off-site seed [43]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : After crown-kill redwood sprouts new foliage from dormant buds along the bole.  The bole is covered with fine feathery foliage extending 2 to 3 feet (0.6-0.9 m) out from the bole.  This manifestation is called a fire-column.  Over time the narrowed crown will again develop into a typical crown.  During the first 4 postfire years the tree will produce very few strobili [40]. After top-kill, the number of sprouts per root crown depends on the severity of the fire.  Severe heat influx to the root crown kills more of the dormant buds, thus reducing the number of sprouts; however, this allocates more of the carbohydrate reserves to fewer sprouts, which results in larger and taller sprouts [14]. In northwestern California, Finney and Martin [14,16] found stump sprouts were less likely to survive prescribed fire than redwood seedlings.  Large redwoods survived prescribed fire.  For further information, see Fire Case Studies. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : A fire regime where prescribed fire substitutes for lightning and now-absent aboriginal ignitions may have to be implemented to maintain or reestablish presettlement conditions in old-growth or cutover redwood forests [15].  McBride and others [34] recommend that both frequency distributions of fire intervals and an analysis of the pattern of fire intervals be used as a basis for determining reburn intervals for prescribed fire.  They evaluated the fire history of redwood forest stands in Muir Woods National Monument and, because of the highly skewed frequency distribution observed in this type, suggested that the average fire interval would be inappropriate to use as a reburn interval. Instead a combination of shorter than the average and longer than the average natural fire interval was recommended.  In areas where fire has been excluded for many decades, a prescribed fire program should start with two short-interval fires (less than average interval) to reduce high fuel accumulations.  Once the fuel load has been reduced, a burning pattern of two short fire intervals followed by a long interval should be implemented [34]. Person and Hallin [43] reported that regeneration was 5 to 10 times greater on cuts with moderate to hot slash fires than on those with cool or no slash fires.  Hallin [23] proposed the following guidelines for slash fires:        (1)  burn at night        (2)  do not burn during the dry season (June thru September)        (3)  light winds        (4)  keep the area small (less than 40 acres [16 ha])        (5)  slash loads pulled away from advance regeneration If sprouts are to be used as part of stand regeneration, the stumps should not be debarked or severely burned during slash disposal, as these actions will result in lowered sprout stocking [10]. Finney [14] has developed equations to estimate the fuel loading of the forest floor in redwood stands based on forest floor depth.

FIRE CASE STUDIES

SPECIES: Sequoia sempervirens
FIRE CASE STUDY CITATION : Griffith, Randy Scott., compiler. 1992. Prescribed underburning in young-growth redwood forests. In: Sequoia sempervirens. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ []. REFERENCES : Finney, Mark Arnold. 1991. Ecological effects of prescribed and simulated fire on the coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.). Berkeley, CA: University of California. 179 p. Dissertation. [14]. Finney, M. A.; Martin, R. E. 1991. Prescribed underburning and some initial effects in young-growth coast redwood forests of California. In: Andrews, Patricia L.; Potts, Donald F., eds. Proceedings, 11th annual conference on fire and forest meteorology; 1991 April 16-19; Missoula, MT. SAF Publication 91-04. Bethesda, MD: Society of American Foresters: 328-334. [16]. SEASON/SEVERITY CLASSIFICATION : May     1989  Low consumption burn June    1990  Low consumption burn October 1989  High consumption burn STUDY LOCATION : The study took place in two of California's state parks, Annadel State Park and Humboldt Redwoods State Park.  Each area had 16 plots.  Annadel State Park is located approximately 5 kilometers (3 mi) east of Santa Rosa, California.  The coordinates are 38 degrees 25 minutes North latitude, 122 degrees 35 minutes West longitude, and the legal description is T7N R7W SW1/4 of section 25. Humboldt State Park is located approximately 320 kilometers (192 mi) north of Annadel State Park near Weott, California.  The coordinates are 39 degrees 16 minutes North latitude, 123 degrees 45 minutes West longitude, and the legal description is T1S R2E S1/2 NW1/4 of section 20. PREFIRE VEGETATIVE COMMUNITY : At the Annadel site the forest was young growth with diameters between 5 and 40 centimeters (2-16 in).  The age of the stand was between 120 and 140 years.  Evidence on the site suggests that the stand developed from sprouts after fire exclusion in brush fields began in the mid-1800s. The fire regime in the area prior to exclusion was every 2 to 6 years. The Humboldt site was also a young growth forest with diameters between 5 and 40 centimeters (2-16 in).  This stand developed from natural regeneration after logging approximately 60 to 80 years prior to the study.  The past fire regime in the Humboldt area was every 5 to 25 years. TARGET SPECIES PHENOLOGICAL STATE : The prescribed burns took place when the trees were actively growing; the burn in October occurred at the onset of seed dispersal. SITE DESCRIPTION : On the Annadel site the plots were located on a northern aspect with a slopes ranging from 30 to 40 percent.  The elevation of the plots ranged from 240 to 350 meters (792-1,155 ft). On the Humboldt site the plots were located on a southern exposure with slopes ranging from 10 to 40 percent.  The elevation of the plots ranged from 350 to 450 meters (1,155-1,485 ft). FIRE DESCRIPTION : To achieve different burn severities on the plots a variety of firing techniques were used.  To achieve low fireline intensities, backing and flanking fires were used, and to obtain higher fireline intensities, strip head fires were used, with the strips ranging from 3 to 6 meters (10-20 ft) wide to regulate fuel availability and build-up of fireline intensity. On the Annadel site, two plots were burned on May 17, 1989; one plot on May 25, 1989; five plots were burned on May 30, 1989; and 8 plots were burned on October 17, 1989.  Conditions were as follows:                         Annadel Site Date          Air           Rel.       Wind               Temp.         Humd.      Speed               (C)           (%)        (m/s)   5/17/89       16-18         55-70       0-2.2 5/25/89       18            38-45       0-1.3 5/30/89       18-21         40-45       0-2.2 10/17/89      17-24         35-52       0 On the Humboldt site, seven plots were burned on October 10, 1989; one plot was burned on October 11, 1989; and eight plots were burned on June 27, 1990.  Conditions were as follows:                          Humboldt Site Date          Air           Rel.        Wind               Temp.         Humd.       Speed               (C)           (%)         (m/s) 10/10/89      13-24         48-75       0-2.4 10/11/89      16-22         60-72       0-1.3 6/27/90       20            56          0-1.3 For more specific information on burn conditions and ignition pattern for each of the 16 plots on the two sites, see Finney 1990. The fuel loading on both sites ranged from 29 to 55 tonnes per hectare (32-61 tn/a) of litter and duff.  The small woody fuels (0-7.62 cm in diameter) ranged from 9 to 20 tonnes per hectare with the large woody fuels (> 7.62 cm) being highly variable. The flame length ranged from 0.27 to 2.07 meters (0.9-6.8 ft) which relates to a fireline intensity of 40 to 1833 kilowatts per meter second.   The fuel consumption varied from 15 to 68 tonnes per hectare.  The percentage of fuel consumed ranged from 23 to 100 percent.  Fuel consumption was found to be positively related to fuel loading. Finney provides in-depth information on these parameters. FIRE EFFECTS ON TARGET SPECIES : Most redwoods greater than 15 to 20 centimeters d.b.h. survived the most severe prescribed fire with 100 percent surface fuel consumption and 100 percent crown scorch. Redwoods originating from stump sprouts after logging were found to have higher rates of top-kill than those originating from seedlings.  This was linked to higher fuel concentrations (2 to 5 times that between clumps), the stump, and heat convection currents drafting inward and around the circular clump of trees. As redwoods achieve greater d.b.h. the probability of top-kill decreases. FIRE MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS : Flame length and fuel consumption were found to be the most important parameters in determining top-kill and basal sprouting.  These parameters can be easily controlled by use of different firing patterns and fuel moisture to achieve the desired effects from a prescribed fire. A regime of periodic prescribed fire would elevate the probability of sprout regeneration being top-killed by preventing large fuel accumulations.

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Sequoia sempervirens
REFERENCES :  1.  Abate, Tom. 1992. Which bird is the better indicator species for        old-growth forest?. BioScience. 42(1): 8-9.  [17437]  2.  Adams, Ronald S. 1974. When it pays to shade planted tree seedlings.        State Forest Notes No. 55. Sacramento, CA: State of California, The        Resources Agency, Department of Conservation, Division of Forestry. 6 p.        [7936]  3.  Agee, James K. 1988. Successional dynamics in forest riparian zones. In:        Raedeke, Kenneth J., ed. Streamside management: riparian wildlife and        forestry interactions. Institute of Forest Resources Contribution No.        58. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, College of Forest Resources:        31-43.  [7657]  4.  Arnold, Ron. 1975. Redwood region faces new park controversy. Western        Conservation Journal. 32(4): 12-16.  [8789]  5.  Atzet, Thomas; Wheeler, David L. 1984. Preliminary plant associations of        the Siskiyou Mountain Province. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 278 p.  [9351]  6.  Atzet, Tom; Wheeler, David; Smith, Brad; [and others]. 1985. The tanoak        series of the Siskiyou region of southwest Oregon (Part 2). Forestry        Intensified Research. 6(4): 7-10.  [8594]  7.  Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals,        reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's        associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO:        U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p.        [434]  8.  Boe, Kenneth N. 1974. Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.   Redwood. In:        Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States.        Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington: U. S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service: 764-766.  [7750]  9.  Boe, Kenneth N. 1974. 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Berkeley, CA: U.S.        Department of Agricultlure, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and        Range Experiment Station; 4p.  [10537] 13.  Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and        Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p.  [905] 14.  Finney, Mark Arnold. 1991. Ecological effects of prescribed and        simulated fire on the coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don)        Endl.). Berkeley, CA: University of California. 179 p. Dissertation.        [15222] 15.  Finney, Mark A.; Martin, Robert E. 1989. Fire history in a Sequoia        sempervirens forest at Salt Point State Park, California. Canadian        Journal of Forest Research. 19: 1451-1457.  [9845] 16.  Finney, M. A.; Martin, R. E. 1991. Prescribed underburning and some        initital effects in young-growth coast redwood forests of California.        In: Andrews, Patricia L.; Potts, Donald F., eds. 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