Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Salix gooddingii


SPECIES: Salix gooddingii
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Reed, William R. 1993. Salix gooddingii In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].
ABBREVIATION : SALGOO SYNONYMS : Salix gooddingii var. gooddingii Salix gooddingii var. variabilis Ball Salix nigra Marsh. var. vallicola Dudley SCS PLANT CODE : SAGO COMMON NAMES : Goodding's black willow black willow Dudley willow Gooding's willow valley willow western black willow TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of Goodding's black willow is Salix gooddingii Ball. [16,19,30]. LIFE FORM : Tree, Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Salix gooddingii
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Goodding's black willow is distributed from northern California to southern Utah, southeast through New Mexico to the Texas panhandle, and west to Arizona and southern California. It is also found in river valleys of northern Mexico [16,18,19,31]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES28 Western hardwoods FRES30 Desert shrub FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub FRES35 Pinyon - juniper STATES : AZ CA NV NM TX UT MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 3 Southern Pacific Border 6 Upper Basin and Range 7 Lower Basin and Range 12 Colorado Plateau 13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K023 Juniper - pinyon woodland K030 California oakwoods K035 Coastal sagebrush K041 Creosotebush K042 Creosotebush - bursage K044 Creosotebush - tarbush K058 Grama - tobosa shrubsteppe K059 Trans-Pecos shrub savanna SAF COVER TYPES : 235 Cottonwood - willow 239 Pinyon - juniper 240 Arizona cypress 246 California black oak 249 Canyon live oak 250 Blue oak - Digger pine 255 California coast live oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Goodding's black willow is dominant in many riparian communities of the West, where it frequently codominates with Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) [24,27,28]. It is listed as a dominant plant species in the following published classifications: Classification of riparian habitat in the Southwest [21] Southwestern riparian plant communities: site characteristics, tree species distributions, and size-class structures [28] Terrestrial natural communities of California [11] Common plant associates of Goodding's black willow are Arizona sycamore (Platanus wrightii), mesquite (Prosopis spp.), desertwillow (Chilopsis linearis), and southwestern condalia (Condalia lyciodes) [7,9].


SPECIES: Salix gooddingii
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Willows (Salix spp.) provide excellent browse and cover for wildlife and domestic animals. They are a preferred food of beaver and are often used as building material for beaver dens. Mature willows provide valuable shade in rangelands of southern Arizona [1,16]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Goodding's black willow is used for streambank stabilization and erosion control. It has both abundant small surface roots and deeper main root branches. Zimmerman [33] has noted root depths of up to 7 feet (2.1 m) in Arizona. Goodding's black willow also provides shade for fish and other wildlife [5,15]. It tolerates flooding and long, hot growing seasons, making it ideal for rehabilitating riparian zones of the Southwest. Cutting or topping trees in order to encourage sprouting is commonly practiced in Arizona and New Mexico in order to reestablish Goodding willow stands [13,22]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Willow shoots and bark were used by early Americans to make baskets and fish traps, and for fence posts, shelters, and firewood [15,20]. All willows produce salacin, a chemical related to aspirin. A decoction of Goodding's black willow leaves is used in Mexico for treating fevers [30]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Willows are usually planted using stem cuttings. Establishment of Goodding's black willow in riparian zones can be aided by deep tillage of the soil, preferably to the water table, before transplanting. This is especially effective where soils are compacted or salinized [2]. If Goodding's black willow seeds are sown, they must be collected and dispersed as soon as fruits ripen. Seeds remain viable for only a few days. Commercial seed is not available. Seeds may be stored for up to 1 month if moistened and refrigerated in a sealed container [5].


SPECIES: Salix gooddingii
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Goodding's black willow is a fast-growing, deciduous, dioecious, native shrub or tree. It attains a height of 20 to 60 feet (6-18 m) and has an average d.b.h. of 30 inches (76.2 cm). Leaves are 2 to 4 inches (5-10 cm) long; female catkins are 1.5 to 3.2 inches (4-8 cm) long. Fruits are capsular. The bark of Goodding's black willow is thick, rough, and deeply furrowed [5,18,19,31]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Sexual reproduction: Goodding's black willow begins producing seed at 2 to 10 years of age. Optimum seed-bearing age of willows is 25 to 75 years, and large seed crops are produced annually. The minute, hairy seed is dispersed by wind and water and does not exhibit dormancy. Seed remains viable for only a few days. Germination is epigeal and usually occurs within 12 to 24 hours. Seedling establishment is best on moist, bare soils. Both fire and flood create favorable seedbed conditions [5,6,20]. Vegetative reproduction: Goodding's black willow sprouts from the root crown [6,22]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Goodding's black willow occurs in riparian zones. Sites are typically seasonally inundated by water and have shallow water tables and fine-grained alluvial soils. Goodding's black willow grows well in the pH range of 6 to 7 and tolerates alkaline desert soils [13,20,25]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Goodding's black willow is an initial to early seral species. It has very low shade tolerance but high flood tolerance [14,20]. It does not sprout beneath its own canopy. Gooding willow seedlings compete poorly with grasses [27]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Catkins of Goodding's black willow appear in early March. Seeds ripen and are dispersed in early spring [5,18,27].


SPECIES: Salix gooddingii
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Information concerning effects of fire on Goodding's black willow is lacking. It probably sprouts vigorously after a fire, as do most members of the willow genus. Fires are uncommon in the riparian zones in which Goodding's black willow occurs. Wind-dispersed Gooding willow seed are probably important in the colonization of recently burned sites [5]. Severe fires expose mineral soil, creating ideal conditions for seedling establishment. FIRE REGIMES : Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Tree with adventitious-bud root crown/soboliferous species root sucker Tall shrub, adventitious-bud root crown Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)


SPECIES: Salix gooddingii
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Low- to moderate-severity fires probably top-kill young Gooding willow stems. Mature trees probably survive such fires. Severe fires sometimes kill willows by completely removing soil organic layers and charring the roots [32]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Goodding's black willow probably sprouts vigorously from the root crown following fire [3,10]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Salix gooddingii
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