Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Salix lutea


SPECIES: Salix lutea
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Uchytil, Ronald J. 1989. Salix lutea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].
ABBREVIATION : SALLUT SYNONYMS : Salix rigida var. watsonii Salix cordata var. lutea Salix cordata var. watsonii Salix cordata var. platyphylla SCS PLANT CODE : SALU2 COMMON NAMES : yellow willow TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of yellow willow is Salix lutea Nutt. There are no infrataxa [22,24,26]. LIFE FORM : Tree FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Salix lutea
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Yellow willow is found at low to mid-elevations from Alberta to Manitoba, south to western Kansas and New Mexico, west to Arizona and California, and north along the Sierra Nevada Mountains to eastern Washington. It is lacking in the Great Basin [14,17,37]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES26 Lodgepole pine FRES28 Western hardwoods FRES29 Sagebrush FRES38 Plains grasslands STATES : AZ CA CO ID IA KS MN MT NE NV NM ND OR SD UT WA WY AB MB ON SK BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 4 Sierra Mountains 5 Columbia Plateau 6 Upper Basin and Range 7 Lower Basin and Range 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 9 Middle Rocky Mountains 10 Wyoming Basin 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 12 Colorado Plateau 13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont 14 Great Plains 15 Black Hills Uplift 16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K005 Mixed conifer forest K007 Red fir forest K008 Lodgepole pine - subalpine forest K011 Western ponderosa forest K012 Douglas-fir forest K016 Eastern Ponderosa forest K017 Black Hills pine forest K055 Sagebrush steppe K098 Northern floodplain forest SAF COVER TYPES : 63 Cottonwood 210 Interior Douglas-fir 218 Lodgepole pine 235 Cottonwood - willow 237 Interior ponderosa pine SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Yellow willow typically occurs as a pioneer or early seral species along the banks of rivers or streams. In these riparian communities, it is often found with cottonwoods (Populus spp.) and other willows (Salix spp.). Published classification schemes listing yellow willow as an indicator species or as a dominant part of the vegetation in community types or dominance types are presented below. Riparian dominance types of Montana [19] Plant associations of Region Two: Potential plant communities of Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, and Kansas [25] Riparian community type classification of eastern Idaho - western Wyoming [46] Riparian community type classification of northern Utah and adjacent Idaho [47] Associates: In Idaho, yellow willow is generally confined to Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata var. wyomingensis) and grass vegetation zones, seldom extending into the forest, and avoiding cooler mountain big sagebrush (A. tridentata var. vaseyana) zones [7]. Associated plants of Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming often include: 1) overstory trees such as eastern cottonwood (P. deltoides), black cottonwood (P. trichocarpa), water birch (Betula occidentalis), and green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), 2) shrubs such as sandbar willow (S. exigua), Pacific willow (S. lasiandra), Booth willow (S. boothii), Drummond willow (S. drummondiana), Wood's rose (Rosa woodsii), red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea), and inland currant (Ribes oxyacanthoides ssp. setosum), 3) very wet site understory herbs such as beaked sedge (Carex rostrata) and field horsetail (Equisetum arvense), and 4) moist site understory herbs such as alpine aster (Aster foliaceus), Richardson geranium (Geranium richardsonii), and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) [7,19,46,47].


SPECIES: Salix lutea
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Willows in general are a preferred food of moose and beaver, and yellow willow occurs in riparian habitats which these animals frequent [5,43]. Moose and elk browse yellow willow during both summer and winter [15,19,42]. In Montana, stands found on alluvial terraces generally have greater herbage production than stands found on coarse-textured soils along stream banks [19]. PALATABILITY : In the West, willows (Salix spp.) as a group, are considered to be more palatable to sheep, although cattle may make greater use of willow as they tend to frequent riparian areas [39]. Van Dersal [42] reports that yellow willow is universally browsed by livestock. The degree of use shown by livestock and wildlife species for Salix rigida (S. rigida is closely related to Salix lutea and has been considered conspecific with S. lutea) in the following western states is rated as follows [9]: ND WY Cattle fair ---- Sheep good ---- Horses good ---- Pronghorn ---- poor Bighorn ---- ---- Elk ---- good Mt.Goat ---- ---- Mule deer ---- good White-tailed poor good deer Small Mammals ---- good Small nongame ---- good birds Upland game birds ---- good Waterfowl ---- poor NUTRITIONAL VALUE : The energy value of Salix rigida (which is taxonomically similar to yellow willow) is rated as fair and the protein value as poor [9]. COVER VALUE : Dense stands of yellow willow provide excellent thermal and hiding cover for many wildlife species. Songbirds frequently use trees for nesting [19]. The degree to which Salix rigida provides environmental protection during one or more seasons for wildlife species is as follows [9]: ND WY Pronghorn ---- poor Bighorn ---- ---- Elk ---- ---- Mt. goat ---- ---- Mule deer ---- good White-tailed good good deer Small mammals ---- good Small nongame ---- good birds Upland game birds ---- good Waterfowl ---- good VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Yellow willow can be used to revegetate disturbed riparian areas by planting cuttings. Cuttings quickly stabilize disturbed alluvium, allowing other plants to become established. Unrooted willow stem cuttings (slips) should be planted on sites that provide sufficient moisture to start and maintain growth throughout the growing season [43]. Since willows are sensitive to both competition and shading, dense tall grasses will reduce transplant survival [33]. Therefore grasses may need to be removed by cutting or by herbicide application [30]. Rooted stock, although harder to plant, has higher survival rates, and is therefore recommended for use [33,43]. Prerooting can be accomplished by growing cuttings under greenhouse conditions, allowing roots to grow .8-1.2 inches (2-3 cm) in length. Slips should be obtained from local native stands. They should be 12-20 inches (30-50 cm) long, taken in the spring, from dormant 2-4 year old wood greater than .4 inches (1 cm) in diameter. A 20 inch (50 cm) cutting should be planted to a depth of 12 inches (30 cm), with 8 inches (20 cm) left aboveground [33]. This deep planting allows for more rooting surface to extract soil moisture, and higher amounts of carbohydrates as stored food reserves [33,43]. Yellow willow cuttings root along the entire stem section, but roots are most abundant along the lower one third of the cutting. Roots and stems form about 10 days after planting [33]. If serious streambank erosion has occurred, causing a nearly vertical cut bank, slope reshaping may be needed to enhance success of transplants. Reshaping of the slope need not occur if existing vegetation is able to stabilize the site through protective measures [33,43]. Under any method of revegetation, sites should be fenced to protect them from grazing and trampling. OTHER USES AND VALUES : All willows produce salicin, which chemically, is closely related to acetylsalicylic acid commonly known as aspirin. This is probably why Native Americans used various preparations from willows to treat toothache, stomach ache, diarrhea, dysentery, and dandruff [31]. Native Americans also used the stems for basketry and bow making, and the bark for tea and fabric making [29]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Because of its soil binding properties and its close proximity to water, yellow willow holds together and helps stabilize streambanks, protecting the bank from erosion. Stands should therefore be maintained.


SPECIES: Salix lutea
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Yellow willow is a deciduous shrub, or rarely, a small tree up to 23 feet (7 m) tall, with stems diameters up to 8 inches (20 cm) [7,11,44]. The silvery-gray bark of older twigs distinguishes it from many closely related willows [11]. The leaves are alternate, simple, pinnately veined, mostly lanceolate, with finely serrate margins, dark green to yellow-green above and pale or glaucus beneath, with conspicuous stipules usually present [7,11,19,44]. Male and female flowers occur on separate plants as catkins. Staminate catkins are .8-2 inches (2-5 cm) long, and pistillate catkins are .8-2.7 inches (2-7 cm) long, but mostly under 1.5 inches (4 cm) [7,19,37]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : The dispersal of thousands of small windblown seeds is the primary method that yellow willow uses to reproduce itself. Male and female flowers (in the form of catkins) occur on separate plants. Like other willows, it probably relies heavily on insect pollination, especially from bees [31]. After fertilization, a capsule develops which eventually splits open during spring or summer, dispersing the numerous tiny seeds. The production of large quantities of seeds ensures that some will fall on favorable sites. The seeds have a cottony down which allows them to float long distances in the wind, and on water. Seeds are non-dormant, remaining viable for only a few days. They germinate rapidly, usually within 12-24 hours if a moist seedbed is reached [6]. The seed contains significant amounts of chlorophyll, and photosynthesis generally occurs as soon as the seed is moistened. Yellow willow is unable to produce suckers from lateral roots, but will resprout from its root crown or stem base following fire or cutting [2,18,19]. Regeneration may also occur through broken pieces of stems or roots, which are transported and deposited by floodwaters, and later sprout (this is common in willows) [2]. It is readily propagated from stem cuttings that root easily in moist soil. This is covered more fully under "Value For Rehabilitation of Disturbed Sites". SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Yellow willow is riparian in nature, found growing along stream and river edges, moist ditches, and moist alluvial terraces [19,44,47]. Soils: When growing near a stream or river bank, it is typically found on coarse-textured soils, but when found on alluvial terraces or moist benches, it may occur in soils ranging from deep silts to sand [7,19]. In Montana, Hansen and others [19] report that stands adjacent to stream channels have poorly developed mineral soils overlying coarse substrates. Elevation: In the Rocky Mountain States, yellow willow is normally found at low to mid-elevations. Elevational ranges for the following western states is as follows [1,7,20,21,44,46,47]: from 5,000-9,500 feet (1,524-2,896 m) in CA from 7,000-8,000 feet (2,134-2,438 m) in CO below 6,000 feet (1,830 m) in ID below 7,000 feet (2,134 m) in e OR from 4,400-7,700 feet (1,340-2,350 m) in UT below 7,000 feet (2,134 m) in e WA below 7,000 feet (2,134 m) in WY SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Yellow willow is generally a pioneer or early seral species when occurring along streambanks subjected to periodic flooding [19]. But stands on moist benches with well developed soils may be long-lived [47]. If conditions become permanently drier on these benches, stands may be replaced by communities dominated by grasses such as tufted hairgrass (Deschampsia caespitosa) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) [19]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Yellow willow is a deciduous shrub or rarely small tree. Its catkins emerge before and with the leaves in the spring. After fruits ripen, seeds are dispersed from spring to early summer [6]. In California, it flowers from May to June [22]. The flowering times for Salix rigida (which is taxonomically similar to yellow willow) in the following western states are presented below [9]. Flowering Begins Flowering Ends State May June CO May May ND April June UT May August WY


SPECIES: Salix lutea
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Generally yellow willow has the ability to sprout from its roots or stem base following fire [19,48]. When found along a streamside, the high soil and fuel moisture content characteristic of this habitat reduces the chance of fire ignition and spread. Its numerous wind dispersed seeds are important in revegetating areas following fire [48]. FIRE REGIMES : Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Tree with adventitious-bud root crown/soboliferous species root sucker Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)


SPECIES: Salix lutea
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Severe fires can completely remove organic soil layers leaving willow roots exposed and charred, and thus eliminating basal sprouting. However, most fires kill only aboveground plant parts [27,35,48]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Generally yellow willow will sprout from its roots or stem base following fire [19,35,48]. It shows better recovery from quick hot fires, as slow burns are more damaging to plants (apparently burning down into the roots) [18,19,27]. A prolific seeder, off-site plants are important in revegetating burned areas through the dispersal of numerous wind and water transported seeds [48]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Quick hot fires may be used to rejuvenate decadent willows, thus producing abundant browse for big game animals [18], however it may take 5 or more years for willows to regain stem height and diameters resistant to browsing [27].


SPECIES: Salix lutea
REFERENCES : 1. Argus, George W. 1957. The willows of Wyoming. University of Wyoming Publications. 21(1). Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Publications in Science. 63 p. [4962] 2. Argus, George W. 1973. The genus Salix in Alaska and the Yukon. Publications in Botany, No. 2. Ottawa, ON: National Museums of Canada, National Museum of Natural Sciences. 279 p. [6167] 3. Argus, George W. 1980. The typification and identity of Salix eriocephala Michx. (Salicaceae). Brittonia. 32(2): 170-177. [6212] 4. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 5. Boyd, Raymond J.; Cooperrider, Allen Y.; Lent, Peter C.; Bailey, James A. 1986. Ungulates. In: Cooperrider, Allen Y.; Boyd, Raymond J.; Stuart, Hanson R., eds. Inventory and monitoring of wildlife habitat. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Service Center: 519-564. [10856] 6. Brinkman, Kenneth A. 1974. Salix L. willow. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 746-750. [5412] 7. Brunsfeld, Steven J.; Johnson, Frederic D. 1985. Field guide to the willows of east-central Idaho. Bulletin Number 39. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho; College of Forestry, Wildlife and Range Sciences; Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station. 82 p. [6175] 8. Brutvan, B.; Klukas, R. (revised by R. Klukas). 1982. Checklist of plants of Wind Cave National Park.. [Place of publication unknown]: [Publisher unknown]. 32 p. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratoy, Missoula, MT. [374] 9. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806] 10. Dorn, Robert D. 1976. A synopsis of American Salix. Canadian Journal of Botany. 54: 2769-2789. [4457] 11. Dorn, Robert D. 1977. Willows of the Rocky Mountain States. Rhodora. 79: 390-429. [6000] 12. Dorn, Robert D. 1988. Vascular plants of Wyoming. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 340 p. [6129] 13. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 14. Froiland, Sven G. 1962. The genus Salix (Willows) in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 75 p. [5992] 15. Gaffney, William S. 1941. The effects of winter elk browsing, south fork of the Flathead River, Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management. 5(4): 427-453. [5028] 16. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 17. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603] 18. Haeussler, S.; Coates, D. 1986. Autecological characteristics of selected species that compete with conifers in British Columbia: a literature review. Land Management Report No. 33. Victoria, BC: Ministry of Forests, Information Services Branch. 180 p. [1055] 19. Hansen, Paul L.; Chadde, Steve W.; Pfister, Robert D. 1988. Riparian dominance types of Montana. Misc. Publ. No. 49. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station. 411 p. [5660] 20. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851] 21. Hayes, Doris W.; Garrison, George A. 1960. Key to important woody plants of eastern Oregon and Washington. Agric. Handb. 148. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 227 p. [1109] 22. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992] 23. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1964. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 2: Salicaceae to Saxifragaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 597 p. [1166] 24. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403] 25. Johnston, Barry C. 1987. Plant associations of Region Two: Potential plant communities of Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, and Kansas. 4th ed. R2-ECOL-87-2. Lakewood, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. 429 p. [3519] 26. Kartesz, John T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II--thesaurus. 2nd ed. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 816 p. [23878] 27. Kovalchik, Bernard L. 1987. Riparian zone associations: Deschutes, Ochoco, Fremont, and Winema National Forests. R6 ECOL TP-279-87. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 171 p. [9632] 28. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 29. Lanner, Ronald M. 1983. Trees of the Great Basin: A natural history. Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press. 215 p. [1401] 30. Monsen, Stephen B. 1983. Plants for revegetation of riparian sites within the Intermountain region. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Shaw, Nancy, compilers. Managing Intermountain rangelands--improvement of range and wildlife habitats: Proceedings of symposia; 1981 September 15-17; Twin Falls, ID; 1982 June 22-24; Elko, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-157. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 83-89. [9652] 31. Mozingo, Hugh N. 1987. Shrubs of the Great Basin: A natural history. Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press. 342 p. [1702] 32. Patten, D. T. 1968. Dynamics of the shrub continuum along the Gallatin River in Yellowstone National Park. Ecology. 49(6): 1107-1112. [1837] 33. Platts, William S.; Armour, Carl; Booth, Gordon D.; [and others]. 1987. Methods for evaluating riparian habitats with applications to management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-221. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 177 p. [6171] 34. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 35. Rowe, J. S.; Scotter, G. W. 1973. Fire in the boreal forest. Quaternary Research. 3: 444-464. [72] 36. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. [23362] 37. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the North Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804] 38. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 39. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1937. Range plant handbook. Washington, DC. 532 p. [2387] 40. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1994. Plants of the U.S.--alphabetical listing. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 954 p. [23104] 41. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Survey. [n.d.]. NP Flora [Data base]. Davis, CA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Survey. [23119] 42. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240] 43. Ward, Don; Thompson, Robert; Kelly, Dennis. 1986. Willow planting guide. R-4 Hydrograph No. 54. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Range and Watershed Management. 12 p. [2936] 44. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944] 45. White, W. W. 1956. Native willows found in Montana. Proceedings of the Montana Academy of Science. 16: 21-35. [6001] 46. Youngblood, Andrew P.; Padgett, Wayne G.; Winward, Alma H. 1985. Riparian community type classification of eastern Idaho - western Wyoming. R4-Ecol-85-01. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 78 p. [2686] 47. Youngblood, Andrew P.; Padgett, Wayne G.; Winward, Alma H. 1985. Riparian community type classification of northern Utah and adjacent Idaho. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ecology and Classification Program. 104 p. [Preliminary draft]. [3054] 48. Zasada, J. 1986. Natural regeneration of trees and tall shrubs on forest sites in interior Alaska. In: Van Cleve, K.; Chapin, F. S., III; Flanagan, P. W.; [and others], eds. Forest ecosystems in the Alaska taiga: A synthesis of structure and function. New York: Springer-Verlag: 44-73. [2291]